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may be seen the four aqueducts, Julia, Tepula, Marcia, and architrave and enriched frieze. Two tablets without inAniene Vetus.

scriptions are placed in the wall between the pilasters, and Porta S. Giovanni, substituted by Gregory XIII. for the in the centre is an antient opening similar to a doorway antient Porta Asinaria.

with moulded architraves. The maierial is travertine. Porta S. Panlo, substituted by Honorius for the antient The style of this monument is simple, the masonry masgates of Servius called Trigemina, Minucia, Navalis, and sive, and it appears to have been erected prior to the AugusLavernalis. Being built on the Via Ostiensis, it was called tan age. also asis. The present gate was rebuilt by Belisarius, Tomb of the Claudii, a mass of shapeless le, stands who constructed it on a new level, the antient being 26 in the Via Marforio almost opposite the tomb of Bibulus. palms lower. The internal gate is older than the time of Tomb of St. Constantiu, erected, on the Via NomenBelisarius, and is formed with a double arch.

tana, probably by Constantine the Great, to contain the Porta del Popolo, the chief entrance into Rome, the body of either his sister or his daughter, whose remains Flaminian Gate, was built by Honorius on a site a little were placed in a maguificent sarcophagus of porphyry, now higher up than the present gate, towards the Pincian in the museum of the Vatican. This edifice was turned hill, on a slight elevation; it was removed between the into a church by Alexander IV., when it no doubt undersixth and eighth centuries to its present situation. The went many changes from its original appearance. It is not name of Porta del Popolo was given to it in the fifteenth a pure specimen of architecture, and is rather remarkable century. Aided by Vignola, Pius IV. decorated the ex for its arrangement of double Corinthian columns supternal front, after the design of M. Angelo; notwith porting a dome, and for its mosaics, than for any purity of standing these great names, the façade is neither very strik- design. ing nor in very good taste. The internal decoration of this Pyramid of Caius Cestius, constructed in the reign of gateway is by Bernini.

Augustus, for the ashes of C. Cestius, and situated near the Porta Cavalleggieri and Angelica, one on each side of the Porta S. Paolo, on ihe Viae Laurentina and Ostiensis. It Vatican, are of modern construction. The former is con- has the following inscription, from which it appears to bare sidered to be of the architecture of San Gallo; the latter been erected in the space of 330 days: was built by Pius IV.

C. CESTIVS, L.F. POP. EPVLO PR. TR. PL. Tombs. Sepulchre of Eurysaces the Baker.—The exact date of the construction of this monument is doubtful; it was most probably erected betweeen 580 and 803 A.U.c. It is situated at the junction in Biviis of the Via Labicana and the Via This almost solid pyramidal mass of masonry is covered Praenestina, close to the monument of the Claudian aque- with slabs of white marble, and is erected on a basement of duct, which formed the majestic entrance into Rome from travertine. The walls are 36 Roman palms thick. In the these two roads.

centre is a small vaulted sepulchral chamber, decorated This singular monument was imbedded in the rude con with arabesques, of which some brilliantly coloured porstruction of the gate built by Honorius in front of the Clau- tions remain. At the angles are two Doric fluted columns dian monument; and the upper part of the tomb was in- of white marble placed on pedestals, and on one of two jured by the new constructions. The plan of this building bases which have been discovered, was a bronze foot, which, is an irregular trapezoid, formed by the roads and the con- from an inscription on the base, appears to have belonged tracted site. The elevation is divided into three parts: the to a statue of C. Cestius. The present entrance is in the lower, or basement, of Alban masonry, is divided from the centre of the side, which is between the two columns. The second by a band, on which is formed the second division. earth, now excavated, had been considerably raised round The second division is constructed with the circular stone- the base of this building. From a fragment of mosaic mortars (mortaria) for kneading the bread, which are placed found in 1824 near the tomb, it is possible that the area op in a perpendicular position, with flat-face piers at the angles; which it stood was paved in that style. above these is a continuous band, on each of the four faces Tomb of Scipio is situated on a cross-road connecting of which is repeated the inscription,

the Via Appia and the Via Latina. The chambers are irreEST HOC MONIMENTVM MARCEI VERGILEI EURYSACIS gularly excavated in the tufa rock, and appear to have been

turned into a tomb, having been originally formed for the On this is the third story, in which three rows of mortars purpose of procuring building materials. The antient enare placed horizontally, with their circular mouths towards trance consists of a rude arch upon peperino imposts, and the spectator, having had originally a ball of stone carved appears to have been partly covered with stucco and painted. in them to represent the dough. This story is bounded by Over the arch is a stout moulding, upon which there was pilasters at the angles with a capital in the Greek style. antiently a second story. Several slabs of marble with inThe pilasters support a frieze, and there was a cornice with scriptions are attached to the sides of the passages and a blocking course all round, and a pulvinus on two sides: chambers cut in the tufa. An elegant sarcophagus of above and between the extremities of the pulvinus was a peperino with a bust of the same material were found in band carved with a representation of circular loaves; from one of these chambers, and have been placed in the this band sprang a pyramidal roof, terminated with the Vatican. representation of a wicker-basket used to carry bread in. In Tomb of Caecilia Metella, constructed on an eminence the principal front was a marble bas-relief representing on the side of the Appian way, a little beyond the Circus of Eurysaces and his wife Atistia, and underneath a sarcopha- Romulus, and dedicated to the memory of Cæcilia Metella, gus with the inscription,

daughter of Quintus Metellus, and wife of Crassus. The FVIT ATISTIA VXOR MIHEI

inscription, which is on a margined pannel, is-

Round in form, and placed on a square basement, it is Within this scarcophagus was a representation of a pana- constructed with magnificent blocks of travertine. It is rium, or wicker-basket

, in which the ashes were deposited. surmounted with a beautiful decorated frieze and an elegant Such part of the frieze of this singular monument as cornice, from which most probably rose a dome or a conicalremains has the daily employment of the baker and the formed roof, now destroyed. In its place there is a battlebusiness of the bakehouse sculptured upon it.

mented wall, built A.D. 1300, which indicates its change from Tomb of C. Poblicius Bibulus, stood originally without a sepulchre to a fortress. The interior was lined and prothe walls of Servius Tullius, at the angle formed by two bably domed with brick. In the time of Paul III. a sarcostreets close to the antient Porta Ratumena.

phagus was found here, which was placed in the cortile of This ruin, which is small, is of two stories, but the lower the Farnese palace in Rome. is buried by the accumulation of soil. It stands now at the In the decorated frieze of this monument, just over the extremity of the Corso and forms part of the external wall | inscription, is a bas-relief representing a trophy and a part of a house in the Via Marforio, and at present appears to of a figure of Victory in the act of writing upon a shield, as consist of the upper story only, decorated with four diminish. if to communicate the deeds of the father and the husband ing pilasters, two of which are imperfect, and part of the The Victory on the other side of the bas-relief is wanting




voth of the figures of Victory had slaves bound underneath | bridge consists of three large arches and two siriall arches them.

with buttresses attached to the piers and starlings prvo Mausoleum of Augustus,constructed by Augustus, between jecting beyond them. It was restored by Nicholas V. in the Via Flaminia and the banks of the Tiber, during his 1450, and the Clements VII. and IX. decorated it with sixth consulate. When it first became ruined is unknown, modern statues. Clement IX. added the parapet. but being turned into a fortress, and becoming eventually the Pons Milvius, now Ponte Molle, on the Flaminian way, property of the Colonna family, it was destroyed in 1167 in rather more than a mile from the city. It was antiently a popular tumult, and became a shapeless ruin.

called not only Milvius, but Mulvius and Molvius. The The building was of a circular form, 220 ancient Roman construction is attribuied to Æmilius Scaurus, about the feet in diameter, and was probably domed. Round the inner iniddle of the seventh century of Rome. According to Livy circumference were thirteen sepulchral chambers and an (xxvii., c. 51), there must have been a bridge here at least a ample chamber in the centre, of which there only remains century earlier. A part only of the bridge is antient; Nithe basement of reticulated work in tufa. In the latter part cholas V. restored it in the middle of the fifteenth century of the last century the remains of this edifice were turned up to which period the extremities consisted of wooder. into an anıphitheatre for bull-fights and fire-works.

drawbridges. Two obelisks without hieroglyphics, which formerly stood Pons Sublicius, or Sublician Bridge, first erected by at the entrance of the Mausoleum, now adorn the piazza of Ancus Marcius, of wood, was destroyed by an inundation in Santa Maria Maggiore and the Quirinal.

the time of Augustus, and rebuilt of stone by M. Æmilius Mausoleum or Hadrian, now called Castle of S. Angelo, Lepidus, the censor, an event which is commemorated in a erected by Hadrian on the right bank of the Tiber, within the coin of the Æmilii. From this circumstance it took the gardens of Domitia. This building consists of a circular name of Æmilian. It was restored by Antoninus Pius, tower whose present diameter is 188 feet, placed on a quadri- and in little more than six centuries after was destroyed by lateral basement, each side of which is 253 feet. It was a great inundation of the Tiber during the reign of Pope once highly decorated, but no vestiges of the decorative part Adrian I. What remained of it after this was removed, in remain. Procopius, who described it in the sixth century, 1454, to make cannon balls, and nothing but the rubble before it was injured, says it was built of Parian marble, basements of the piers are visible when the water is low. and adorned wiib statues, both of men and horses, of the From the coin it appears to have consisted of three arches, same material. (Goth., lib. i.) Between the time of the re- and was adorned with an equestrian statue of the censor. building of the walls of Rome by Honorius and the Gothic Pons Fabricius, built by Fabricius, the Curator Viarum, war, it appears to have been already turned into a fortress, A.U.C. 690 ; connects the city with the Isola Tiburtina, and but without injury to the decorations. During the wars with is the best preserved of the antient Roman bridges. the Goths, the Romans, being shut up in the building, were Pons Gratianus is a continuation of the Pons Fabricius, reduced to the necessity of throwing down the statues on connecting the Isola Tiburtina with Transtevere. It was their besiegers. In the tenth century it was fortified by a constructed about A.D. 367, during the reigns of the empecertain Crescenzio, and afterwards increased in extent and rors Valentinian and Gratian, from whom it derives its name. strengthened by the popes Nicholas V., Alexander VI., and Pons Janiculensis, now Ponte Sisto, connecting TransUrban Vill., the last assisted by Bernini. The antient tevere with the city above the Fabrician bridge. It appears dourway, recently opened, is situated immediately in front to have been called Janiculensis under the emperors, and of the bridge; at ihe same time the antient spiral-way to have been restored by one of them. It was ruined in the which led to the sepulchral chambers was discovered. This middle ages, and reconstructed under Sixtus IV. in 1774 by rose with a gentle inclination to the summit of the build- Baccio Pinielli. ing; part of the white mosaic floor with which the way was Pons Palatinus or Senatorius, now called Ponte Rotto, paved is still remaining.

was below the Fabrician and Gratian bridges, and above Columbaria.

the Sublician; only three arches of it remain, on the TransBetween the temple of Minerva Medica and the Porta canus, and was repaired by Angustus.

tevere side. It was first built by P. Cornelius Scipio Afri

It was a very Maggiore are two columbaria, or tombs. The first, to the handsome bridge, and had a roof supported by marble memory of Lucius Arruntius, consul under Augustus (A.D. 7), columns. Being carried off by a great food, it was rebuilt consists of two small chambers, in one of which are some by Pope Pius III., and again by Gregory XIII. in 1575; small cinerary urns; and in the other, some pictures on the after which it broke down, and has not been repaired since. ceiling, and some small figures and ornaments of stucco.

Puns Triumphalis, called also Pons Vaticanus, was conThe second consists of one chamber.

structed in a bend of the river near the Vatican. It is con Columbarium in the Villa Doria Pumfili. This colum- jectured to have been built by Caligula or Nero as a means barium, the general plan of which was tolerably well pre- of easy access to their gardens on the Vatican. It appears served in 18:29, consisied of several small chambers irregu- to have been ruined about the fifth century: some remains larly disposed. It has however been lately destroyed. The of the rubble piers of this bridge may be seen when the plan measured by W. B. Clarke, architect, was published in water is low. the Library of Entertaining Knowledge-Townley Marbles.'

Theatres and Amphitheatres. Columbarium of Cneius Pomponius Hylas and of Pomponia

Theatre of Pompey, built by and named after Pompey Vitalina stands in the same vineyard which contains the the Great, occupied the space circumscribed by the palace tomb of Scipio. The small urns and tablets in their several called Pio, the Campo di Fiore, and the streets called niches appear to belong to a period from the age of Augustus Chiavari and Giupponari

. Under the palace there are some to the time of the Antonines. This columbarium is filled ruins of this edifice. with niches with their ollae and lapidary inscriptions, and is

Theatre of Marcellus, built by Augustus, and dedicated partially decorated with arabesques.

to Marcellus, son of Octavia, his sister, in honour of whom Tomb in the Vigna di Luzzano, at a short distance from he named the portico attached to this theatre. This was the Porta Pia, and without the walls. The date is uncertain the second solid theatre constructed in Rome, and consisted The square chamber of fine travertine masonry surmounted of three orders, the upper of which is entirely lost. The with a cornice is in high preservation, and also the three remains of this building are in the Piazza Montanara, and marble sarcophagi of the interior, which are highly enriched

a small part near the entrance to the Palazzo Orsini. A with bas-reliefs, and contain skeletons. The upper part, small portion of the curved part of the theatre shows the which was probably circular, has entirely disappeared, and remains of two orders of architecture, the Doric and Ionic, the preservation of its base was entirely owing to its having both in a bad state of preservation. The highest order been buried.

above the Ionic is supplied by the upper story of the moBridges.

dern dwellings, which are formed in the antient curved front Pons Aelius, now Ponte S. Angelo, crosses the Tiber of the theatre. The style of the architecture is much suimmediately opposite the Mausoleum of Hadrian, now the perior to that of the Colosseum, and was the Palladian Castle of S. Angelo. It was constructed by Hadrian as an model of the Roman Doric and lonic orders. entrance to his mausoleum and the gardens of Domitia, Fluvian Amphitheatre, or Colosseum, commenced by which were much frequented by him, and in which he also Vespasian, in "he last year of his life, on the site of the puilt his circus. The whole of this bridge is ancient except great pond formed by Nero within the extent of his Domus the parapets, some trifling restorations of masonry, and a Aurea. [AMPHITHEATRE. small arch on the side of the Castle of S. Angelo. The Amphitheatre called Castrensis, a small brick amphi. P. C., No. 1243.

VOL. XX.-0



theatre, at what time erected is unknown, but probably, if Temple of Claudius. Nero took advantage of the arch of we may judge from the style of brickwork, in the first Dolabella, and passed his aqueduct over it, the arch of century of the Christian æra. It originally stood without which is still extant. the walls of Servius Tullius, but during the reign of Ho Arch of Gallienus, upon the site of the Esquiline gate, norius it was employed to form part of the new enclosure, dedicated to Gallienus and Salonina, by Marcus Aurelius and the arches were filled up. On the inside the form of a Victor. The gate is formed of a single arch, adorned with semi-ellipse on its grea' est axis is all that can be discerned; four pilasters, and flanked with two buttresses, a part of vut externally the engaged Corinthian columns of the lower one of which remains on the side towards the church of order, with their brick capitals, are well preserved; of the Santa Maria Maggiore. The structure is formed of large upper order there only remain a pilaster and part of an blocks of travertine, and is of a plain and simple but not a arch. During some excavations made here, an Egyptian bad style of architecture. statue, and some pieces of marble with which the amphi Arch of Drusus, erected across the Appian way, close to theatre was decorated, were discovered.

the gate of St. Sebastian, by the senate, to Claudius Nero Arches.

Drusus, father of the emperor Claudius. It consists of one Arch of Titus stands near the ruins of the temple of arch only, adorned on each side with two marble columns of Venus and Rome. On the side facing the Colosseum is a the composite order ; above the entablature are the remains finely cut inscription on the attic:

of a pediment, and there was also an attic. Caracalla used SENATVS. POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS.

the arch as part of the line of his aqueduct for his Therma. An extant coin gives a faithful representation of this arch

when perfect. Excavations have lately been made round Erected by Domitian, in honour of Titus, and 10 com- this building. The arch appears to have been reneered memorate the great event of the conquest of Jerusalem. with marble; but the cornices were formed of solid blocks It is of Pentelic marble, and of an elegant design, but with of that material. only one arch. On each side were fluted columns of the Arch of Janus Quadrifrons, situated in the Velabrum; composite order, of which only two on each side, and these the exact date of its erection is unknown, but from its deimperfect, are antique; the rest of the arch was restored based style and want of simplicity, it may be attributed to a loy Pius VII. On the sides of the piers under the arch, period after Septimius Severus. The form is square, 105 which is highly decorated, are two very fine bas-reliefs, palms on each face, with a large arch in each front, forming illustrating the victory of Titus over the Jews. In one of an open vaulted space. In each of the piers supporting the them is represented the golden table, the trumpets and arch' are twelve niches in two rows, between which were horns of silver, and the golden candlestick with its branches. small columns as a decoration forming a double order. The The triumph of Titus is represented also on the frieze on construction is formed of large blocks of white marble. The the outside of the arch.

upper part is ruined, and it was held by the Frangipani as a Arch of Septimius Severus, erected A.D. 205, by the se fortress during the civil wars. nale and Roman people, in honour of Septimius Severus, Arch of Septimius Severus, commonly called the Arch of and his sons Caracalla and Geta, for their victories over the the Goldsmiths, is situated also in the Velabrum, and close Parthians, the Arabs, the Adiabeni, and other oriental na to the arch of Janus. This small structure, in a style tions. In the long inscription on the attic may be recog. which shows the decadence of art, is highly enriched, and niseil the erasure made by Caracalla when he changed the consists of a single opening, square in form, and supported expression, ET.P.SEPTIMIO.L.F.GÆT.E . NOB.CÆSARI, for on broad pilasters filled with ornament. The following inP.P.OPTIMIS. FORTISSIMIS.QVE. PRINCIPIBVS. The arch scription shows it to have been erected by the bankers and is of Pentelic marble, with archways and transverse arch. dealers of the Forum Boarium, in honour of Septimius ways through the piers of the centre arch. Each front is Severus, Julia Domna, his wife, and Caracalla :decorated with four fluted columns, and a series of bas IMP. CAES. L. SEPTIMIO. SEVERO. PIO. PERTINACI. AVG. reliefs, which, though not of a high order, are highly inte ARABIC. ADIABENIC. PARTHIC. MAX. FORTISSIMO. FELIresting as a picture of the modes of warfare and the cominissariat of a Roman army. From a medal of Severus PONT. MAX. TRIB. POTEST. XII. IMP. XI. cos. II. PATRI. and Caracalla, it appears that the attic of the arch was deco

PATRIAE . ET. rated with a chariot drawn by six horses, and in the chariot IMP. CAES. M. AVRELIO. ANTONINO. PIO. FELICI , AVG. was placed the emperor between his two sons : on each side of the car was a soldier on foot and a soldier on horseback.

FORTISSIMO. FELICISSIMOQUE. PRINCIPI. P. P. PROCOS. ET. The whole of the mouldings and the vaulting are highly IVLIAE. AVG. MATRI. AVG. N. ET. CASTRORVM . ET. SEenriched with carved ornaments. An accumulation of earth had half buried this monument when it was first excavated by Pius VII., and afterwards by Leo XII., Pius VII., and Gregory XIV.

ARGENTARII . ET . NEGOTIANTES . BOARII . HVIVS. LOCI. Arch of Constantine, erected in commemoration of his QVI. INVEHENT . DEVOTI. NVMINI . EORVM. great victory over Maxentius, stands near the Meta Sudans,

The name of Geta was originally in the dedication, but and fronting the Colosseum. Formed with three archways, his name was erased after his death. adorned with four beautiful columns of giallo antico on

Columns. each side, and enriched with many fine bas-reliefs and statues, as well as with specimens of art of indifferent workmanship,

Column of M. Aurelius Antoninus, in the Piazza Colonna. it shows the decline of art at that period. The fine paris | [ANTONINE COLUMN.) are supposed to have been taken from a triumphal arch

Column of Antoninus Pius was discovered on the Monte erected to Trajan, the situation of which is unknown. It is Citorio, in the house of the Mission, in 1709. It was of a also possible that some might have been taken from the forum single piece of red granite, and had a white marble pedestal, of Trajan. The statues of the Dacian prisoners are probably now in the Vatican, representing alto-reliefs, with the in: taken from an arch of Trajan. Above the attic was a scription: triumphal quadriga. The arch remained partially buried until it was excavated by Pius VII., who enclosed ihe basement within a circular wall. During the reigns of his sucsors the whole of the surrounding earth has been removed, The shaft was 68 Roman palms long, and was used to so that the roadway now passes under it.

restore the obelisks erected by Pius VI. This column, Arch of Dolabella. This single arch of travertine was which is represented on the coins of Antoninus Pius, was constructed A.D. 10, by the consuls Publius Cornelius Dola-enclosed with a fence, and most probably stood within the bella and Caius Junius Silanus. It stands near the church forum of Antoninus Pius, adjoining that of Aurelius, as did of S. Giovanni and Paolo, and is thought to have been the en- also the temple called the Temple of Antoninus Pius. trance to the Campus Martialis, where the Equiria, or eques Column of Trajan, forme:l of 34 pieces of white marble, trian games in honour of Mars, were celebrated, when the situated in the forum of Trajan, and erected by that emCampus Martius was inundated by the Tiber. This cam peror as a decoration to his great forum. The height reprepus stands immediately to the left after passing the opening; sents the height of the Quirinal cut away and removed for It is flanked on the west by a magnificent substruction of the level site of his forum, and is stated in the following large niches belonging to the Nymphæum of Nero and inscription :






Cloaca Maxima, said to have been constructed by Tar IMP. CAESARI. DIVI. NERVAE. FNERVAE

quinius Priscus. Two parts of this cloaca only are visible, TRAJANO . AVG. GERM. DACICO PONTIF.

one near the arch of Janus Quadrifrons, and the other on MAXIMO. TRIB. POT. XVII. IMP VI. COS. VI. PP.

the Tiber near the temple of Vesta. [Cloaca.] AD . DECLARANDVM . QVANTAE . ALTITUDINIS.

Praetorian Camp, built by Sejanus, in the reign of TiMONS. ET. LOCVS. TANTIS OPERIBVS

berius, without the walls of Servius, to the north-east of SIT EGESTVS.

Rome, and dismantled by Constantine the Great. Three This column, admirable both for its proportion and for sides of the walled enclosure of a rectangular figure were the design and execution of the bas-reliefs and ornaments, joined by Honorius to his new walls, and form a large recwhich are in the best taste, was the receptacle for the ashes tangled recess on the plan of Rome. The appearance of the of Trajan. The spiral bas-reliefs do not destroy the line of leading features of the camp may be collected from a gold the shaft by their projection, as in the column of Marcus coin of Claudius. Aurelius, called the Antonine column. The Trajan column Meta Sudans, a fountain placed at the point of junction is, with few exceptions, in a high state of preservation. A of four antient regions, the second, third, 'sixth, and tenth, statue of St. Peter is placed on the pedestal at its summit, and within a short distance of the Colosseum. It appears and it is ascended by a spiral staircase.

to have been at least as old as the time of Nero, and was Column of Phocus, erected in the Forum Romanum by the reconstructed by Domitian in the form of a cone, in the Exarch Smaragdus to the emperor Phocas, A.D. 608, according centre of a circular basin 80 Roman feet in diameter. This to an inscription on the pedestal.

brick rim has been entirely divested of its marble covering The erasure of the name of Phocas, made by Heraclius, is and ornaments; the water came out in a jet from the top; discernible on the pedestal of the fluted Corinthian column, a representation of it appears on the coins bearing the imwhich is of a much earlier date, probably of the time of the press of the Flavian amphitheatre. In the coin there are Antonines. On the top of the capital there was a gilt statue two large figures: one may probably represent the colossal of the emperor. The perlestal is placed on a flight of steps statue removed here first by Vespasian and afterwards reof a bad construction, from which it is evident that the moved by Hadrian. The gladiators of the amphitheatre column was taken from some other structure.

are said to have washed themselves at this fountain. Forums.

Portico of Octavia, built by Augustus, near the theatro Forum of Nerva, situated near the Forum Romanum, of Marcellus, as a place of refuge for the spectators in the commenced by Domitian, and dedicated to Pallas. It was theatre from a storm. The portico, which was burnt, prohowever terminated by Nerva. It received the names of bably in the reign of Titus, was restored by the emperors 'Transitorium and Pervium, from its being a passage-way to Septimius Severus and Caracalla. other fora. Two fluted columns of the Corinthian order, The ruin consists of one of the principal entrances only, half buried in the ground, with a rich entablature and attic which liad two fronts similar in design and proportion; each over them, adorned with a bas-relief of Pallas or Rome, front was adorned with four fluted Corinthian columns of formed part of the internal decoration of the inclosure of the white marble and two pilasters, supporting an entablature temple of Minerva. A large part of an irregular line of wall and pediment. Several columns of Cipolino and Carystian belonging to this forum is remarkable for its height and marble are walled into the houses of the fish-market, which massive masonry of Travertino, set without cement. It is is its present destination. highly probable that the wall is much inore antient than the The restoration by Septimius Severus may easily be disdate of the formation of the forum by Domitian and Nerva. tinguished. A large brick arch and brick piers have been Through this wall there is an antient archway with the constructed to support the entablature ruined by the fire; masonry cut diagonally. See the Plan of the Forum, by some other remains of brick arches clearly indicate, from the Bunsen, for the extent and position of this forum.

difference in construction, the restoration. The style of the Forum of Trajan, adjoining the forum of Nerva. (See original building is bold, simple, and worthy of the Augustan Bunsen's Plan.) Of this extensive forum only the Cochlide age. A part of the portico is now used as a church. column and part of the Basilica Ulpia can be seen; the rest Palace of the Cæsars, commenced by Augustus Cæsar, of the site is buried under the adjacent streots and houses. on the site of the house of Hortensius, the orator, and The earth round the pedestal of the column was excavated of Catiline. Augustus added to the original dwelling in 1590, during the pontificate of Sixtus V.; and Pius VII. of Hortensius a temple dedicated to A pollo, with a portico in 1812 and 1813 caused the present area to be formed by the of Numidian columns, and also a library. This palace, with removal of the houses and excavation of the site of part of its posterior additions, was distinguished by the name of the Basilica. The columns are of grey granite, and have Domus Augustana.' It was extended by Tiberius, towards been replaced in their respective situations. The site of the the Velabrum, to the extremity of the hill. This part, in steps and pedestals at their entrance may be distinguished, contradistinction to the Domus Augustana, was called and numerous fragments of marble capitals, entablatures, Domus Tiberiana.' It was increased towards the forum and ornaments are ranged round the area.

by Caligula, and united to the Capitol by a bridge, which Miscellaneous.

was afterwards destroyed by Claudius. The Palatine not Mamertine and Tullian Prisons, situated near the being sufficient for Nero, he extended the palace of the Capitol, close to the forum, built prior to the reign of Servius Cæsars over the whole of the plain between it, the Cælius, Tullius, and enlarged by him. Part of the front, forty-five and the Esquiline, and a part eren of the Esquiline itself, feet long and eighieen high, is constructed with large blocks thus uniting the palace with the gardens of Mæcenas. of tufa without cement; a part is also buried in the carth. This extensive palace having been destroyed by the great C. VIBIVS. C. F. RVFINVS M. COCCEIVS .... NERVA. COS. EX. fire of Rome in the reign of Nero, it was rebuilt by him S. C. repaired this edifice in the reign of Tiberius, A.D. 22. in a sumptuous style, and called the Domus Aurea. After The prison was divided into two floors, and the round hole having suffered many changes and mutilations during the through which criminals were dropped into the lower prison reigns of successive emperors, it was much injured at the still exists.

sacking of Rome by the Vandals. Yet Heraclius inhabited Tabularium and Ærarium Sanctius, place for the public it in the seventh century, and in the time of Pope Con archives and treasure, constructed on the side of the Capitol, stantie, in the beginning of the eighth century, the greater by Quintus Lutatius Catulus. The inscription referred 10 part of it was standing. Extensive remains of the subby Nardini after Poggio is :

structions and some of the corridors still exist, especially Q. LVTATIVS. Q. F. Q. N. CATVLVS . COS.

towards the Circus Maximus. A rude coloured drawing SVBSTRUCTIONEM . ET . TABVLARIVM . S. S. in the print-room of the British Museum, among the folios

of original drawings, represents a portion of a triple-storied (Sce Plan of Rome, by Bunsen.)

colonnade, as it stood in the seventeenth century. The Septisolium, commonly called the Sette Sale, is near the ruins of the palace of the Cæsars stood in what is now baths of Titus, enlarged by Trajan. It is a large brick ruin, called the Orti Farnesiani, and here may be recognised the and may be classed among the Piscinæ, or reservoirs. It is position of a part of the palace of Augustus, of that of Tibethoughi to be older than the time of Titus, though it was rius, of Caligula, and of Nero. The most extensive parts applied to the use of his baths. It consists of two floors, the of the ruins are the foundations and basements which suslower of which is buried in the ground; the upper is divided tained the external porticos, and the basements of the other into nine chambers, with the opening from one to the other parts of the palace, which from time to time was enlarged. in a diagonal line. The construction is very solid.

On the higher part of the hill may be seen considerable re.



mains of the famous Palatine library, built by Augustus, of the Palatine as far as the Curiæ Veteres, subsequently and the magnificent temple of Apollo connected with it, and the Thermæ Trajani. From thence it proceeded along the built after the victory of Actium. Towards the Circus top of the Velia to the chapel of the Lares, subsequently the Maximus are the foundations of the theatre built by Cali- Arch of Titus; it then crossed the valley between the Cægula, in the palace which he joined on to the front of the lius, the Carinæ, and the Velia. The space from this lasthouse of Augustus. Near the temple of Apollo, but below mentioned place to the point from which it commenced, subit, there are two small chambers, called the baths of Livia, sequently the Forum Romanum, through which no line is which are very well preserved, and the painting and gilding mentioned, was then a lake or swamp. (Niebuhr, Hist. of are in good taste.

Rome, i. 288.) The town itself, which had about the same Villa of the Quintilii, extensive ruins, at the distance of <tent as the Pomerium, was probably surrounded by a five miles from Rome, on the Via Latina, hitherto called wall and a narrow ditch. Towards the Capitoline and ihe * Ruins of the Pagus Lemonius.' This villa was built by Aventine respectively it was surrounded by swamps and the Quintilii, who were destroyed by Commodus. The ponds. Between the Palatine and Cælius the valley was not inscription on the leaden pipes dug up in the villa contains so deep, and it contained a long tract of elevated ground the name of the Quintilii. Among the ruins, which appear called the Velia, on which side the town, being easy of to have been enlarged or restored about the close of the access, required fortifications. third or beginning of the fourth century, may be distin As early as the time of Romulus, Etruscan settlements guished an amphitheatre, two magnificent bathing-halls, an existed on the Cælian hill, and extended over Mons Cispius aqueduct, and a fountain.

and Oịpius, which are parts of the Esquiline. Whether Fountain of Egeria, erroneously so called, is a chamber, these Etruscans lived in open villages or fortified places is situated in a valley about a mile from the Porta Latina, unknown; but we learn from Varro that they were comand at a short distance from the Via Latina. It appears pelled by the Romans to abandon their seats on the hills, from its construction to be a combination of reticulated with and to descend into the plains between the Cælius and the lateral work, and to be about the age of Vespasian. It is a Esquiline, whence the Vicus Tuscus in that district dechamber which contains eleven niches. The pavement was rived its name. The principal of these Etruscan settleof serpentine ; the lower part of the walls was once adorned menis was, according to the well known hypothesis of with verde antique, and ihe niches were lined with white Niebuhr, called Lucerum. marble, with margins of rosso antico. All these embellish The three hills north of the Palatine, that is, the Quiriments are gone, and there is only a mutilated recumbent nal, Viminal, and Capitoline, were occupied by Sabines, statue at the extremity of the chamber. A small spring of and the last of these hills was their citadel. Their town or. water still oozes from this building.

the Quirinal was, according to Niebulır, called Quirium Curia Hostilia, on the southern side of the Forum. When the Latin and Sabine towns became united, the valThree walls only of this building remain; they were ori- leys between the hills must have been drained, and the ginally covered with marble, and the façade was probably cloacæ by which this was effected belong to the earliest decorated with columns.

architectural remains of Rome. (Niebuhr, i. 391, et seq.) Milliarium Aureum, close to the arch of Septimius Seve- | The valley between the Palatine and Capitoline was set rus, in the Forum Romanum. On the left, looking towards apart as the place of meeting for the two nations (Comithe Capitol, is a circular terminal, placed on a circular base- tium and Forum Romanum), and the boundary between ment lined with marble.

the territories of the two towns was probably marked by the Circus Maximus, situated in the valley at the south side Via Sacra, which came down from the top of the Velia, ran of the Palatine hill, was founded by Tarquinius Priscus, between the Quirinal and the Palatine, and then making a and restored and enlarged by Julius Cæsar. Augustus bend proceeded between the latter hill and the Capitoline, erected the obelisk of the spina. It was burnt in the great as far as the temple of Vesta, whence it turned right across fire of Rome under Nero. Vespasian restored and perhaps the Comitium towards the gate of the Palatine. enlarged it. Trajan embellished it, and under Constantine The Seven Hills inhabited by these three different nations the Great it was again repaired and beautified, and his son were united into one town, and surrounded by a wall by Constantius erected ihe second obelisk. Of this vast edifice king Servius Tullius. The Pomerium had been extended the general form only is distinguishable in the vineyard in with the increase of the city, but the Aventine, though which it now stands.

included in the new wall, did not lie within the Pomerium, Circus of Romulus, commonly called the circus of Caracalla and it continued to be chietly inhabited by plebeians. Hence (Circus), is adjoining to the jemple of Romulus, and is of it is not mentioned among ihe districts of the city by Varro, the same style of brick construction. This circus was con- who calls them Palatium, Velia, Cerinalus, Cælius, Fasecrated by Maxentius, A.D. 311, according to the inscrip- gutal, Oppius, and Cispius. All these were within the new tion upon it.

Pomerium. Cermalus was the spot at the foot of the Pala

tine, where the Lupercal and the Ficus Ruminalis vere, TOPOGRAPHY OF ANTIENT ROME.

and where in early iimes, when the waters were high, the It is universally admitted that the part of Rome which ground was flooded from the Velabrum. The Faguial was, was said to have been built by Romulus, occupied the Pala- according to Niebuhr, the wide plain between the Palatine tine hill on the eastern side of the Tiber. This town on the and the Cælius-Seprizonium and the Colosseum. The new hill was, according to the custom of the Latins (Göttling, fortification consisted in some places of a wall, probably with Geschichte der Röm. Staatsverfassung, p. 17), built in a towers at certain intervals; in other places the steep sides of square form, whence it is called Romu Quadrata (Fest., s. the hills rendered artificial fortifications unnecessary, for v.; Dionys. Hal., i. 88): it was intersected by two main instance, on the western side of the Capitoline. The northstreets, one running from north to south, the other from eastern part from the Colline to the Esquiline gate, sereneast to west. The point at which these streets intersected eighths of a mile in length, was fortified by a wall, or rather each other was called gruma, or groma (from which perhaps mound. From the border of a moat 100 feet broad ard 30 the name Roma was formed), and sometimes mundus. feet deep, was raised a wall 50 feet wide and above 60 high, This spot, which itself formed a square, existed till a very faced towards the moat with tlagstones, and flanked with late period, and was surrounded by a wall. This original towers. (Niebuhr, i., p. 394, &c.) Traces of this gigantic Roma is generally supposed to have had three gates: 1, work are still visible. From the Colline gate the wall ran Porta Mucionis, or Mugonia, at the northern extremity of in a south-west direction along the skirts of the Quirinal, the hill, which looked towards the northern part of the then turned off to the western side of the Capitoline, and Forum Romanum; 2, Porta Romanula, or Romana; and proceeded along this hill through the low grounds between 3, the Porta Janualis. The Pomerium, that is, the precincts ihe Palatine and the river towards the northern point of within which auguria could be taken, ran, according to the Aventine. It then ran along the western and southern Gellius (xiii. 14, 2) round the foot of the hill; but it seems sides of the Aventine, crossed the valley belween this hill to have been extended even before the union of Rome and Monte San Balbina, part of which was enclosed towards with any of the neighbouring places, for, according to the the southern skirts of Caelius, and after running along description of Tacitus (Annal., xii. 24), the Pomerium em-them, it proceeded in a northern direction towards the Esbraced not only the sides of the hill, but a considerable por- quiline gate at the southern extremity of the great mound. tion of the adjoining plain. It ran from the Forum The gates of this wall, as far as they can be ascertained. Boarium through the valley of the Circus Maximus, in- were :-1, Porta Salutaris. 2, Porta Sangualis: both led from cluding the Ara Maxima, to tne Ara Consi, along the foot I the Campus Martius to the Quirinal. On the same side

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