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find himself in possession of a number of set phrases, valuable, it is true, but from which, destitute of landmarks, the slightest deviation must lead him into unknown regions.

A work which, uniting practice with theory, should attempt to avoid the difficulties mentioned above, had been long contem plated by the author of these pages, when "Woodbury's New Method with the German" made its appearance. Finding ir that work the two systems, the analytic and the synthetic, beau tifully blended and well elaborated, he had no hesitation in adopting the general plan of Mr. Woodbury's Grammar, in preparing his long intended treatise on the French.

The work commences with a comprehensive treatise on pronunciation. The power of the letters, as initials, medials and finals, is fully explained under the different letters. Peculiar care has been taken to render this part sufficiently full, in order to provide the student with a satisfactory guide and adviser, in the principal difficulties of the French pronunciation. The words presenting peculiarities of pronunciation are placed as exceptions to the rules given in this part.

In the commencement of the First Part of this grammar, the rules are given in the most simple form, and the idioms are gradually introduced and explained; copious references to the Second, or more theoretical Part, render further information easily attainable. After the rules of every lesson, comes a RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES in illustration of them, as also of preceding ones, containing often new idioms and conversational phrases. The examples on the rules, the résumés, and the French exercises to be rendered into English and consisting almost entirely of questions and answers, combine, it is thought, all the benefits presented by the practical grammars, while the rules in the lessons, and the ease with which reference may be had to the Second Part, present all the advantages of the theoretical treatises. It will be easily seen that the teacher and student will find here the practice, with as little or as much of the theory as they may desire.

The grammatical rules and idioms are introduced gradually, so as not to offer too many difficulties at once. Care has been taken not to present the rules as abstract and arbitrary laws;

while the resemblance or difference of construction between the two languages is carefully pointed out.

Exercises to be rendered into French are placed at the end of every lesson. The materials for these are found in the examples to the rules, in the résumés, in the French exercises and in the vocabularies preceding the same. Besides all this, the student is furnished with the means of carrying on, in connection with the regular course already indicated, a series of exercises in French composition, at once easy, interesting, and profitable in the highest degree.

The grouping of the tenses of the verbs and the classification of the irregularities, will, it is hoped, simplify this part of grammar. In the former, the student will see that by learning a tense in one conjugation, he often learns it in the others; in the latter, he will perceive that the deviations of the irregular verbs are often very trifling and confined to particular tenses.

An attempt is made in the "Practical Résumés,” Lessons 98 and 99, to simplify as much as possible the somewhat complex subject of the past participle.

The rules of the Second, or theoretical Part, are deduced from the most reliable sources; they are nearly all illustrated by short extracts from the best French authors. This will, it is hoped, while giving classical authority to the rules, inspire the student with a desire of becoming more intimately acquainted with the authors from whose works the examples are taken. It will be perceived, also, that the sentiments contained in the extracts have not been overlooked.

In the Second Part, the verbs are given in their fullest form. The irregular, defective, peculiar (See § 49), and unipersonal verbs are placed alphabetically.

The author would here respectfully suggest, not with a view of offering advice to experienced teachers, but as a mode which he has found beneficial in practice, that the student commence to learn the verbs from the paradigms in the Second Part, as soon as he has acquired some little knowledge of the pronunciation, and this simultaneously with his learning the lessons of the First Part. The verbs, in the French, and in the other so called Romanic languages, are more complicated and require more

study than the verbs in the German and other Teutonic languages. Having, in this manner, acquired some knowledge of the verbs, the student will, by the time he, in his progress through the first part, reaches the groupings of the tenses mentioned above, be able to recognize the verbs as old friends, and better to appreciate the classification of the irregularities. This course is advised not as indispensable, but as beneficial.

The reading lessons, in prose and in verse, extracted from the best sources, and containing grammatical references to both parts of the work, will not be unacceptable to the student. A vocabulary for these lessons is placed immediately after them.

Among the numerous works which have been consulted during the preparation of this grammar, the author would mention with gratitude the labors of the French Academy, Laveaux, Lemare, Bescher, Girault-Duvivier, Boniface, Bescherelle, Landais, etc.

With a sincere hope that the present volume may assist the American student in obtaining a knowledge of the beautiful language of France, it is respectfully submitted.

The numerous editions of this grammar which have been issued, having rendered a renewal of the stereotype plates necessary, the Author has taken this opportunity of giving to the work a thorough review, and, without changing the arrangement, of introducing such improvements as the kind suggestions of several experienced Instructors, and its use in his own classes, for nearly ten years, have pointed out to him as desirable.

L. F.



A (à), PREP. § 142, (2).
Abbreviations, p. 281.
Accents, LESSON 2.

Acheter, to buy, § 49, (5); its gov-
ernment, L. 50, 1.

Accorder, s,' to agree; said also of
watches, L. 92, 3.
Active verb, § 43, (2), (3.)
Active Voice, used in French in
cases where the passive is used in
English, L. 35, 2; L. 46, 3; § 128,
(5.); § 113, (1.)
Adjectives, 14-1. Qualifying
adjectives, § 14-2. Degrees of
signification, § 14-2. Gender
and number of, § 15. Formation
of feminine of, § 16, L. 13. Irregu-
lar adjectives,§ 16, (8.) Adjectives
having no feminine, § 16, (9.)
Plural of 17, L. 14. Agree-
ment of adjectives with nouns,
§ 18; § 83; L. 13, L. 14. Relat-
ing to several nouns, § 18, (3);
L. 14, 1, 2. Determining adjec-
tives, § 19. Demonstrative, L. 9;

20; § 93. Possessive, L. 9;
21; 94; Remarks on, § 95.
Agree with object possessed, § 21,
(2); L. 9, 3. Numeral adjectives,
§ 22, L. 19; place of § 96. Car-
dinal adjectives, § 22, (1), (2), (4);
Variations of, § 23; Observation
on, § 24. Ordinal numbers, § 23,
(3), (5). Observation on, § 25.
Indefinite adjectives, § 30; § 97.
Verbal adjectives, syntax of, § 65.
Remarks on feu, nu, &c., § 84.
Adjectives used adverbially, § 67,
(3); § 84, (5). Place of adjec-
tives, L. 15; § 85; § 86. Adjec-
tives preceding noun, § 85, (11).
Adjectives differing in meaning
before and after, § 86. Regi-
men or government of, § 87;
$88; § 89; § 92; L. 79. Ad-
jectives requiring a different pre-
position in French and English,
§ 90.
Adverbs, § 67.
tives, § 68.
tion, § 69.

Formed from adjec-
Degrees of significa-
Adverbs forming a

comparison of themselves, § 70.
Syntax of, § 136. Place of, 136;
L. 34; L. 41. Observation on,
§ 137. Adverbs of negation,
138. Adverbs of quantity fol-
lowed by de, L. 18.

A droite, to the right, L. 70, 6.
A gauche, to the left, L. 70, 6.
A fleur de, even with, L. 80, 2.
A force de, by dint of, L. 80, 2.


A l'égard de, with regard to, L. 80, 2.
A raison de, at the rate of, L. 80, 2.
Au dehors, outside, L. 80, 2.
Au dedans, inside, L. 80, 2.
Au delà, beyond, L. 80, 2.
Age, avoir used for, L. 20, 6.
A la campagne, in the country,
L. 34, 8.

A la chasse, hunting, L. 34, 8.
A la pêche, fishing, L. 34, 8.
A l'anglaise, à la française, after the
English, French fashions, L. 69, 3.
A l'école, at school; à l'église, at
church, L. 25, 6.

A l'endroit, right side out; à l'en-
vers, wrong side out, L. 69, 1.
A l'insu, unknown to, L. 82.
Alphabet, L. 1.
Aller, to go, used for proximate fu-
ture, L. 26, 1. Aller trouver, to
go to, L. 26, 3.
S'en aller, to go
away, L. 40; 1, 2; L. 47, 1.
Aller, to fit, to sit, L. 47, 2. Aller
à pied, à cheval, en voiture, to
walk, ride, go in a carriage, L. 62,

Amis (un de mes), a friend of mine,
L. 67, 3.

Amuser, (s',) to take pleasure in, etc.,
L. 38, 6.

[blocks in formation]

L. 25, 6. English article a or
an, § 14, (9). Recapitulation of
articles, § 13. Syntax of § 77.
Use of $77, (1), (2), (3), etc. Be-
fore words used in partitive sense,

78, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7);
13, (10); L. 6, 1; L. 7, 5; L. 8,
4; L. 12, 3; L. 29, 8. Article
used before words in general sense,
and abstract nouns, § 77, (1), (2);
L. 8, 2, 3; L. 23, 11; L. 29 and
30. Article omitted before num-
ber of a sovereign, L. 30, 3.
Article le used before parts of the
body, L. 63, 5. Use of article in-
stead of possessive adjective,
§ 77, (9); L. 37, 1; L. 63, 5;
L. 66, 3. Repetition of, § 80.
Remarks on the use of, § 81.
Idioms in which the article is
omitted, § 82.
Aspirate H, L. 3, p. 25. H not
aspirate in héroïne, etc., L. 3,
p. 25, note.

Asseoir, (s',) to sit down, L. 36, 4.
Assez. enough, its place, L. 34, 3.
Aujourd'hui, to-day, its place, L.
41, 5.

Au lieu de, instead of, L. 35, 4.
Au revoir, till I see you again, L.
89, 4.

Auxiliary verbs, 43, (8); L. 43,
§ 46.
Use of, § 46. Paradigms
of, § 47.
Avancer, to gain, said of clocks, etc.,
L. 92, 1.

for age,

Avant, before, prep. § 142, (1).
Avoir, to have, used idiomatically
with quelque chose, chaud, froid,
etc., L. 8, 1. With coutume, besoin,
etc., L. 21, 4. Used for the day
of the month, L. 19, 6;
L. 20, 6. Avoir lieu, to take place,
L. 35, 3. Avoir mal, to have a
pain, etc., L. 66, 1. Avoir des dou-
leurs, L. 66, 2. Avoir, to hold,
L. 66, 3. Avoir chaud aux mains,
L. 66, 3. Avoir beau, to be in vain,
L. 67, 1. Avoir, used for dimen-
sion, size, L. 68, 1. Avoir, nega-
tively, § 47, (2). Interrogatively,
§ 47, (3). Interrogatively and
negatively, § 47, (4).

BEAU, bel, handsome, fine, L. 13, 6.
CAPITALS, use of, § 145.

Cardinal numbers, § 22, (2); § 24.
Variations of, § 23. Use of, after
names of sovereigns, L. 30, 3;
§ 26, (3). For the day of the
month, § 26, (1).
Cases, § 2.
Ce, demons. prn. § 37, (6); § 108;
116; L. 81.
Used for he, she,
before être, L. 82, 1. C'est moi,
L. 81, 1.


demcns. adj, § 20, (1); L. 10, 1, 2.
Cedilla, L. 3, 6.

Ce que, what, L. 31, 4.
Celui qui, he who, L. 81, 4.
Chacun, each one, § 41, (2).
Chaque, each, § 30, (4).
Changer d'habit, to change one's coat;
changer de maison, to move, L. 58,
1. Changer, to exchange, L. 58, 2.
Chez, prep. at the house of, § 142,
(3); L. 24, 9.

Collective nouns, § 3, (5), (6). Num-
ber of verbs after collective nouns,
L. 85.

Collocation of words, § 144.
Combien de temps, how long; com-
bien de fois? how often? L. 44, 1.
Combien y a-t-il ? how far? how
long since? L. 57, 4.
Comparison of adjectives and ad-
verbs, L. 16; L. 17.
Composing French, plan of exercises
for, p. 103; list of words for, p. 271.
Compound nouns, § 3, (7). § 9; L.
59. Gender of, § 5, (15).
Conditional mode, § 45, 2d, (3).

Use of, § 125. Formation and
termination of, L. 62, 1, 2. Irre-
gularities of, L. 62, 4. Not used
after si, if, L. 62, 6; § 125.
Conjugation of verbs. First conju-
gation, paradigm, § 48. Peculiari-
ties of some verbs, § 49. Second
conjugation, paradigm, § 50.
Third conjugation, paradigm,


Peculiarities of verbs of
third conjugation, § 49; § 52.
Fourth conjugation, paradigm, §
53. Passive verbs, paradigm, § 54.
Rule, § 55. Reflective verbs, para-
digm, § 56. Negative form of,

57. Interrogative form, § 58.
Interrogative and negative form,

59. Unipersonal verbs, para-
digm, § 61, 2. Terminations of
regular verbs, § 60. Table of
irregular verbs, § 62.

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