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could dip for it out of the Thames. No country, in fact, is so expensive as one which human beings are just beginning to inhabit; -where there are no roads, no bridges, no skill
, no help, no combination of powers, and no force of capital.
How, too, can any man take upon himself to say, that he is so indifferent to his country that he will not begin to love it intensely, when he is 5000 or 6000 miles from it? And what a dreadful disease Nostalgia must be on the banks of the Missouri ! Severe and painful poverty will drive us all anywhere: But a wise man should be quite sure he has so irresistible a plea, before he ventures on the Great or the Little Wabash. Не should be quite sure that he does not go there from ill temperor to be pitied-or to be regretted-or from ignorance of what is to happen to him-or because he is a poet-But because he has not enough to eat here, and is sure of abundance where he is going
ART. VII. 1. Rapport presenté à S. M. l'Empereur ALEXAN
DRE, par S. E. M. LE COMTE DE CAPO D'ISTRIA, sur les Etablissemens de M. DE FELLENBERG à Hofwyl, en Octobre
1814. Svo. Paschoud. Genève et Paris. 1814. 2. Rapport sur l'Institut d'Education des Pauvres d'Hofwyl ;
redigé par M. A. RENGGER, ci-devant Ministre de l'Interieur de la Republique Helvetique, au Nom de la Commission etablie pour l’Inspection de l'Etablissement. 8vo. Paschoud. Genève
et Paris. 1814. 3. Lettre de M. Ch. Pictet à ses Collaborat curs de la Biblio
théque Britannique sur les Etablissemens de M. FELLENBERG, et specialement sur l'Ecole des Pauvres à Hofmyl. 8vo. 1812.
Mêmes Libraires. 4. Lettre de M. GAUTHEROX à M. CH. PICTET de Genève, sur
la Féte celebré à Hofryl le 23 Mai 1807. Tirée de la Bibliothéque Britannique, No. 292, de la Partie Agriculture. 1808.
Mêmes Libraires. 5. Vues relatives à l'Agriculture de la Suisse, et aux Moyens de la
perfectionner, par EMANUEL FELLENBERG. * Traduit de l'Allemand par Ch. PICTET. 8vo. 1803. Mêmes Libraires.
long famous on the Continent, has just begun to attract * The name is Fellenberg; and so it is spelt in most of these tracts. This change is a Gallicism, and one of the most inexcuseable of any. "ly will the French always change proper names, and on purpose ?
notice in this country, in consequence of Mr Brougham's account of it in his evidence before the Education Committee, which is contained in the Third Report for 1818. At a time indeed when ail men's minds are turned towards the great questions connected with the character and support of the Poor, with Universal Education and the Poor Laws, there is nothing more natural than that the first intimation of Mr Fellenberg's plans should powerfully interest the thinking part of the community. We have therefore deemed it right to procure the works referred to in Mr Brougham's evidence, as containing a complete account of the Establishment, together with one or two others; and we hasten to lay a statement of the most important particulars contained in them before our readers. We may premise, that the public is chiefly indebted to Mr Charles Pictet of Geo neva for the access which these tracts afford to a knowledge of Hofwyl. Beside the pamphlets which bear his name, he
appears (Mr B.'s Evidence, Rep. 184) to be also the author of the work published as the Connt of Capo d'Istria's, and admitted to give the most full information of any.
Mr Fellenberg is the head of a most respectable patrician family of the canton of Berne; and possesses, about four miles from the city, an hereditary estate, sufficiently large for one of his station in that simple and frugal country; though trifling, indeed, if compared either with the domains of nobles in wealthier states, or with the great things which he has effected by the judicious disposition of it. His income is said not to exceed five hundred a year, were the property managed in the usual way. The land forms part of a beautiful plain surrounded by hills and interspersed with woods. The house and pleasure grounds are agreeably situated in the middle of the fárms. "Being naturally of a retired and contemplative disposition, fond of study, and peculiarly attached to agricultural pursuits, he early in life devoted himself to the praiseworthy objects of improving his estate by his own indastry, and of making this occupation subservient also to the improvement of the poor in his neighbourhood. It is above twenty years since he first formed the plan, which in its completest execution now astonishes all who visit Hofwyl; but it has not been in full action above ten. In what follows, we must be understood as only giving a very general sketch of it. The distinguishing excellence of Mr Fel lenberg's operations consists in the practical details which comprise an infinite variety of ingenious methods for economizing his resources, and gaining his ends by sure means. To enter fully into these, would exceed the bounds of this article; and indeed, it may be fairly questioned, if any description could enable the reacler, who had not been upon the spot, to form an adequate idea of the various processes.
The principal part of the Establishment, and that which forms the groundwork of the whole, is a farm of about 220 acres, which Mr Fellenberg has improved with great success, and continues to cultivate himself. It is here that the poor children are employed, to the number of between thirty and forty; and this may be said to be the branch to which all the others are more or less subordinate, and with which they have all some connexion. Those other banches are, an Academy for the sous of wealthier persons; an Agricultural Institute, connected with a small experimental farm; and a Manufactory of farming machinery and implements.
The Academy consists of fifty or sixty pupils, chiefly of patrician families; and when Mr Brougham was there, he found seven or eight German princes among them, besides several young nobles of that nation. These boys are taught every branch of elegant and of useful learning, by the most eminent professors,-to obtain whose assistance, neither pains nor expense is spared. There are said to be about twenty of them, with salaries amounting to 2000 or 30001. a year. The method of Professor Herbert, of beginning with Greek, and then proceeding to Latin, has been adopted with singular success. rapid progress of the children,' says Mr Pictet, • and the pleasure which they take in reading Homer, appears to justify this improvement.' In teaching the sciences, considerable aid is derived from the method of Pestalozzi, which consists in exercising the reasoning faculties more than is done by the ordinary plan of instruction, and in making the process of learning much less a matter of rote. The extreme rigour of Pestalozzi's plan, however, is avoided ;-this resolves itself indeed into a banishment of all books from the school, and an exclusive reliance upon explanation and examination in the teacher's presence. Musick is taught, both theoretically and, to those who have a taste for it, practically. Gymnastic exercises, including the use of arms, carpentry and gardening, are added, rather as means of filling up the hours of relaxation; and, among other useful objects, little, if at all attended to elsewhere, care is taken to give by practice a just knowledge of bearings and distances, and every thing which is comprised in the phrase of conip-d'oeil. The professors are described as eminent men in their several lines of study; and their moral character, as well as manners, are most particularly attended to in the appointments. Mr Pictet says, that the manifest harmony which reigns among them, and between master and pupil, are the best proofs that Mr Fellenberg
has succeeded in his selection. The character, the temper, and the habits of the young people, are the paramount object of the superintendence exercised sedulously over them at every moment of time, but so as never to oppress or annoy.
The methods of preserving this watchful attention, and at the same time leaving the pupil free from any sense of restraint, are among those processes which no description can adequately represent. The great principle seems to be, an appeal to the well known force of habit, and a judicious variation of the pursuits and studies, united with a never-failing gentleness, and serenity of temper in the instructor and guardian. Care is also taken to admit new pupils only when all those upon the establishment are completely trained to the industrious and innocent pursuits of the place; so that this foundation being once laid, the labour of correcting the bad habits of the new-comers is greatly abridged; they fall more easily into the manners of their companions. The following is the testimony borne by a very accurate and unprejudiced observer; one indeed whose original prepossessions, or at least doubts, were all unfavourable to Mr Fellenberg's design.
« On n'emploie dans l'institut aucun des moyens ordinaires d'encouragement et de repression. Il n'y a ni premier ni dernier, ni prix ni médailles, ni châtimens humilians. Une récapitulation faite le samedi soir, en présence des élèves, par le professeur qui ne les quitte jamais, remplace les mobiles ordinaires d'émulation et de crainte. Mr Fellenberg y assiste. Dans cette séance, on reprend tous les motifs d'éloge ou de blâme pour chacun pendant la semaine. Le' ton ferme et doux du professeur, le sentiment tout paternel qui inspire les remontrances et les exhortations, font une grande impression sur les élèves. Le redoublement des tâches pendant les heures destinées aux amusemens, est la seule punition qu'on emploie pour entretenir l'activité du travail. Tous les petits traits qui tiennent au caractère, et qui sont des occasions de louange ou de reprimande, trouvent leur place dans cette récapitulation. Les enfans se justifient avec liberté. On les écoute avec patience, et on les reprend avec douceur. Ils ne cédent point à l'autorité, mais à la confiance, à l'affection, à l'ascendant de la vérité, à l'opinion de leurs camarades, dont la direction est toujours bonne, parce que cette opinion est formée des élémens les plus sains.
- Une régle invariable dans la distribution du temps, dans tous les détails de la vie, rendent inutiles les moyens nécessaires ailleurs pour contraindre ou réprimer. Les enfans se sentent libres, parce qu'ils n'obéissent qu'à la force des choses, et que le caprice ne les atteint point. Sans jamais ressentir la gêne, ils éprouvent tous les bons effets de l'ordre, et en prennent le goût et l'habitude. Ils sont confians, ouverts, gais, heureux, car ils se sentent aimés. Quand ils font des cottises de leur âge, ils sont d'ordinaire les premiers à s'en accuser ;
car un aveu libre, toujours reçu par l'affection et l'indulgence, affranchit l'enfant du tourment d'être mal avec lui-même et avec ses camarades.
· La petite famille n'a d'esprit de corps que pour le bien. Les élèves tiennent ensemble lorsqu'il s'agit de corriger un vice ou un défaut, de réparer un tort de l'un d'eux : pour le justifier, jamais. Cette conscience de tous est due au sentiment religieux qu'on s'attache à leur rendre habituel, par l'exemple, la réflexion et la prière; et cette disposition à seconder les maîtres dans la tâche de l'éducation, au lieu de faire ligue contr'eux, est le résultat de la conviction que le père qui les adoptés, et ses aides, n'ont rien tant à cæur que de les rendre bons et heureux.
Il n'y a peut-être aucun institut d'éducation dans lequel on sache allier autant d'amusemens au travail, autant de liberté à la régle, et ou les élèves aient plus d'occasions de se préparer à l'usage du monde par l'exemple des manières décentes et polies. La maison de Mr Fellenberg en est un modèle. Les élèves sont admis quelquefois dans des familles de Berne alliées ou amies, et distinguées par le meilleur ton. L'abord des étrangers est continuel ; ils viennent de tous les pays, et l'on peut dire que les jeunes gens qui habitent Hofwyl voyagent sans changer de place. Enfin les professeurs attachés aux instituts, et quelques-uns des maîtres, sont un fonds de société de la plus grande ressource, qui concourt à retenir les étrangers que la curiosité a attirés.' Lettre de Pictet, p. 12–15.
The sum paid for this most excellent and complete course of education, rising froin the elements of graminar to the highest branches of mathematical and physical science, is only sixty pounds a year, which covers every expense, except that of clothes. The pupils cat at Mr Fellenberg's table, which is plentiful, yet simple; they are all treated in precisely the same manner, whatever be their rank; no sect is excluded, nor any nation,-except that we believe Mr F. very reluctantly admits French children,—not so much, in all probability, from any prejudices of his own, as from the necessity of yielding to those of his country, which, upon this matter, are as universal and as strong, as we must allow them to be natural and blameless. His disinterested and liberal spirit may be seen from the anecclote related of him, that when, during the troubles in Germany, and the ruin of several families whose children were under his care, no remittances could be expected for their support, he maintained and educated about a dozen of them for nothing, until, contrary to all probability, a change of fortune enabled ther once more to perform the very easy conditions imposed upon the richer classes by the rules of the Establishment.
The Agricultural Institution consists of about twenty young gentlemen, more advanced in years, who have constant access to