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Vigorous Measures of Carnot and the Committee of Public Safety for the
conduct of the War— Their vast levies and exertions—Change of Ministry at
Vienna—Recognition of the Maritime Laws by the Allied Powers-Division
of the Allied Forces in Flanders, and its disastrous effects—Defeat of the Eng-
lish at Dunkirk-Chequered fortune of the Imperialists— Their ultimate De.
feat-Indecisive Campaign on the Rhine, occasioned by the Divisions of the
AlliesCampaign on the Pyrenees and in the Maritime Alps-Insurrection
at Lyons-Siege and Sufferings of that City-Its Fall— Delivery of Toulon to
the English-Its Siege-Able measures of Napoleon for its Reduction-Burn-
ing of the Fleet and Arsenal, and Evacuation of the Place.-272_338.


Vast Exertions of the French Government during the Reign of Terror-

Prodigious Issue of Assignats- Its Effects, Maximum on Prices, Robbery
of the Cultivators for the support of the Populace in the cities— Forced Loans
- Blending of the Revolutionary and old Debt-Excessive Severity, on all
classes of the measure to which the Government was driven-Grinding op-
pression of the Poor Successive steps of the Revolution-Their progressive
deterioration-Moral Law of Nature to which these changes were subjected.

Comparative situation of France and England at the opening of this year
-Debates on the continuance of the war in Parliament-Naval operations
-Lord Howe's Victory on 1st June-Vast preparations of France for the
Campaign_Success in the outset of the AlliesBloody but Indecisive Ac-
tions along the whole line-Separation of the Austrians and English, and
Secret Resolution of the Former to abandon Flanders_Battle of Fleurus-
Retreat of English towards Holland: of Imperialists to the Rhine—Savage
orders of the Convention- Campaign in the Maritime Alps, and in the Pyre-
nees-- Retreat of the English into Holland-Advances of the Republicans to
Amsterdam in the depth of Winter-Allies driven over the Rhine into Ger-
many, Renewal of the War in La Vendée, and Rise of the Chouan Corps.-

Situation of the Country of Poland-Early Character of its Inhabitants-
Causes which led to their singular prejudices and institutions—Ruinous De-
mocratic Privileges of the Plebeian Noblesse—Sketch of their Constitution-
its History and continual Deterioration-John Sobieski-His remarkablo
Prophecy on the future fate of his country-Increasing weakness of the State

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General Reaction against the Reign of Terror after the Fall of Robespierre
- Rise of the Thermidorians and the Jeunesse Dorée— Their Contests with
the Revolutionists-Closing of the Hall of the Jacobins Manners and Ideas
at Paris during that period— Gradual abolition of the Revolutionary Measures
-Impeachment of the remaining Jacobin Leaders Revolt in Paris in conse-
quence-Convention Besieged— The Insurgents are at length Defeated_Dis-
arming of the Fauxbourgs-Abolition of the Revolutionary Tribunal-Re-
action in the South of France-Liberation of the Duchess d'Angouleme-For-
mation of a Constitution-Its principal Features, The Project of Reappoint.
ing two-thirds of the Convention occasions great Discontent in Paris, Rapid

progress of Royalist Principles-Agitation in the Capital Revolt of the Sec-

tions-At first nearly Successful, but is at length defeated by Napoleon, For.

mation of the Council of the Ancients and the Five Hundred-Causes of the

Disasters of the Revolution.--625-686.

General grief and consternation at the Death of Louis-It irrecoverably

ruins the Girondists— Retirement of Roland from the Ministry of the Interior,

who is succeeded by Garat-War with England, and Spain, and Holland -

Prodigious effect of this event-Its prejudicial effect on the Royalist and Con-

stitutional cause- – Plan for resisting the Allies adopted by the Jacobins- Esta-

blishment of the Revolutionary Tribunal-Great distress in Paris— Popular

demands for a Law of the Maximum-Designs of Dumourier-He resolves

to re-establish the Monarchy-His failure, and Flight_Contests between the

Girondists and Jacobins-Abortive Conspiracy of the Jacobins— War breaks

out in La Vendée— Vigorous measures of the Convention-Dumourier de-

nounced, and Committee of Public Safety appointed-Girondists and Centre

send Marat to the Revolutionary Tribunal— Vehement agitation to counteract

it-He is acquitted— Energetic proposal of Guadet-General Insurrection

against the Girondists and the Convention, Desperate Contest in the Assem-

bly- Report of Garat declaring Paris in a state of Tranquillity-Insurrection

renewed on May 31st–Vast Force organized in the Fauxbourgs—They sur-

round and assail the Convention—Vehement Debate within its Walls~ They

move out of the Hall; but are driven back by the armed Bands— The Thirty

Leaders of the Gironde are given up, and put under Arrest—Many escape into

the Provinces— Their Trial and Condemnation-Heroic Death – Trial and

Death of Madame Roland-Iler generous Conduct— Death of M. Roland-

Reflections on the fall of the Girondists.

CHAP. IX. ing, supported by aristocratic liberality, indulged with 1793. royal favour, it had successively ruined all the classes

who supported its fortunes. The clergy were the first to join its standard, and they were the first to be destroyed; the nobles then yielded to its fortunes, and they were the next to suffer; the King had proved himself the liberal benefactor of his subjects, and conceded all the demands of the revolutionists, and, in return, he was led out to the scaffold. It remained to be seen what was the fate of the victors in the strife; whether such crimes were to go unpunished ; and whether the laws of Nature promised the same impunity to wickedness which they had obtained from human tribunals.

“Quid in rebus civilibus,” says Bacon, “ maxime prodest? Audacia. Quid secundum? Audacia. Quid tertium ? Audacia. In promptu ratio est ; inest enim naturæ humanæ, plerumque plus stulti quam sapientis, unde et facultates eæ, quibus capitur pars illa in animis mortalium stulta, sunt omnium potentissimæ. Attamen utcunque ignorantiæ et sordidi ingenii proles est Audacia, nihilominus fascinat et captivos ducit eos qui vel judicio infirmiores sunt vel animo timidiores; tales autem sunt hominum pars maxima.” Le canon que vous entendez,” said Danton at the bar of the Assembly, “ n'est pas le canon d’alarm; c'est le pas de charge sur nos ennemis. Pour les vaincre, pour les atterrer, que faut-il? De l'audace! encore de l'audace ! toujours de l'audace !" It is not a little remarkable, that philosophical sagacity should have inspired to the sage of the sixteenth, not only the idea, but the very words, which a practical acquaintance

with the storms of the Revolution suggested to the 1 Bacon, x.

terrible demagogue of the nineteenth century. Mig. i. 204. Never was the truth of these memorable words Th. iii. 272,


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