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In statu quo, in the former, Pro forma, for

form's state,

Ipse dixit, mere assertion. Pro and con, for and a-
Ipso facto, by mere fact. gainst.
Item, also, or article. Pro tempore, for the time,
Locum tonens, deputy.

or, for a time.
Memento mori, remember Quondam, former.

that thou must die. Řez, king Multum in parvo, much in Seriatim, in regular order. little.

Sine die, without mentionNe plus ultra, no farther, ing any particular day. greatest extent.

Sui generis, singular, or Non compos, or non compos unparalleled. mentis, out of one's sen- Summum bonum, greatest

Omnes, all.

Versus, against.
Onus, weight.

Via, by the way of.
Passim, every where. Vice, in the room of.
Pro bono publico, for the Vice versa, the reverse.
public benefit.

Vide, see.


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A. A. S. Fellow of the Cant. Canticles.

American Academy. Chap. Chapter.
C. A. S. Fellow of the Chron. Chronicles.

Connecticut Academy Co. Company.
A. B. Bachelor of Arts. Com. Commissioner.
A. D. In the year of Cr. Credit.

Cwt. Hundred weight.
A. M. Master of Arts, D.D. Doctor of Divinity

before noon, or in the Dr. Doctor or Debtor.

year of the world. Dec. December.
Bart. Baronet.

Dep. Deputy.
B. D. Bachelor of Di-Deut. Deuteronomy.

Do. or ditto, the same.
C. or Cent. a hundred. E. G. for example.
Capt. Captain

Eccl. Ecclesiastes,
Coi. Colone).

Ep. Epistle.

our Lord.

Eng. English.

N. B. take particular noEph. Ephesians.

Ex. Example, or Exodus. Nov. November.
Feb. February

No. Number.
Fr. France, or Francis. N. S. New Style.
F. R. S. Fellow of the Oct. October.

Royal Society. 0. S. Old Style.
Gal. Galatians.

Per cent. by the hundred Gen. Genesis

Pet. Peter. Gent. Gentleman.

Phil. Philip Geo. George.

Philom. a lover of learn-
G. R. George the King ing.
Heb. Hebrews

P. M. Afternoon,
Hon. Honorable P.S. Postscript.
Hund. Hundred. Ps. Psalm.
Ibidem, ibid. in the same Q. Question, Queen.

Regr. Register.
Isa. Isaiah.

Rev. Revelation, Reveri. e. that is.

end. Id. the same.

Rt. Hon. Right HonoraJan. January

ble. Jas. James.

S. South and Shilling. Jac. Jacob.

St. Saint. Josh. Joshua.

Sept. September. Kt. Knight.

Serj. Sergeant. Lev. Leviticus.

S. T. P. Professor of DiLieut. Lieutenant.

L. L. D. Doctor of Laws S. T. D. Doctor of Di-
L.S. the place of the Seal vinity
Lond. London.

ss. to wit, namely.
M. B. Bachelor of Physic Theo. Theophilus.
M. D. Doctor of Physic. Tho. Thomas.
Mr. Master.

V. or vide, see.
Messrs. Gentlemen, Sirs. Viz, to wit, namely.
Mrs. Mistress.

Wm. William. M. S. Manuscript. Wp. Worship. M. S. S. Manuscripts. &c. and so forth. Mat. Matthew,

U. S. A. United States Math. Mathematics. of America,


EXAMPLES Of the Pauses and other CHARACTFF:s used in WRITING.

A comma, (,) is a pause of one syllable-A semicolon, ( ;) two--A colon, (:) four-A period, (.) six-An interrogation point (?) shows when a question is asked; as, What do you see ?-An exclamation point, (!) is a mark of wonder or surprise; as, the foly of sinners ! -The pause of these two points is the same as a colon or a period, and the sentence should usually be closed with a raised tone of voice.

( ) A Parenthesis includes a part of a sentence, which is not necessary to make sense, and should be read quicker, and in a weaker tone of voice.

[ ] Brackets or Hooks, include words that serve to explain a foregoing word or sentence.

A hyphen joins words or syllables; as, sea-water.

An apostrophe shows when a letter is omitted; as, us'd for used. À A caret shows when a word or number of words

my are omitted through mistake; as, this is book.

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66" A quotation or double comma, includes a passage that is taken from some other author in his own words, 67 The Index points to some remarkable passage.

The Paragraph begins a new subject. § The Section is used to divide chapters.

11 An Asterisk, and other references, point to a note in the margin or bottom of a page.

OF CAPITAL LETTERS. Sentences should begin with a capital letter also every line in poetry. Proper names, which are the names of persons, places, rivers, mountains, lakes, &c. should begin with a capital. Also the name of the Supreme Being.

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Various Anecdotes of the Horse THERE is an instance on record of a horse, who formed a friendship for a dog, and, seeing him attacked by a much larger dog, came to his friend's assistance, and saved his life by a well-directed kick, which sent the large dog into a neighbouring cellar.

Another horse, whose master was attacked by robbers, bit one of the ruffians, kicked over another, and, setting out on a full gallop, neve stopped till he had brought his master safe to his own house.

Another, in going through droves of young chickens and ducklings to the stable, would lift bis feet, laying his ears, and putting his nose almost to the ground, for fear of touching them.

A Frenchman once taught a horse, which he kept for a show, to be very polite. He would pay his respects to a company, assembled to witness his feats, with an air and some motions expressive of his satisfaction.

He answered very exactly, by signs of the head, to all the questions his master put to him. He drank wine, taking the cup into his mouth; and also fired off a pistol with his mouth. He could feign himself lame or dead, that he might not have to go to the war. If any person of the assembly


drew a card, and showed it to him, he would beat on the ground with his foot as many strokes as there were spots on the card.

He told what o'clock it was by the watch in the same way. Being asked if he had any knowledge of arithmetic, he answered, by a sign, that he bad; and to the question, “ How much do eight and six make?” he answered, by strokes of the hoof, fourteen.

He was undoubtedly guided in his answers by signs from his master; but it is astonishing how he could so well obey signs, which the spectators were unable to detect.

The intelligence of the horse is next to that of the elephant, and he obeys his rider with so much punctuality and understanding, that the native Ainericans, who had never seen a man on horseback, thought, at first, that the Spaniards were a kind of monstrous race, half men and half horses.

The horse, in a domestic state, seldom lives longer than twenty years; but we may suppose, in a wild state, that he might attain double this age; and it is melancholy to think that our bad treatment has shortened the days of so noble a creature.

It is to be hoped that, when any of you shall be. come old enough to use and own horses, you will remember what noble and excellent animals they naturally are; how well entitled to your kindness and consideration; and that none of you will ever be so thoughtless as to abuse or oppress them.

Such conduct shows that those who are guilty of it are alike destitute of the fine feelings of humanity, and regardless of the Great Father of the universe, who has implanted these excellent qualities in the animal, as if expressly to ensure for him our sympathy and kindness,


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