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in the English style, its laurel and myrtle groves, its fine Cicero remarks the good choice of tisose who built Roine sheet of water, its temple, and hippodrome. The fine mu- in the most favourable spot in the midst of a generally seum of antient sculptures was sold or given up for a con- unhealthy region. (De Republ., ii. 6.) Horace however sideration by the late prince to Napoleon, his brother-in-law; (Epist. i. 7) complains of the fevers which prevailed in the but it has been partly replaced by new acquisitions. Of all month of August. The improvements made by Augustus, the enormous quantity of works of art carried away by the and the reconstruction of the town after the great fire in French from Rome, only a small part has been restored; Nero's time, seem to have had a good effect on the salumuch was purloined by private individuals and sold, much briousness of the city, and Frontinus (i. 18) observes that was irreparably damaged in the removal. The Borghese the increased supply of water by means of additional aquecollection has remained in the Louvre, being a purchase; ducts had contributed to render the atmosphere purer than and a splendid collection of coins and gems, taken from it was in the old times. After the fall of the Empire, ara Rome, was entirely exempted from the claim of restitution the ravages committed by the barbarians, we read of the by the treaty of Paris.

complete desolation of the Campagna during the dark ages, The numerous handsome fountains form another peculiar and of the abandonment of Porto, Ostia, Ardea, and other ornament of modern Rome as works of art, independent of neighbouring towns in consequence of the malaria. At tho their utility. Rome is better supplied with good water same time a gradual removal was taking place within the than most continental towns, and was much more abundantly walls; the population, which was much diminished, was supplied in antient times. Of the antient aqueducts, three leaving the southern part of the city for the northern, the still continue to carry water into the town, having been hills for the plain of the Campus Martius. repaired by the popes. The first is that of the Acqua Ver As the southern hills, the Calian, Aventine, Palatine, and gine, the best in quality, which comes from near the antient Esquiline, became abandoned, they became also unhealthy, Collatia, fourteen miles north of Rome: it supplies a great for populousness and salubrity go together in the whole part of the lower town, and feeds thirteen public fountains, Maremma region. In the eleventh century Petrus Damiof which those of Trevi, of La Barcaccia in Piazza di Spagna, anus (Epist., xix., 'Ad Nicolaum II., Pontificem'), draws a of Piazza Navona, and Farnese, are the principal. The fearful picture of the epidemic fevers to which Rome was second is the Acqua Felice, the antient Aqua Marcia and subject. But still the unhealthiness of the old city was, Claudia, restored by Pope Sixtus V. (Felice da Montalto): and is, much less in degree than that of the country it comes from the east, and supplies the upper or eastern without the walls, and especially of the lowlands towards part of the town, and feeds twenty-seven public fountains, the sea-coast. There are families and whole religious of which that of Moses, near Porta Pia, that of Triton in communities that live all the year round on the desothe Piazza Barberini, and that of Monte Cavallo, are the late hills of old Rome without any remarkable inconveprincipal. The third aqueduct, called Acqua Paola, the nience, though no one would venture to spend the summer antient Alsietina, enters Rome by Mount Janiculus, and months, at least from choice, outside of the walls besupplies both Transtevere and the Vatican, feeding the Fon- tween Rome and the sea. The miasmata which produce tana Paolina, and the splendid fountains before St. Peter's: the malaria, emanate from the volcanic soil of the Campagna passing the Ponte Sisto by conduits, it supplies the adjoining acted upon by the rays of a burning sun; they seem to be fountain and the neighbouring district of Strada Giulia. of a dense heavy nature, seldom rising very high above the Tournon observes that the supply of water thus carried into ground, unless wafted by the winds.

Walls appear to stop Rome is much greater than that carried by the Canal de their advance, fire dispels them, house foundations and l'Ourcq into Paris for the supply of a population six times pavements prevent their emanation. For an investigation of as large as that of Rome.

This curious subject see Brocchi, “Stato fisico del Suolo di The obelisks which adorn most of the squares of Rome Roma ;' Tournon, Etudes Statistiques sur Rome,' and an are another peculiar feature of this city. An account of article on Tournon's book, in the Foreign Quarterly Re. them is given under OBELISK.

view,' xxi., January, 1833, and the article CAMPAGNA DI The streets of Rome are generally narrow, like those of Roma in this work. most old cities, but many of them are straight and regular, It seems now proved that whenever the population has and the great number of open spaces, such as squares, decreased within Rome, from political and other causes, the places, gardens, large courts, &c., render the town gene- air has become less wholesome, and that the thinly inharally airy. The pavement of the streets is made of bited districts are, independently of their situation, unwholeselci, or small cubes of basaltic stone, not very agreeable to some in summer, when compared with the more populous pedestrians, especially as there are no footpaths except parts of the town. Thus the neighbourhood of the Corso along the Corso. The streets are lighted at night with oil and the lower town in general, and even the low filthy lamps. Rome possesses a great advantage over many con- quarter of the Jews, are salubrious, whilst the eastern part tinental towns, in being provided with a regular system of of the fine street of Porta Pia, the neighbourhood of Santa sewers, partly antient and partly modern. [CLOACÆ.] Maria Maggiore, and that of the Lateran are considered

The lower town is subject to occasional inundations from unhealthy in summer, although they are on comparatively the Tiber, which sometimes rises, in seasons of extraor- high ground. The parts of the Quirinal and the Pincian dinary rains, from 25 to 30 feet above its ordinary level, which are built upon are the most desirable situations in whilst a considerable part of the town is hardly 20 feet modern Rome for fresh air and health. On the other side above the level. In 1530 the river rose above 40 feet, and of the river, the thinly-built district of La Lungara and the the destruction which it caused is described by Baldi, in Vatican are considered unhealthy in summer, whilst the his poem 'La Nautica.'

densely peopled part of Transtevere is less complained of. The climate of the city of Rome has been of late years It has been stated by some writers, but not upon suffithe subject of much discussion. In the time of the republic cient grounds, that the malaria is encroaching upon the Rome was considered healthy when compared with the nhabited part of Rome, so as to threaten in course of time surrounding country. Parts of Latium were unhealthy in the depopulation of the whole city. Châteauvieux, who, we Cicero's time, and probably long before him; and the un- believe, was the first to start this theory, mistook the effect healthiness was greatly increased by the depopulation of for the cause. He visited Rome at two different periods”; the country, the consequence first of the wars between first in 1791, when the city contained 166,000 inhabitants, Rome and its immediate neighbours, and afterwards of the the streets were thronged with sumptuous equipages and civil wars in the last century of the republic. Tillage liveries, and the splendid palaces were open to the gaze of cultivation was abandoned, and the country became divided strangers-everything in short had an appearance of opuamong a few large proprietors, who turned fields into lence and splendour.' But a few years afterwards came the pasture-grounds. • Propter avaritiam ex segetibus fecit French invasion of 1798, with its wholesale spoilations, prata,' says Varro, speaking of one of these proprietors; forced contributions, and oppression of every sort, which no and Pliny observes that «Latifundia perdidere Italiam.' one has more honestly condemned and deplored than Count Now it is proved that tillage cultivation and a dense popu- Tournon, after which the Papal State was reduced w one lation check the increase and spread of the malaria. The half, and the poorer half, of its territory. After a few dense population of antient Rome and the elevated position years more of a precarious existence, the Papa! Government of the old city, with the plentiful supply of wholesome water, was again upset by Napoleon in 1809, and he cardinai the convenience of sewere, and other circumstances contri- prelates, the foreign ministers, and a nuinber of noblemen buted to maintain a tolerable state of salubrity within the and other persons were driven away from Rome; numerous walls,

families were deprived of their accustomed means of support,



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and the whole social system was violently overturned. The


Architect. population then dwindled apace, and in 1810 it was 123,000, 1440 S. Stefano Rotondo restored ofоwhich no less than 30,000 were on the poor-lists made out 1450 S. Francesco

L. B. Alberti. by the rectors of the respective parishes. (Tournon, vol. 1460 Palazzo di Venezia

Giul. di Majanc ii., p. 136.) It was under these circumstances that Châ Santa Maria del Popolo Baccio Pintelli. teauvieux visited Rome a second time in 1813. 'I entered

S. Pietro in Montorio the city by the same road as before (by the Corso), but in

S. Pietro Rotonda in do. Bramante. stead of equipages, I saw it filled with droves of cattle, goats, Hospital S. Spirito and half wild horses, driven along by a number of Tartar Cloister SS. Apostoli looking herdsmen armed with long spears and covered with 1468 S. Marco

Giul. di Majano. dark capotes. The population is now reduced to 100,000, and 1494 Cancelleria

Bramante. of this number one-tenth part are vine-dressers, herdsmen, or Cloister Santa Maria della gardeners. The city presents everywhere the appearance


Bramante. of ruin. As there are more houses than inhabitants (he 1500 S. Pietro in Vincoli restored means families), the houses are not repaired; when they 1505 Palazzo Sora

Bramante. get out of order, the occupiers remove to others. A 1506 St. Peter's begun

Bramante. multitude of convents have assumed the appearance of Palazzo Giraud

Bramante. ruins; a number of palaces, no longer inhabited, are left

Palazzo Chigi

Bald. Peruzzi. without even a porter to take care of them.' (Lettres écrites Palazzo Palma

Ant. Sangallo. d'Italie.) And yet, though he had the recent history of Santa Maria di Loreto Ant. Sangallo. the country before his eyes, Châteauvieux attributed this de Farnesina.

Bald. Peruzzi. population and decay to the advance of the malaria. The 1513 Palazzo Caffarelli

Raphael. fact is, that wherever the population gets thin and misera

Palazzo Linotti

Bald. Peruzzi. ble, the malaria will gain ground; it will take possession Villa Madama

Giul. Romano. of houses and gardens from which the warmth of the blazing Palazzo Strozzi . hearth, and the cheering breath of human life, and the 1526 Palazzo Massimi begun Bald. Peruzzi. cares of domestic industry have disappeared. (See on this Palazzo Cicciaporci

Giul. Romano. subject an article ‘On modern Books of Travels in Italy,' in

Palazzo Cenci

Giul. Romano. No. VIII. of the ‘Quarterly Journal of Education.') The Palazzo Lanti

Giul. Romano. population of Rome has rapidly increased since the peace Madonna dell' Orto

Giul. Romano. of 1814; by the census of Easter, 1838, it amounted to

Palazzo Serlupi

Giac. della Porta. 148,903 inhabitants, exclusive of 4500 Jews. (Serristori,

Palazzo Niccolini

Ditto. Statistica d'Italia.) An account of its distribution, social S. Spirito, façarle

Mascherino. occupations, habits, and other moral features comes under

Palazzo Farnese,

Ant. Sangallo. another head of this article.

M. A. Buonarroti The temperature of Rome is generally mild and genial;


1550 Villa Giulia begun frosts occur in January; but the thermometer seldom de

Vignola. scends lower than 26° of Fahrenheit, and the midday sun 1556 Palazzo Ruspoli.

Ammanati. generally produces a thaw. The tramontana, or north wind, Il Campidoglio

M. A. Buonarroti sometimes however blows cold and piercing for days together. 1560 Palazzo Lancellotti

Pirro Ligorio. Snow falls at times, but it seldom remains on the ground for Palazzo Nari

Vignola. more than a day. Orange-trees thrive in the open air, but 1564 Palazzo Spada

Mazzoni. lemon-trees require covering during the winter months. Palazzo Negroni

Ammanati. Rains are frequent and heavy in November and December, Palazzo Mattei

Ammanati. but fogs are rare. In the summer months the heat is at Santa Caterina de' Funari . Giac. della Porta times oppressive, especially when the scirocco, or south wind, Collegio Romano

B. Ammanati. blows. The hour which'follows sunset is considered the 1576 Collegio della Sapienza Giac. della Porta most unwholesome in summer, and people avoid exposure Villa Pia

P. Ligorio. to the open air.

1580 Villa Negroni

Dom. Fontana. The sky of Rome has been admired by most travellers for Capella Sestina, in Santa its soft transparent light, its ultramarine blue tinge, and the

Maria Maggiore

Dom. Fontana. splendid colours of the sunset, which Claude has so well ren Palazzo Altemps

M. Lunghi. dered. The general scenery of the country, the purple hue Palazzo Giustiniani

Giov. Fontana. of the mountains, and the long waving lines of the plain of 1586 Obelisk in front of St. Peter's the Campagna, are noticed under ALBA LONGA. Within the

erected by

Do Fontana walls of Rome there are many fine points of view. From 1595 S. Andrea della Valle. Olivieri, the tower of the Senatorial Palace on the Capitol, there 1595 San Michele in Sassia. is a good panorama of Rome, embracing both the old and 1602 SS. Apostoli rebuilt

Rainaldi. new towns; from the terrace of La Trinità de' Monti is a 1603 Collegio Mattei . fine western view of modern Rome; there is another view Palazzo Rospigliosi from the Janiculus, in an opposite or eastern direction; and Villa Borghese

Bernini. lastly, from the gallery above St. Peter's dome is a splendid Palazzo Sciarra .

Ponzio. and extensive panorama, embracing the whole town, the 1608 Capella Borghese (Sta. Maria Campagna, the distant mountains, and the long line of the


Ponzio. blue sea.

1612 Aqua Paolina For the better understanding of the topography of Rome, 1614 St. Peter's façade completed. C. Maderno. the large map of Nolli, the atlas which accompanies Bunsen's Palazzo Verospi.

Onorio Lunghi. • Beschreibung der Stadt Rom,' or the small map by the Palazzo Propag. Fide. Dom. Fontana. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, may be con 1618 Palazzo Altieri

Rossi. sulted. The map in Brocchi's work above mentioned gives Villa Ludovisi

Bernini. a good idea of the surface of the ground.

San Carlo.

Onor. Lunghi.

Collegio Nazareno

S. Andrea del Noviziato Bernini.

S. Francesco di Paola . [The dates are to be considered only as approximations to the time when the respective structures were either com

Maderno. menced or in progress.]

1640 Ralazzo Barberini


Borromini. 1375 Santa Maria sopra la Minerva,

Palazzo Mattei

Borromini. the only Gothic church in

1642 Palazzo Madama (di Governo) Maroscelii. Rome

Palazzo Pamfili .

G Rainalar 1400 Santa Maria dell' Anima

Santa Agnese

G. Rainaidi.
Castel S. Angelo, restored

Curia Innocenziana

Cario Fontana 1432 Church of Spirito Santo



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1650 Santa Maria, Via Lata P. da Cortona.

were extensive, appear to have stood on the boundary of the Palazzo Doria

Quirinal, on the ground now occupied by the palaces of the 1667 Colonnades of Piazza San

Consulta and Rospigliosi. Buffalini, in his map (1551), Pietro finished


places them near the church of S. Silvestro, on the Monte 1668 Palazzo Altieri


Cavallo. Some slight traces of these baths still exist in the Palazzo Odelscalchi


Villa Aldobrandini. They were erected probably about A.D. 1725 S. Giov. de' Fiorentini A. Galilei.

326, and were repaired in the middle of the fifth century by 1729 Capella Corsini .

A. Galilei.

Petronius Perpenna and Magnus Quadratianus. In 1519 Palazzo Corsini .


some of the ruins were still in existence, but they disap1730 Pal. Consulta (now barracks) Fuga.

peared about 1527. Teatro Argentina

Marq. Teodoli. Palladio restored the plan, and in the reign of Clernent 1734 Lateran Church, façade A. Galilei.

XII. an excavation was made on their site, when a magFontana Trevi

N. Salvi.

nificent portico, with an ornamented ceiling, and walls Palazzo Corsini restored Fuga.

painted with historical subjects, were discovered. 1741 Santa Maria Maggiore, façade Fuga.

Baths of Diocletian, situated on the Viminal, and 1743 Hospital S. Spirito enlarged. Fuga.

erected by Diocletian about A.D. 302. They were of vast Villa Albani

dimensions. The extensive and capacious ruins were adapted Palazzo Petronj.


to the purposes of a monastery, and M. Angelo transformerl 1740 Convent S. Agostino


the antient tepidarium, the caldarium, and a part of the 1775 New Sacristy St. Peter's be

frigidarium into a church with its dependencies. The gun

Carlo Marchionni.

church is called Santa Maria degli Angeli. The rest of Palazzo Braschi .

the ruins consist of large brick masses with arches of 1780 Museo Pio Clementino M. A. Simonetti. enormous span; some of these masses still support parts of 1801 Excavations of the Forum

the vaulted ceiling. On a part of the site of the baths M. commenced

Angelo constructed a spacious and elegant cloister. 1805 Arch of Constantine exca

Baths of Agrippa, were enclosed within the space cirvated

cumscribed by the square of the Rotunda or Pantheon, the 1812 Temple of Venus and Roma

street of the theatre called Valle, the street of the Stimexcavated

mate, and that of Gesu. They occupied a space about 500 1813 The Pillar of Phocas dis

feet from east to west, and 700 from north to south. Accovered.

cording to Dion Cassius, they were constructed A.U.C. 729. 1823 Basilica San Paolo fuor delle

The temple called the Pantheon has been sometimes con Mura burnt, restored by . Belli.

sidered a part of these baths. 1825 New Buildings of the Piazza

Baths of Nero, situated on the ground which stretches del Popolo

Gius. Valadier.' from east to west between the square of the Pantheon and 1826 S. Andrea delle Fratte, façade


called Madama, and from north to south Palazzo Ceccopiero

Luigi Poletti. between the church of S. Eustachio and the street of 1838 Post-office, Piazza Colonna

the Coppelle. Eusebius fixes the date of their construcMuseo Gregoriano, Vatican,

tion, A.D. 65. They appear therefore to have been comopened.

menced in the year of the great fire of Rome in the reign

of Nero, and during the consulate of Quintus or Caius TAB PRINCIPAL ANTIENT ROMAN BuildingS OF WHICH Lecanius Bassus and Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi. One THERE ARE REMAINS.

hemicycle alone of these baths exists in the inn of the Piazza


Baths of Alexander. An anonymous author quoted by Baths of Titus, hastily constructed near the Flavian Mabillon states that these baths stood between the Piazza Amphitheatre, about A.D. 80, on the site of the gardens of Navona, the church of S. Eustachio, and the Pantheon. They the golden house of Nero. The ruins stand now in a vine were therefore contiguous to the baths of Agrippa. The haths Yard called in Nolli's map Sinibaldi, on a spot circum- of Alexander were built, according to Eusebius, in the year scribed by the modern street of the Polveriera and the street 229, and, according to Cassiodorus, in 227. They appear of the Colosseum; they occupied a space of about 400 feet to have been an extension of the baths of Nero, as those of by 600. The baths of Titus were however absorbed in Nero probably were an extension of those of Agrippa. those of Trajan.

Baths of Caracalla. Commenced about A.D. 212, and Baths of Trajan, partly on the same site, and adjoining continued by Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. They are those of Titus, were commenced by Domitian and finished situated on a prolongation of the Aventine, not far from the by Trajan; they were more extensive than those of Titus, gate of S. Sebastian. They are perhaps the most extenand extended iowards the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, sive ruins in Rome; but being stripped of their marbles, wbich they almost touched. They appear, from an inscrip- columns, stuccoes, and paintings, they consist only of vast tion, to have been embellished by Julius Felix Campanianus, and lofty walls, corbels, and niches of brick and tile, and for præfect of Rome. These are the baths of which Vasari the ordinary spectator possess in this dilapidated state little mentions the circumstance, in the Life of Giovanni da interest. [BATHS.) At the extremity of the great platform Udine, of excavations being made near S. Pietro, and the the constructions are still tolerably perfect, as well as part of discovery of the pictures and stuccoes, which so much the castellum in a neighbouring vineyard. The ruins stand pleased both Giovanni and Raphael that they imitated them in three separate vineyards. in the arabesques of the Vatican. Palladio made a plan of these baths. The plan of the baths of Trajan resembles

Temples. very much those of Diocletian: it occupies an area of about 1100 feet by 800.

Temple of Romulus. Erected by Maxentius to the meOne of the great hemicycles near the northern angle still mory of his son Romulus. These ruins, which are vulgarly remains. On the shorter sides, near the eastern and called the stables of the Circus of Caracalla, are situated in wuthern angles, are the remains of two hemicycles with a large quadrilateral enclosure forming part of the villa of niches for statues. The long side opposite the Colosseum Maxentius on the Appian way, and about one mile from contains in the centre the remains of a great semicircular the gate of S. Sebastian. From two medals of Romulus theatre.

we see this building as it appeared at two separate periods: There are few, and those few are unintelligible, remairs one medal represents the building with a dome, and withof the internal part of the building. Part of the out a portico; the other with the addition of a portico. It golden house of Nero remains' under the baths of Trajan. may have served both for a temple and a tomb. The lower In the passages and chambers of this house there are sti! part or basement is purely sepulchral, with niches for the some elegant arabesque decorations, the colours of which ir sepulchral urns. The ceiling is vaulted, and supported by a many parts are still very vivid.

nuge central pier. Baths of Constantine, were, according to Victor, in the Temple of Bacchus. At what time first constructed is fourth region, or in that of the Quirinal. The remains, which uncertain. The tetrastyle portico of fe ir Corinthian while


marble columns is an addition, taken from some other Temple of Jupiter Tonans, according to Nibby; Bunsen edifice, probably about the time of the Antonines. These calls it the Temple of Saturn. It is situated on the Clivus columns have been walled up, and form part of the modern Capitolinus. li was built by Augustus, and is supposed to church to which the cella has been adapted. In the reign have been restored by Sept. Severus and Caracalla. On a of Urban VIII. a circular altar with a Greek inscription fragment of an inscription on the entablature over the three was found in the subterranean part of this edifice, to the columns of the angle, is read ... ESTITVER. The portico left on entering. The internal part of the cell is adorned was hexastyle, of the Corinthian order, and of white Luna with a stucco frieze representing military trophies; the marble. The columns are deeply iluted. In order to gain vaulting is adorned with sunk octagonal pannels; slight space, the steps are constructed between the columns in the traces of a bas-relief remain in the centre of the ceiling. basement which supports them. The basement was lined These ornaments are in a good style.

with marble, and divided at intervals by small pilasters. Temple, called that of the Divus Rediculus. Built in com. Upon the frieze are carved instruments of sacrifice, and the memoration of Hannibal's retreat froin Rome, and situated decorations which remain indicate that the building was in the same valley as the Nymphæum of Egeria, about a highly ornamented. ' Between this temple and that called mile from Rome, and close to the little brook called Al- the Temple of Concord, are the ruins of a small ædicula, in

At what time it was constructed is unknown, and which was discovered a votive altar sacred to Faustina the the name of the temple of Redicolo is probably founded in Younger. To the left of this temple are some chambers, in error, as the temple of this name stood two miles from front of which was a portico of cipollino marble columns, Rome on the Via Appia, and to the left on leaving the city. of the Corinthian order; the capitals are however adorned

It is a most beautiful construction of brick, elegantly with victories and trophies. From an inscription on the designed, and executed with great skill

. The walls of the entablature of the portico, these chambers appear to have ! cella externally are of yellow brick, the basement and pilas- contained the statues of the Dii Consentes, replaced by 1 ters of red, and the moulded parts are carved, and the cor- Vettius Agorius, præfect of Rome, A.D. 368. Nibby consi nice is enriched with modillions. On the southern side the ders this building to have been originally constructed by pilasters are changed for octagonal columns set in a sort of Hadrian. It was burnt in the reign of Commodus, and reniche. It appears that on this side there was a road, which stored by Septimius Severus. Bunsen calls it Porticus was the cause of a greater richness and of variation in the Clivi et Schola Xantha. (See the Plan of the Forum, by design. The portico had originally four peperino columns, Bunsen.) of which however only part of one on the ground near the Temple of Concord. The site only of this temple remains temple remains. The interior was adorned with stuccoed near the temple of Jupiter Tonans. Of this famous buildornaments.

ing there remain only the ruins of the cella, which was oriTemple of Vesta. One of the temples to Vesta, situated ginally covered with giallo antico and pavonazzetto. The in the Forum Boarium near the banks of the Tiber. Nibby pavement was formed of slabs of the same material, and thinks that it was constructed in the time of the Antonines. numerous fragments discovered in the late excavations It is of a pure Greek style, and may have been rebuilt by prove that it was profusely enriched with ornamental carvVespasian, who probably commemorated it by striking a ings and statues, and that it was also destroyed by fire. coin, on the reverse of which this temple is represented. Owing to the narrow site on which it was placed, the cella Twenty Corinthian columns, of which nineteen remain, sur was wider than the portico. rounded the circular cella, which was formed of masonry in Tempie of Antoninus Pius is in the Forum of Antoninus, the Greek taste. These columns are of Parian marble, and now the Piazza della Pietra, and at a short distance from Hluted; they are raised on a series of steps, most of winch the Column of M. Aurelius Antoninus. Eleven large have been destroyed or removed. The antient entablaiure Corinthian columns, which are much injured, remain on the and roof are wanting, and the latter is supplied by an ugly north side, and support a white marble architrave; the rest tile covering

of the entablature, being much ruined, was restored with Temple of Ceres and Proserpine. -Rebuilt by Tiberius, stucco. The columns have been walled together, and form and now forming part of the church of Santa Maria in Cos- the front of the present Custom-house, in the court of which medin, called also the Bocca della Veritá, is situated almost there are several fragments of vaulting adorned with sunk opposite the circular temple of Vesta. A part of the cell pannels. A representation of the portico with a pediment, constructed with large masses of travertine, and eight co- belonging probably to this temple, appears on a large bronze lumns of the peristyle, remain partly walled up in the church. coin, from which it appears to have been decastyle. An The fluted white marble columns are in a good style, and of octastyle portico with a pediment appears on silver and brass the Composite order.

coins of the same emperor, and most probably represents Temple of Fortuna Virilis.-Originally built by Servius another temple belonging to the Antonine Forum. Tullius on the banks of the Tiber. It was burnt and re Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. Erected by the senate built in the time of the republic. It is of an oblong figure, to the emperor and his wife in the Forum Romanum. The constructed of travertine stone and tufa, and stuccoed with a two sides of the cella of Peperino, once clothed with marble, fine and hard marble stucco. The hexastyle portico of the remain, as well as the magnificent marble entablature over Ionic order has been walled up between the columns, and them. The hexastyle portico, with the return columns of the an engaged intercolumniation is continued on the walls of Corinthian order, each of one single piece of Carystian or the cella. The temple is placed on a high moulded base- cipollino marble, still supports a considerable part of the ment, and was ascended by a tlight of steps. The columns entablature. In the frieze are griffins, candelabra, and support an entablature, the cornice is bold, and the frieze is other ornaments, in a fine style of art. The ascent to this decorated with festoons supported by infantine figures, and temple was antiently by a tight of twenty-one steps; and intermixed with skulls of oxen and candelabra. These are on the entablature of the portico is cut the dedicatory inhowever ill preserved. The style of the architecture is scription to Antoninus and Faustina. The columns, which heavy; still the basement is a grand feature.

were once partly buried, have been cleared of the surroundTemple of Fortune, according to Nibby, but, in the opi- ing earth. On the ruins of the cella has been erected the nion of Bunsen, the temple of the Vespasiani, is situated in church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. A representation of the Forum Romanum, on the Clivus Capitolinus. On the this temple, with its steps, statues, and pediment, is given entablature is the following inscription :

in a coin, published in Bunsen's • Forum Romanum.' SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS

Temple of Romulus and Remus, called by Bunsen, '#des INCENDIO CONSVMPTVM RESTITVIT.

Penatium.' A circular temple in the Forum Romanum, near The edifice now consists of a rude Ionic hexastyle portico the temple of Antoninus and Faustina, erected, according of granite columns, two of which are returned on the flank, to Nibby, at a period when art was in its decline. It is and so badly restored from the ruins of the former temple, however probable that the circular building belongs to an that in one instance part of the shaft from the base is placed earlier period than he would assign to it. In the year 527, under a capital. The bases, capitals, and the entablature this building was used as a vestibule to the church of SS are of white marble. The internal part of the frieze is Cosmo and Damiano, erected by Felix IV. Urban VIII. ornamented, but this appears to have been some of the old applied the present Etruscan bronze door, found at Pe. masonry used in the rebuilding. The portico and temple rugia, and placed the two antique porphyry columns, with were placed on a high basement of travertine, which was their entablatures, in their present situations. This piece covered with a veneer of marble, and in front there was a of architecture stood originally a little to the left of the llight of steps

present entrance. Bunsen akes no notice in nis plan of

in his new walls, and

two cipollino columns, half buried, and standing near the of the Mamertine prison, the arch of Septimius Severus, Ædes Penatium ; one is without a capital, and the other and the Basilica Pauli. has a capital and part of an entablature showing a return, A temple for a long time called the Temple of Jupiler as if they were decorative columns of an enclosure, like Stator, afterwards the Græcostasis, and lately by Bunsen, that of the temple of Minerva in the Forum of Nerva. first the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and afterwards the

Temple of Peace, called also the Basilica of Constantine, Temple of Minerva Chalcidica. It is situated in the Forum was built by Maxentius, on the antient site of the Horrea Romanum, next to the site of a temple of Castor and Pollux. Piperatoria, and after his death dedicated by Constantine. The ruin consists of three marble Corinthian, fluted columns This edifice, which consisted of three naves, has the northern-on an isolated basement of travertine; the columns support most still in good preservation, and divided into three great a part of the highly enriched entablature, which is in tolerarches, embracing the whole length of the nave. The centre able preservation. The proportions and execution of this arch, at a later period, was altered into the form of a fragment are the very finest, and, since the restoration or tribune. The vaultings of all three are decorated with true architecture, it has served as the great model of the enormous sunk pannels and stuccoed ornaments, and the Corinthian order. walls with niches. The southernmost nave was similar, but

Pantheon. [PANTHEON.] without a tribune. All except the indications of the piers

Gates. have disappeared, as well as the great centre nave, at the extremity of which was the principal tribune, of which Porta Asinaria stands near the Porta S. Giovanni, which there are only a few fragments of ihe vaulted ceiling on was built in its place by Gregory XIII., and to the left of the ground. High up in the piers there are still some it on going out of the city. The antient gate is closed, and fragments of the great marble cornice, which was sup- forms, with the walls, a picturesque brick ruin. ported by eight marble columns, one of which, still stand Porta Nomentana led formerly to Nomentum, now Laing in the time of Paul V., was removed to the piazza mentana; it stands near the more modern gate called Poria of Santa Maria Maggiore. It is of white marble, of the Pia. It was built by Honorius. cumferance and forty-eight high. Winding brick staircases substituted for the Porta Collina of Servius, called Salaria led up to the roof; one is still almost entire. The building from the road to which it leads. Through this gate Alaric was 300 feet long and 220 feet wide. The principal façade entered Rome, A.D. 409. faced the Colosseum, and part of an external arcade remains Porta Capena stands at an angle of the Cælian hill, bein this direction. The pavement was of giallo antico, pa- low the Villa Mattei, within the antient walls of Servius vonazzetto, and cipollino. At a later period this building Tullius, and at a short distance from the Porta Latina. The was converted into a Christian church, at which, time an walls of Honorius make a bend inwards towards this gate. entrance was formed towards the Palatine, on the Via Porta Latina, now closed, stands between the Porta Sacra.

Capena and the gate of San Sebastian. The present gate Temple of Venus and Rome. Designed and built by the was constructed by Honorius, A.D. 402, and repaired under emperor Hadrian, who personally directed the construction. Justinian, A.D. 550. It suffered from fire, and was restored by Maxentius. Of Porta Appia, or S. Sebastiano, situated on the Appian this vast building the substructions of the surrounding way, and built by Honorius in his extension of the Roman colonnade and the great niches at the division of the cella, walls. This gate supplied the place of the antient Porta with some fragments of granite columns, are all that re. Capena, which was then closed. The fine semicircular brick main. (ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.]

towers were constructed either by Belisarius or Narses. Temple of Venus and Cupid, so called, stands in what is Porta Portese, on the banks of the Tiber, in Transtevere, supposed to be the antient Horti Variani, and close to the built by Urban VIII., and substituted for the antient church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. All that remains P. Portuensis. of this large edifice consists of an immense niche and two Porta Pinciana, situated on the Pincian, and now closed; lateral walls of brick, belonging perhaps either to a great originally built by Honorius, and rebuilt by Belisarius. hall or basilica. Near these ruins is a fragment of the Porta Piu, substituted by Pius IV., for that built by Claudian aqueduct.

Honorius, and called Nomentana, from leading to the Via Temple called Minerva Medica. A circular domed temple Nomentana. of brick, erected probably about the time of Diocletian. It is Porta S. Lorenzo, built by Honorius, A.D. 402, called thought by Nibby to have been a large hall, erected in the also Tiburtina from its leading to Tivoli; it also opened out Licinian gardens, which he places here. The circumference on the Via Collatina. This gate is attached to the monument has nine niches for statues, seven of which have been found at the junction of the three aqueducts, the Aqua Marcia, among the ruins at different times. It appears to have been Tepula, and Julia, which bears an inscription alluding to lined with marble and painted with stucco, though only a the repairs made by Caracalla. The aqueduct called Marcia part of its bare walls and dome, with the buttresses to se- is commemorated by a coin of the Marcii, which possibly cure it against a lateral thrust, now remain. In 1828, a may represent the original monument. large portion of the dome, which had been propped up with Porta Maggiore, situated at a spot called the ‘Spes a wooden scaffolding, fell down.

Vetus.' Here are the antient gates of the Via Labicana Temple of Nerva, situated in the forum of Nerva, was and Via Prænestina, formed by the monument of the consecrated by Trajan to the memory of Nerva; it was one Claudian aqueduct. The Porta Labicana was disfigured by of the most sumptuous edifices in Rome. Only three columns Honorius, but his barbarous construction has been lately and a pilaster, partly buried in the ground, on the south removed, on which occasion the tomb of Eurysaces was disside, now remain. The ornaments were in the finest style, covered in Biviis formed by the Labican and Praenestine and the proportions of the order form a correct model roads; and at the same time there were uncovered, towards for the moderns. (See Bunsen's plan for the general the open country, the magnificent Praenestine and Labican design.)

gateways, as they stood before the additions of Honorius Temple of the Sun, on the terrace of the Colonna disfigured them. The magnificence of these gateways was gardens on the Quirinal hill. This temple, said to have owing, in a great measure perhaps, to the circumstance of been erected by Elagabalus, was of gigantic diinensions, of the Claudian aqueduct passing over them. The three great noble masses of masonry, and highly enriched, if we may inscriptions on the attic above the gateways show, first, judge from the two great masses that are left-a part of an that Tiberius Claudius, the emperor, broughi to Rome, the architrave and frieze, and the angle of the pediment. The Claudian waters composed of the Cærulean and Curtian temple was probably Corinthian, and the style, though not streams, and also the Aniene Nova. The second indicates decidedly bad, shows plainly that art was on the decline. the restoration by Vespasian; and the third, that by Titus. Many fragments of sculpture dug up in the gardens have This magnificent façade consists of two great archways, and been fixed in walls at the back of these two masses. The three piers, each decorated with two rusticated columns of site was eminently calculated for a colossal temple, as the the Corinthian order, placed on a rustic basement, and supentire height of the building would have been visible from porting an entablature and pediment. Above these is the most parts of Rome.

lofty attic in which are the two water-channels. This attic Temple of Janus no longer exists, but the site is placed, is surmourited with a cornice. Severe in character, this with every appearance of probability, by Bunsen, at the structure is one of the best preserved, and one of the most junction of the four great forums, in the immediate vicinity imposing architectural masses in Rome. From this gate


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