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THE

AMERICAN

Journal of Education.

EDITED BY

HENRY BARNARD, LL.D.

VOLUME XI.

NEW SERIES. VOLUME I.

HARTFORD:

PUBLISHED BY HENRY BARNARD.

NEW YORK: F. C. BROWNELL. PHILADELPHIA: J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.

BOSTON: E. P. DUTTON.
LONDON: TRÜBNER & co., 64 PATERNOSTER ROW.

1862.

4. Among modern nations as reached by the teachings of Christianity, in the gradual unfolding of the present received ideas of school organization, and of the principles and methods of instruction,—through (a) the peculiar organization and distinctive teaching of the early Christians; () the first popular school of the Christian Fathers, Chrysostom and Basil; (c) the Catechist schools of Clement and Origen ; (d) the seminaries and cloister schools of Tertullian, Cyprian, Jerome and Austin; (e) the Monastic institutions of Benedict, Dominic and Francis ; (f) the court schools and educational labors of Charlemagne and Alfred; (9) the modifications wrought by Arabic culture which followed the incursions of the Moors; (h) the rise and expansion of universities; (i) the demand of chivalry for a culture for man and woman distinct from that of the clergy, and of incorporated cities for schools independent of ecclesiastical authorities; (j) the revival of the languages, and the literature of Greece and Rome; (k) the long-protracted struggle between Humanism and Realism, or between, on the one hand, the study of languages for the purposes of general culture and the only preparation for professions in which language was the great instrument of study and influence, and on the other, the claims of Science, and of the realities surrounding every one, and with which every one has to do every day, in the affairs of peace or war; (1) and the gradual extension and expansion of the grand idea of universal education of the education of every human being, and of every faculty of every human being, according to the circumstances and capabil. ities of each. While thus aiming to give in each number, contributions to the History of Pedagogy and the internal economy of schools, we hope in this series to complete our survey of

II. Systems of National Education, and especially an account of Public Schools and other Means of Popular Education in each of the United States, and of all other governments on the American Continent.

III. The history and present condition of Normal Schools and other special institutions and agencies for the Professional Training and Improvement of Teachers.

IV. The organization and characteristic features of Polytechnic Schools, and other institutions for the education of persons destined for other pursuits than those of Law, Medicine and Theology, including a full account of Military Schools.

V. The history and courses of study of the oldest and best Colleges and Universities in different countries.

VI. The life and services of many Teachers, Promoters and Benefactors of Education, whose labors or benefactions are associated with the foundation and development of institutions, systems, and methods of in. struction.

HENRY BARNARD. Hartford, March, 1862.

THE

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

PORTRAIT OF MATTHEW VASSAR,.....

1

I. WHAT IS EDUCATION ? Defined by English Authorities,

11

Whewell-Skakspeare,

11

Ascham--Bacon--Milton-Wotton-Bolingbroke,

12

Hooker-Barrow-South-Short,

13

Hobbs-Locke-Pope,

14

Johnson-Paley-Hamilton,

15

Addison-Harris-Butler-Clulow,

16

Parr-Burke-Ramsden,.

17

Whately-Helps-Grote,

18

Cos-Ruskin,

19

Lalor- Austin,..

20

II. CONVERSATIONS on OBJECTS-A Practical Course of Elementary Instruction and

Mental Development,.

21

I. Exercises in Perception, .....

21

1. Names of Objects-Parts, Matter and Color,....

21

2. Number; Ball-Frame,....

24

3. Fractional Numbers, and Apparatus,....

25

4. Forms; Geometrical Solids; Architectural Games,.

27

II. Esercises in Observation,.....

28

1. Properties, Comparisons, and Classifications of Objects,.

28

2. Incidental Investigations of Objects,...

30

3. Gradation of Lessons,

32

IIL Exercises in Reflection,

33

1. Size, Weight, Durability of Things,.

33

2. Physical Geography-Geographical Box,..

35

3. Political Geography,.......

38

4. History and Chronology,....

41

5. Excursions in the Country.....

43

6. Natural History, Mineralogy, and Geology, Botany, Zoulogy,....

45

7. Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Physiology, and Mental Philosopby,

49

UL. MATTHEW VASSAR AND Vassar FEMALE COLLEGE,.

53

Portrait,

1

Memoir, ..........

53

Plan of Founding a College,....

54

Statement of Mr. Vassar to the Trustees of Vassar College,..

55

Amount of Securities transferred, ......

56

IV. THE SCHOOLMASTER. By Roger Ascham,...

57

Book 1. The Bringing up of Youth,....

57

General Manner and Temper required, .

57

The aim of all Good Culture,....

57

Quick Wits, and Slow, compared,..

58

Deleterious lofluence of excessive attention to Music,..

59

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