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above the sea, called Sa giara a Serri, from the neigh- / autumn. In the summer the country is subject to long bouring village of Serri. Î'his plain is covered with oak, droughts, but the heavy dews of the night partly compenilex, and cork trees, while its northern declivity contains rich sate for the want of rain. Earthquakes are very rare and pasture. North-west of this plain is the 'Giara,' or lava slight. The plains and some of the lower valleys of Sar. bed of Gestori, of similar formation, which has proceeded dinia have been notoriously unhealthy ever since the time from a crater near the town of Ales: it is strewed with of the Romans. Cicero, Strabo, Martial, and in later times masses of obsidian and trachytic and cellular lava, so as to Dante, all speak in strong terms of the insalubrity of Sarresemble a city in ruins. At Monastir, in the plain north dinia. The malaria of Sardinia is called by the natives inof Cagliari, there is a distinct double crater now well temperie,' and it appears to be somewhat different from the wooded, and a new bridge has been of late years constructed malaria of Italy; it does not always produce swelled bodies there of fine red trap, which, with the bold outline of the and sallow skins, but it acts more rapidly than the Italian neighbourhood, renders the entrance to the village by the malaria, especially upon strangers, and instances are related new road very picturesque. (Captain Smyth's Sketch of of persons carried off by it in a day or two. The intemperie the present State of Sardinia, 1828.)

fever is caught during day as well as night, awake or asleep, The principal rivers of Sardinia are-1, the Tirsi, tlie whilst the malaria is considered most fatal at night and Thyrsus of Ptolemy, which drains the central part of the during sleep. Exposure to the midday heat and to the island: it rises near Buduso on the west side of the Gal. dew of the evening are equally fatal. The natives avoid as lura mountains, flows first south and then south-west, along much as possible going out of doors until an hour after sunthe base of the Goceano ridge, passes through the fine rise, and they hasten home before sunset, carefully closing valley of Ottana, receiving several tributary streams from every door and window, and if they are obliged to go oui, the mountains of Genargentu, and then tlowing by For- they hold a handkerchief before their mouth. It is genedongianus, enters the plain of Oristano, passing north of rally agreed that fire is an excellent preservative against the that town, and then turning abruptly to the south enters intemperie, and the former lords of Oristano used to burn the sea after a tortuous course of between 70 and 80 miles. large fires round the town every night. Most people In very dry summers it is fordable near its mouth, but in remove from the plains to the higher grounds on St. John's winter it contains a vast mass of water, and inundates con- də, the 24th of June, when the air begins to be unhealthy siderable tracts. 2. The Coguinas, in the northern part of though it does not become dangerous till August, from the island, rises in the volcanic region of Bonorva, tlows which time it continues so to the end of November, when northwards through the plains of Giavesu and Ozieri, heavy rains precipitate the miasma and purify the air. The receives several streams from the highlands of Goceano and intemperie of Sardinia lasts therefore for a month or two of Gallura, passes between Mount Sassu and the Limbara later than the malaria in the Maremme of Italy. Those people ridge, when it assumes the name of Rio di Partidas, and who are obliged by circumstances to remain, keep themllowing through a romantic ravine below the cliffs of Castel selves well clad in thick woollens to protect themselves Doria, enters a fine plain adjoining the sea: it forms a against the burning sun. Exertion, exposure to summer small lake near its month, a few miles east of Castel Sardo. showers, and fatigue of all kinds are studiously avoided. The course of the Coguinas is between 50 and 60 miles, and and a spare but good diet is adopted, with cool acidulated it is fordable near its mouth, except in rainy seasons. 3. drinks.' In spite of these precautions however many perThe Flumendoso, the Sæprus of Ptolemy, the prircipal sons die of the intemperie every year. The patient is first stream of the eastern part of the island, rises in the moun- attacked by headache and a painful tension of the epigastrie tains of Corno di Bue and runs southwards along a high region, with alternate fits of heat and chilliness ; fever valley between the ridge of Genargentu on the west and ensues, the accesses of which are extremely severe, and are the Ogliastra mountains to the east, passing through many followed by great debility, which is injurious even to those solitary glens: it then turns eastward between the mountains who are accustomed to it, and generally fatal to strangers. of Sarrabus on one side and the hills of Parte Olla, which Exhalations from the marshes and the beds of rivers which divide it from the Campidano or plain of Cagliari, and after- are nearly dry in summer, and putrescent vegetation, are wards winding through the 'fertile grounds of Villa active causes of the intemperie, though in Italy they appear Puzzlı, San Vito, and Muravera enters the sea between not to be the only causes. "(Rome, p. 91.) By draining the two low rocky points on which stand the towers of marshes, embanking the rivers, and cultivating the macXalinas and Corallo, after a course of between 50 and 60 chie,' or desert tracts which cover about one-third of the miles. As it runs between two mountain-ridges, the basin surface of the island, the intemperie might be diminished. of the Flumendoso is very narrow; in the winter it is Many Sards are of opinion that the green figs of infected swelled with the drainage of the surrounding mountain- districts are particularly deleterious. Corn grown on suel region, and it then assumes a very imposing appearance. grounds, on the contrary, is esteemed the finest. Hedges of 4. The Mannu rises in the fountain of the Fig in the the · Ficu Moriscu,' or Cactus Opuntia, are supposed to intable-land of Sarcidanu on the south slope of the Genar crease the intemperie, by abstracting the evaporation from gintu ridge, and flowing southwards through the plain of the earth, without absorbing moisture like other trees. iko Campidano is joined by the Calarita from the moun- Wherever the oleander flourishes, intemperie of the worst tains of Gergei on the east and the Sixerris which comes kind may be expected. near Iglesias from the west: the united stream enters the The migrations caused by the intemperie, the scarcity of lake of Cagliari, which lies west of that city and is six or cottages, pastures, and enclosures, and the numerous tracis seven miles long by three or four broad, and communicates of uncultivated land, give to the plains of Sardinia an aspect with the sea by seven cuts through a narrow strip of sand. of depopulation, especially in summer. The inhabitanis of This lake is navigated by tiat-botiomed boats, and contains the plains are viewed by those of the highlands with marked abundance of eels, mullets, and other fishes; it is also fre- contempt as weak and degenerate. quented by tiamingos and pelicans, which migrate thither The lands of Sardinia are divided into feudal and nonin the winter, probably from the lakes of Bizerta and Tunis feudal. Sardinia is now the only country in Western on the opposite coast of Barbary. Besides these four rivers Europe in which the feudal system remains. The feudal there are many smaller streams, such as the Turritano, lands either belong to the respective nobles, sereral of which tlows through the plain of Sassari, and is crossed whom are of Spanish families and non-resident, who ennear its mouth by a substantial Roman bridge in excellent trust their domains to indolent' podatarii,' or stewards, or preservation; the Termo, or river of Bosa, on the western have been sold to private individuals, who still recognise coast; the Cedrino, or river of Orosei, which is navigable by the feudal lord by paying him a trifling fee, and are under boats for about a mile and a quarter inland on the eastern some restrictions, such as not planting vineyards or trees coast; it is an abundant and impetuous stream from its source without his consent. The lands not feudal belong either to which is on the eastern slope of the Barbargia mountains. communities or individuals, and can be let or sold, or given

The climate of Sardinia varies greatly according to the away at the will of the owners. A small part of these lands seasons and localities. Along the coast the thermometer are enclosed and well cultivated, and are called . Tanche; ranges, in the course of the year, from 34° to 90°; but it but the larger proportion consist of Vidazzoni,' that is falls at times considerably lower in the highlands. The lands belonging to communities; they are mostly divided summits of Genargentu are often capped with snow in the into three parts, each of which is cultivated in its turn, and course of the winter. The north-west wind is the healthiest, while under culture is enclosed with a line of hurdles, and and the east or south-east the most noxious. Hail and the rest, being fallow, is open to the wandering flocks, and thunder-storms are rare, but rain falls copiously in the ' is deemed common. The government has of late years

issued decrees in favour of enclosures, and trees and hedges to be followed, but it seems to have produced little effect, at nave been planted in many places. The leases are short, least as late as the years 1823-4, when Captain Smyth took often for two years only, and the rent is generally paid in his survey of the coasts of the island. kind. In some parts farms are let on the metayer system, Among fruit-trees, the fig, the vine, the apple, apricot, as in many parts of France and Italy. One-third of the peach, almond, and prickly pear are the most common surface of the island consists of macchie, or waste, consisting Walnuts and chestnuts are only met with in some places. of sandy or stony districts, and lakes and marshes ; another Oranges, lemons, and citrons are cultivated chiefly in the third is occupied by forests or natural pastures; and the southern districts of Iglesia and Villa Cidro, and near Sasremainder, which is estimated at five millions and a half of sari, but are not held in great esteem. Date-trees growon starelli (a measure about four-fifths of an acre), consists of the Campidano, and some of the produce is gathered and corn-fields, vineyards, olive-grounds, orchards, and gardens. sold, but it is not of a good quality. About one million of these starelli are allotted for the growth Vegetables are fine and plentiful; peas and cabbage of corn, and if diligently cultivated they would produce grow wild in the greatest luxuriance, and the asparagus of enough to support three times the actual number of inha- ihe hedges is abundant in the markets in March and April. bitants. Wheat, under the present system of agriculture, Celery and tomatas are large and well flavoured. The gives a return of only seven or eight for one, but in some 'torzo,' a kind of turnip-rabbage, grows to a gigantic size, favoured districts the average is from fifteen 10 twenty. weighing without the leaves eight or ten pounds. Saffron The Sardinian plough resembles the aratrum of the Romans; | is cultivated, and is much used in cookery. it is light, and penetrates only two or three inches into the The vine is extensively cultivated, both soil and climate ground, and has no coulter. "Most of the garden-grounds being highly favourable to it; and though the process of are worked with the hoe, the spade and mattock being gene- making wine is still very imperfect, Sardinia produces some rally unknown. The corn is left in the fields until it is excellent wines. •The malvasia,' or malmsey-wine of threshed, which is performed by the treading of mares or Quarto, Cagliari, Bosa, and Sorso, the muscat wine of Alcolts on an area prepared by paring off the sward and beat- ghero, the red wine of Alghero and Oristano, and the ing the soil with a mallet to the requisite hardness. Wind- cananau, natue, and quarnacia of the Campidano are much mills are unknown, and water-mills are only found in some esteemed. The natives in general make considerable use of places in the Capo di Sopra, or northern part of the island. wine. More common white wines are made near Sassari Winnowing is managed by tossing up the corn into the air, and Terralba, and also in the Campidano. About 2000 for the wind to blow off the chaff. Corn is generally ground Catalan pipes of a hundred quartieri (the quartieri being in a corner of the house by means of the 'mola asinaria,' or about eleven pints English) are annually exported from domestic mill, turned by an ass. There is no regular system Alghero, about 1700 pipes from Ogliastra on the eastern of manuring the ground; it is done however sometimes coast, and 500 or 600 from Cagliari. when urgently required. Paring and burning are the com There are several extensive olive-grounds, but the oil has mon processes. The only artificial fodder for cattle is the not yet been largely exported, although this branch of com.mischiale,' a mixture of barley, lucerne, basil, and vetches, merce is on the increase. The best olives are those of Saswell known to the antients.

sari. Inferior oil is produced from the Ogliastra, or wild Cattle, sheep, goats, and swine are divided into two olive, which, with that made from the Lentiscus, serves the classes; the ‘manso,' or tame, being those which work or peasants for burning. yield milk, wool, &c., are carefully tended and kept in the Corn is the principal article of export, but the governbest pastures; and the 'rude,' which are for slaughter or ment does not allow the exportation unless the average for breeding, and which are allowed to ramble over bills price of wheat in the principal markets is under thirty and wastes almost in a wild state. Each flock or herd bears reals (118. 3d.) the starello, each starello being about a a particular mark on the ear. All the labour of the field is done bushel and a quarter Winchester measure. A heavy duty by oxen. The breed of horses reared in the tanche, or enclosed is also imposed on the exportation. The importation of grounds, is carefully attended to: horse-races are frequent. foreign wheat is prohibited, if the average price is not above For the improvement of the breed there is a governmeni esta- ten reals the starello. The greater part of the wheat raised blishment in the plain of Ghilarza, called • Regia Tanca,'| in Sardinia is of a superior though soft kind called trigue; where Arabian and Spanish stallions are kept, and also Swiss it will keep good only eighteen or twenty months; it is bulls and rams. Sardinian horses are in general free from vice, sowed in November and Decernber, and reaped in June. patient of fatigue, and require but moderate fuod, and the In seasons of abundant harvest about 400,000 starelli are Sards are generally very good horsemen. The very small exported. The barley is inferior in quality as compared horse, called 'acchetta,' which was antiently in esteem with the wheat; about 200,000 starelli is the utmost quan. among the Roman ladies, is an easy-paced lively little ani- tity exported. Indian corn, though it thrives well, is not mal. The mule is unknown. Oxen are used for drawing very extensively grown. One hundred thousand starelli of the carts, which are of the most primitive kind, like those in beans, 200,000 of peas, and 1000 of lentils are also exported many parts of Portugal; the wheels are made of a solid annually. piece of wood, and stuck round the edge with projecting Cheese is a great object of rural economy; it is made triangular-headed nails, which are the only iron used in the chiefly from sheep and goats' milk, and being steeped in whole machine. The axletree is fixed into the wheels, and brine, it has a salt bitter taste. A great quantity is shipped turns round with them.

for Naples, where it is in great demand, being much usei Sardinia is better provided with forests than Sicily; the when grated to season maccaroni. Little butter is made, as best timber is in the mountainous districts of Gallura, Bar- the treatment of cows is not well understood, and fodder is bargia, Goceano, Marghime, and Planargia. On the south- scarce. west side of the ridge of Genargentu is an extensive elevated Salt is a monopoly of the government, and a profitable plain, called 'su Sarcidanu,' covered with fine oak, beech, branch of the royal revenue, the continental states of the chestnut, and cork trees, and on the Menomeni range, be house of Savoy being supplied entirely from Sardinia. tween San Lussurgiu and Macomer is another elevated Sweden and other states take many cargoes of salt from plain called 'su littu de St. Antoni,' about nine miles wide Sardinia. The salterns, both natural and artificial, are and eleven or twelve long, covered with a rich forest. Fine round the gulf of Cagliari, at Oristano, Terranova, and on woods are also found in the Giarre de Serri, and on the hills the northern coast west of Porto Torres. The salterns are of Trebina and Arcuosa, and they abound with wild hogs worked by convicts sentenced to the galleys, but the excaand game. Pine-trees are not common except near Terra. vation of the mounds and the carriage of the salt is a labour nova. The cork-tree grows very fine and in great quantity forced on the adjacent villagers, for which they receive a in the northern part of the island. Timber is very scarce small compensation. in the plains, and the want of roads prevents the people Tobacco is also a royal monopoly. This plant, which was from making use of that of the mouniain forests. Dwarf introduced in 1714, while the island was subject to the House mulberry-trees grow in abundance, but their cultivation is of Austria, thrives well, especially round Sassari, Alghero, little attended to, although the government has repeatedly and the adjacent villages. The Zenziglio, a fine sort of endeavoured to encourage the rearing of silkworms; and as snuff, resembles that of Valencia in Spain. early as 1788, a book was published at Cagliari, in both Flax is cultivated in the neighbourhood of Oristano, and Sardinian and Italian, cailed • Moriografia Sarda,' in the most of it is used in the linen manufactories of the country. form of a dialogue, pointing out to the people the advan- The finer sort of linen is made at Busachi. Wool is coarse, tages of this branch of industry, and explaining the methods owing to the flocks being neglected, and it is manufactured

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into coarse cloth for the peasantry. A better quality of cloth mountains of the west. Fossil wood found at Ozieri and is made of lambs' wool, and also a fine sort of flannel called Bonorva, lignite at Villapuzzu, Tonara, and the neighbour pannizzu, made in the district of Sulcis. Cotton grows very well hood of Sassari, and inferior coals at Villacidro, Martis

, in the Campidano, but is not cultivated to any great extent. Mandas, Chiaramonte, and other places. Some alum is Madder grows wild, and is only used by the peasants for dyeing found in the grottoes of Sorrenti, nitre is procured at Isil

. their coarse cloth. Some rock mosses are also gathered for and Sammugheu, and is carried to Cagliari for the royal dyeing. But the beautiful tincture of a delicate vermillion, manufactory of gunpowder. Amianthus and asbestos are mentioned by the antients by the name of tinctura Sardi- obtained at Ploaghe and Isili. On the Espalmador of S. Pietro niaca, is no longer known. Barilla is forbidden to be culti- there is a grey mixture of carbonate of lime and alumine, vated, except in certain places, from an opinion that it im- resembling fullers' earth, which is used by the natives in poverishes the land. Bullocks' hides, sheep and goat skins, washing, and is called terra saponaria. There are numeroas and kid or lamb skins, are exported in great quantities. mineral springs. The principal are those of Sardara, Villa Leather is imported from Marseille and other places. Among Cidro, Fordongianus, in the south, and Castel Doria, Dorthe yearly exports are from four to five thousand fox-skins; gali, Codrongianus, and Benetutti

, in the north. They are 2000 martin skins and 60,000 rabbit or hare skins. The however unprovided with buildings or any sort of accommo forests abound with stags, daini or small deer, wild boars, and dation for invalids. Vestiges of antient thermæ exist at mufioni, or ‘murvoni,' a species of large sheep, clothed with the sulphureous springs of Fordongianus, on the left bank hair instead of wool.

of the Tirsi, but they are now quite forsaken. he fisheries of Sardinia are very productive, especially The population of Sardinia amounted, in 1833, to 491,973. the 'tonnare,' or establishments for taking the tunny-fish, The island is divided for administrative purposes into eleven which are at the Saline on the north coast, at Flumentargiu, prefetture, or small provinces : Cagliari, Iglesias, Isili, LanuPorto Paglia and Porto Scus on the south-west coast, and at sei, Nuoro. Alghero, Busachi, Ozieri, Cuglieri, Tempio, Cala Vinagra, in the island of S. Pietro; and Cala Sapone, Sassari. For ecclesiastical purposes it is divided into eleven in that of Š. Antioco. The shoal enters the Mediterranean dioceses: Cagliari, Oristano, Sassari, Galtelli-Nuovo, Iglefrom the Atlantic in the spring, skirts the shores of Spain sias, Ales, Alghero, Ampuriase Civita, Bosa, Bisarcio, and and France, and then descending along the western coast of Ogliastra, which are subdivided into 382 parishes. Cagliari, Corsica, part of it finds its way eastward through the Straits Sassari, and Oristano are archbishop's sees. There are of Bonifacio, while the rest passes towards the Black Sea also three mitred abbots, 93 convents of monks, and 13 of round the south end of Sardinia, remaining on the coast of nuns. (Serristori, Statistica dell' Italia; Calendario Sardo.) the island from April till July. Most of the tunnies weigh Few of the convents are possessed of considerable property from 100 to 300 pounds, but some of them are above 300. in land, the majority being mendicants. The number of All the parts of the fish are turned to account, and most of monks does not exceed 1500. The Roman Catholic is the them are salted. Captain Smyth gives an account of the only religion of the country, no other is tolerated, and the expenses and receipt of a tonnara for one season, in which natives boast that no beresy ever spread to this island. The 3680 tunnies were caught. The expenses of the company, court of the Inquisition, existing for centuries under the which hired the tonnara for 11251. amounted to 51741. The Aragonese and Spanish dynasties, probably contributed to heaviest item besides the rent is the wear and tear of the this result. nets, which are divided into several compartments called Sardinia is at present administered by a viceroy, appointed chambers, and made very strong, as the fish is powerful, and by the king for three years : he has a salary of 60,000 francs. struggles hard. Then there is the oil and salt for pickling, Every viceroy, on his arrival at Cagliari, takes a solemn the cost of the barrels, the wages of the men, &c. The oath to preserve inviolate the statutes and privileges of the receipts amounted to 14,690l., leaving a profit of 9516l. Most island. . Sardinia has a representative parliament, called of the tunneries are let to foreigners, who ship off the pro- •Stamenti, consisting of the three orders or estates, after the duce to various ports of the Mediterranean, and a con manner of other kingdoms during the middle ages : namely, paratively small proportion is used in the island.

the ecclesiastic stamento, selected from the prelates, the The fishery of anchovies and sardines, which once used to archbishop of Cagliari president; the military stamento be very productive, is much fallen off. Coral is taken off the consisting of all nobles, with or without fiefs, under the prewest and south coasts, especially off Alghero, between the sidency of the most antient feudal nobleman above twenty months of March and October ; but this branch of industry years of age; and the royal stamento, composed of the repre. is also abandoned by the natives to the Neapolitans and sentatives of the towns, under the Capogiurato of Cagliari

. Genoese, who send from 200 to 300 boats annually, and Each stamento holds its sittings apart, in a separate ball, carry off the produce, paying only a small impost, and and after separately discussing the matter in debate, they a small duty for anchorage. Each felucca or boat generally communicate by deputies. The assembly of the stamenti collects coral to the value of about 1500 dollars, at the rate is convened and holden by and during the king's pleasure, of 6 d. per English pound weight. The coral is polished and can therefore constitute no permanent opposition to the and worked into necklaces, earrings, and other ornaments, at royal will. The chief topic of discussion is concerning Genoa, Leghorn, Marseille, and Naples. Pearls of an inferior donativi,' or supplies requested by the sovereign. Still, quality are obtained from the pinna nobilis, which abounds when the stamenti have not been convened for a number of in shallow bays, as at Porto Conte and Liscia. The shell years, there has been repeatedly a loud outcry for them, measures from 15 to 27 inches in length, and is sought and at times something like a popular insurrection. chietly for the tuft of silky hair, the byssus of the antients, The feudal system continues in activity, though considerwhich is attached to it. The filaments are of a glossy brown ably limited by the interference of the crown. The seignorial colour, about eight inches in length, and are easily spun rights vary according to the terms of the investiture, but the into gloves, stockings, &c.

feudal lord is required, in all cases, to assist his vassals and Sardinia was noted in antient times for its mines, which support them during imprisonment. Nobles are subject to were worked to a great extent, as is attested by vast excava civil and criminal prosecutions, just as commoners are, with tions and remains of founderies. South-west of Iglesias is the privilege however of delaying their answer to any ques. Monte d'Oru, which appears to have derived its name from tion for twenty-six days. The children of noblemen, unless the gold formerly extracted from it; the mountain has been there be a 'fide commesso,' or entail, in which case the proreduced by excavation to a mere shell. There is no doubt perty goes to the eldest, generally share the patrimony that silver was found in considerable quantities, and is even equally among them at the father's death, except the married now procured occasionally, but the government it seems daughters, who, when they have received their dowry, bare neither undertakes to work the mines nor allows private no further claim. Besides manorial peers, of whom only one, individuals to work them. A vein of pure mercury being the lord of Anglona, bears the title of prince, the others discovered near Oristano, the fiscal magistrate seized the being marquises and counts, there is a numerous class of place, on the ground that the walls and cisterns of the inferior nobles and knights, who have the privilege of cartown would be damaged by following up the vein. Iron rying arms. Like the priests, they pay nothing to the feudal and lead ore are found in abundance in many places, as well lord, but only to.the king and to the clergy. as copper. The government has however of late years sent Vassals in Sardinia are born free, and can change their mineralogists to explore the island. In the eastern moun- lord and residence at will, but while on a lord's estate they tains are found porphyry, basalt, alabaster, and marble. are bound to feudal services and tenures, all above the age Chalcedonies, jaspers, cornelians, sardonyx, turquoises, and of eighteen paying annual tribute, either in money or kind. rock crystal are found in the districts of Sulcis and other besides the usual imposts on the land and stock, the con

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tributions for robberies and arson committed in the district, worn. The cap or net for hair is also much worn in the and for the exemption from the roadia,' or one day's per- southern part of the island. In the highlands of Gallura sonal labour, and from other dominical services. These and Barbargia the men let their hair hang loose over taxes are levied in addition to the tithes, the royal imposts, their shoulders, which, with their bushy beards, gives them alms (asked as a due, and never refused) to mendicant a ferocious aspect. A kind of black kilt over loose linen monks, and other demands, which in some places amount drawers, with cloth leggings, completes the dress of the to seventy per cent. on the earnings of the vassal.

Tho Sards were of old a very mixed race, partly of Celtic The dress of the females in the towns is an imitation of and Iberian stock, and partly of Greek and 'Etruscan race, the Italian fashion; most women wear the Genoese 'mezto which a considerable infusion of Carthaginian and after- zaro,' or white veil, thrown over the head and shoulders, wards of Roman blood was added. In later times Pisans those of the upper class wear bonnets. The peasantry adand Spaniards settled in the towns and lower country, but here to their peculiar costumes. In the northern districts in the highlands the population has remained comparatively the women wear their sleeves divided in the Greek fashion, unmixed, and may be considered as the real descendants of and a coarse white net envelops their hair, like that worn the old Sards, who struggled 'hard against both Carthage by the men. The females of the Sulcis wear a shawl and Rome. The Sards are of a middle stature, and well round their heads, and scarlet stockings; at Orosei the formed, with dark eyes and coarse black hair, though fresh women wear a highly ornamented busk projecting from becomplexions and blue eyes are also seen in the mountains tween the breasts, in shape not unlike the prow of a galley, In the Campidano they are more swarthy than in the north and they have moreover the Oriental custom of covering part of the island, and have generally a large mouth and their mouths. In some places the head is covered with a Thick lips. They have strong intellectual faculties, though yellow cloth having a deep red border, as in some parts mostly uncultivated, and an enthusiastic attachment to of the kingdom of Naples; in others with a fine linen their country and their native district, in consequence of tied loosely under the chin. The petticoat is made very wbich families seldom remove or disperse. They are full, with small plaits; the shift is buttoned at the neck ; the kird and hospitable, but are easily offended and excited corset is low, over which, on gala days, a rich embroidered to revenge.

Being accustomed from early age to the jacket is worn, with loose cuffs and silver buttons. Corals, use of the gun, they are excellent marksmen, and will lie rings, rosaries, and crosses are worn in profusion. in ambush for their victim for whole days, until they The villages are generally large and well situated, but have an opportunity of shooting him. If the family with unpaved narrow streets, mean houses, and a general of the sufferer has influence enough to stir justice into want of comfort. Large dunghills disfigure the principal active measures against the offender, the latter flies to avenues. The villages in the Gallura are built of granite the mountains, where he joins others of a similar de blocks, and in the other northern districts of freestone; scription, and becomes a robber. Some of these bands but in the southern division of the island most houses in however will not molest strangers; they do not call them the country are built of sun-dried bricks. The dwellings selves robbers, but assassins. They levy contributions on of the peasants have generally only one story, without winthe villages and shepherds to supply themselves with ne-dows, or if they have windows, they are not glazed. A cessaries. But on the eastern coast, near Terranova, Dor- whole family often dwells in a single room, with their gali, Galtelli, &c., there are real bands of robbers, who chickens, dogs, and kids, whilst the patient ass turns the both plunder and murder: they are designated by the corn-mill in a corner. In the centre of the room there is name malviventi.' The government however has of late a square hole in the clay floor for the fire ; the smoke finds years done much towards extirpating the robbers; it has its way through the door or any accidental crevice. There abolished in a great measure the privilege of sanctuary; is generally a large bed in one side of the room for the it has forbidden the use of fire-arms, except to the militia- elders, the sick, or the stranger, for hospitality to travellers men, the nobles, and other persons duly authorised; it is common, and inns are scarce. The

younger members of has sent troops against the more obnoxious bands, and the family do not sleep in a bed till they marry, but they hunted and destroyed them. But as long as revenge is lie down round the fire-place on mats, and frequently in considered by all classes as a moral and hereditary obli- summer in the open air. A few low chairs and a low, table gation, outlaws will take shelter in the impracticable re constitute the remaining moveables. In the towns there cesses of the mountains, where it is extremely difficult for are some tolerable mansions, though comfortless inside, like the police and the military to discover and arrest them. those of South Italy, and the access is generally dirty. The

Italian is the language of the government, and is also number of beds indicates the importance of the owner, whose spoken by all educated persons in the large towns. The own room contains the saddles, bridles, arms, cordage, and native tongue, which varies according to districts, is a dialect other implements, besides hams and dried sausages, which of the old Romance (ROMANCE LANGUAGE], and is evidently are hung up, and cabinets filled with walnuts, cheese, pastry, derived from the Latin, with an admixture of words of and dried fruit. Greek and Arabic origin. The natives of the Barbargia Throughout the island the cittadini, or inhabitants of district pride themselves on the number of Greek words walled towns, hold the contadini, or villagers, in utter conwhich they relain, and their distinct but harsh and guttural tempt, a feeling which is cordially returned by the rustics, enunciation, which is with difficulty attained by the rest of besides which the people of Cagliari and those of Sassari the Sards.

mutually hate each other. Kissing on meeting is an indisThe language is considered to be purest in the Goceano pensable custom among men of all ranks. The hostess and in the western district of Marghine, north of Oristano, welcomes a stranger by a shake of the hand, saying, in a but it is most elegantly spoken in the Sulcis. At Alghero kind tone, the stranger is welcome.' Females however the Catalonian is generally spoken, the inhabitants being in never sit at meals with visitors. It is to the honour of great measure the descendants of a Catalonian lony, the Sardinian women that they are generally moral and established by Peter the Ceremonious, king of Aragon, in dutiful wives, and the baneful custom of the cavalier 1355.

servente is unknown. The extreme jealousy of the Sards, The nobles and citizens generally follow the fashions and their summary mode of avenging an injury, have proof Italy in their dress, but the country people have pecu- bably contributed to prevent its introduction. In converliar costumes. In the Campidano they wear a jacket or sation however the women talk very freely, and laugh pelisse of undressed sheep or goat skins, with the fleece heartily at indelicate allusions, as is the case in other outside, the 'mastruca' mentioned by Cicero; that which is southern countries. Among the peasants women are mere worn in the Gallura highlands is made of coarse native servants; they are busily employed about their children cloth; in the west, near Bosa, and in the Sulcis, they and poultry, in manufacturing their linen and ‘orbacci'or wear the collettu,' or close sleeveless waistcoat of tanned coarse woollens, and in making bread, and fetching water. leather, folding on the breast and reaching nearly to the The Sards are fond of feasting; they drink wines and knee. Some collettus' are made of yellow or reddish cordials, though rarely to excess, and entertainments on leather from France, decorated with large silver buttons in particular occasions are given with a profuse hospitality. the Maltese style. The shirt is fastened at the neck by Fine wheaten bread is in general use, except among the silver buttons, but no cravat is worn. The .cabbanu,' or shepherds of the eastern highlands, who eat a coarse kind heavy dark-brown Maltese cloak, is much worn by the of bread, and sometimes acorns. The Sards eat more : farmers. In Cagliari the men of the lower orders wear a i butcher's meat than the Sicilians or South Italians. Poultry сар,

but in most other parts of the island black caps are l is rather scarce, but game is plentiful. The 'minestra,' or




soup, made of pulse, cauliflowers; or herbs, is a and the horrid tree for mangling and dislocating limbs national dish, as in Italy; and maccaroni, fideli

, and paste of which stood on one of the bastions of Cagliari, was pulled various sorts are manufactured at Cagliari and other places, down in 1821, amidst the acclamations of the people. Culo and are in much request.

prits are still sometimes flogged through the streets upon an The Sards are no great pedestrians: the only mode of ass previous to execution. Common criminals sentenced to travelling for both sexes is on horseback. There are few death are hanged, but nobles and lawyers are beheadei. coaches, and those only in the large towns, and the country Nobles accused of capital crimes are tried by a jury of seven people regard them as articles of effeminate luxury. Till peers. lately there were no carriage-roads in the island, but by a The law is the chief profession for young men of respect. royal decree of 1822, a high road of 125 miles in length was able connections, as the whole regular force raised in the ordered to be cut from Cagliari to Sassari through the length island consists of only one regiment, which is usually in of the island, passing by Oristano, and keeping as much as Piedmont. The liberal arts afford no employment, and trade possible along the western plains. It was however neces and commerce are considered ignoble. The highest legal sary to pass the ridge of Menomeni, which runs across rank is that of a member of the Supremo Real Consiglio' the middle of the island, as well as the hills south-east of for the affairs of Sardinia, which consists of seven members, Sassari, where a fine zigzag road, called 'Scala di Giocche,' and sits at Turin. It is a supreme court, and decides finally has been cut down the face of an abrupt declivity 600 feet upon all important matters, appeals

, &c. It also examines high. The whole of the road is now finished, as well as the projects of law for the island, proposed by the king's branch roads the most important towns in the interior. ministers. The high court, called Reale Udienza, sits at The eastern highlands however still remain difficult of Cagliari, and is divided into two sections, one for civil and

the other for criminal cases. It is also a kind of council of Field sports, such as hunting the boar, stag, or mouf- state for the viceroy, and it proposes to the king candidates flon, as well as sporting for birds, are favourite amusements to fill up the vacant bishoprics and the judicial and juriwith the Sards. Their religious festivities and processions, dical offices. A numerous train of fiscal advocates, solicito which they are much attached, afford them also periodical tors, advocates for the poor, assessors, secretaries, and noseasons for rejoicing: they are attended with great pomp, taries is attached to the court. The Magistrato della Reale and generally end in a feast. Weddings are celebrated with Governazione is a high court, which sits at Sassari for civil much ceremony and rejoicing. Captain Smyth observed and criminal matters relating to the northern part of the traces of many customs which the Sards have in common island. There is an appeal from it to the Real Consiglio at with the modern Greeks, in their dances, music, arms, Turin. In every town or considerable district of the island dresses, marriage ceremonies, and superstitions. Some of there is a magistrate called Vicar, in some places Podestà, or these peculiarities seem to be derived from the Romans, Consul in others, who, with an assessor and secretary, judges such as a belief in bad or good omens, the evil eye, a dislike in the first instance for the town and surrounding territory. to mention death, and the howlings of the “accabadore,' a The prefects in each of the eleven provinces are also judges kind of præficæ, who are hired for mourning. The acca in civil matters. There is a commercial court at Cagliari badora' in the mountainous districts of Barbargia and called 'Consolato,' which decides all commercial suits beothers used to perform another office, which was to throttle sides which the 'Regia Capitania' constitutes a sort of Ador suffocate dying persons in hopeless cases, in order to miralty court for the island. A court called “Tribunale shorten the agony; hence the name, which means a delle Contenzioni,' decides questions which arise between the finisher, but the practice was abolished in the last century ecclesiastical and lay powers; it consists of a judge called through the remonstrances and exertions of a missionary •Cancelliere Regio Apostolico,' who is a clerical dignitary, called Padre Vassello. A belief in witchcraft and dæmoniacal and a secretary. This court was established in the latier possession is still prevalent, and exorcisms are resorted to as part of the 14th century, in consequence of serious differences a cure in the latter case.

between the clergy and the sovereign, and has been sancThe laws in force consist of -1, ‘La Carta de Logu,' which tioned by several popes. is a code written in the Sardinian dialect, consisting of 198 Sardinia is free from the burthen of the conscription, whirl chapters, which was published in 1395, by Eleanor Giudi- has been entailed by the French revolution upon most cessa,' or ruler of Arborea and of the greater part of the island. countries of continental Europe. It furnishes by voluntary This charter or code, though tinctured with the barbarity of enlistment one regiment to the royal army, besides which the times, is remarkable for its equity and wisdom, and being it has its militia, an irregular force of about 6000 cavalry well adapted to the habits and opinions of the Sards, has and 1200 infantry, the officers of which wear a uniform, bli been adopted all over the island ; it remains in force, with receive no pay. The privates have no distinguishing dress

, few modifications, to the present day.. 2, the Royal Prag- except a cockade which they wear on particular occasions : matics, a body of laws written in Spanish, and consisting of they are armed with a long gun, a knife, and a cutlass, ani 51 chapters, which was promulgated by Philip IV. of Spain, are expected to patrole the country to arrest malefactors, in 1633. To it has been added a commentary, by D. Fran- to repair to any point which might be invaded by an enemy, cisco de Vico, regent of the supreme council of Aragon. 3, and to assist the Board of Health in preserving the coas's Capitoli di Corte. These are memorials and petitions laid from contagion. Besides these there is a kind of ycomanry before the kings of Spain by the national stamenti, with called “Barancelli,' an armed association for protectinz the answers and decisions of the sovereign. To these also property, especially in the lowlands, against robbers. Every has been joined a commentary, by D. Giovanni Dexart, a village has its party, under a captain annually selected ficó Sardinian jurist. 4, The royal edicts, and the Pregoni,' or among the most respectable inhabitants, and he chooses his ordinances of the viceroys since the island has been under men. They maintain a strict watch during the night, from the dominion of the house of Savoy. 5, The new civil code, a certain hour in the evening, which varies according to the published in 1830, by the late king Charles Felix. (Calen- season, and is made known to the inhabitants by the sound dario Sardo, 1831.)

of a bell, after which no one is allowed to be out of doors This multiplicity of laws, upon which numerous forms the tolling of the morning bell. The barancelli are obliged have been grafted, tends to embarrass the course of justice, to make restitution for all thefts. To become a baranceito and gives rise to much litigation and delay. The country a man must have property to a certain amount, and be wen judges are very poor, and venality is of common occurrence. known for his integrity. During the year of his service, and tte Besides this, should a local magistrate prove more than following year also, he is exempt from royal and baronial serusually active in his office, he is sure to rouse the vengeance vice, and has the right of bearing arms. The remunerai of some of the parties, and Sardinian revenge respects no of the barancelli arises from every landholder paying a persons, neither magistrates nor priests. The effect of the annual sum, the aggregate amount of which, after deductir: whole system, especially in the remote districts, is a fearful the losses which may have occurred, is divided among the insecurity of person and property. The superior courts men at the end of the year. In the year 1819, Count Rert. which sit in ihe towns have a better character for impar- | the viceroy, disliking so many armed men about the country tiality, but the procedure is very imperfect. In criminal wished to aboli the barancelli, and supply their place wil cases the judges in their interrogatories follow the old prac- regular cavalry from Piedmont, called Royal Carabineer tice of inducing the accused to criminate himself, by brow- I like the French gendarmes, but as they proved inefficie beating and endeavouring to entrap him by insidious ques for want of local knowledge, and the deadly hatred of 1 tionis, & method known in Italy by the name of 'interroga- peasantry aganist then, the king was obliged to restore të torio suggestivo.' Torture has been abolished in Sardinia, barancelli under the name of Cacciatori Provinciali. The

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