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ay probably—3, Porta Fontinalis, from which, in the time uncertain whether the remains are genuine which are of the Republic, an arcade led to the altar of Mars in the generally considered to belong to this prison. The Circus Campus Martius. 4, Porta Ratumena, probably on the Maximus was between the Palatine and Aventine, of northern side of the Capitoline, and likewise leading to the which there are probably no remains. The Forum RoCampus Martius. 5, Porta Carmentalis, on the southern side

was between the Palatine and Capitoline. The of the Capitoline, and near the present Vicolo della Bufala. Cloaca Maxima carried the waters of the Velabrum and This gate, together with the-6, Porta Triumphalis, and the Forum Romanum into the Tiber, and was a stupendous 7, Porta Flumentana, lay in the line of the wall which ran work. The wall of the elder Tarquin formed an embankacross the low ground from the Capitoline to the Aventine, ment on the east side of the river: the remains are sull and not, as has generally been supposed, in a straight line visible to some extent. Of the wall of Servius Tullius few from the southern end of the Capitoline to the river, which traces remain; but it existed in the eighih century of supposition has suggested an entirely false direction of the Rome, as appears from the description of Pliny (iii. 5), and wall of Servius in this part. The Porta Flumentana was from Dionysius of Halicarnassus (ix., p. 624). near to or on the spot of the Janus Quadrifrons, and the During the early part of the Republic, we find no mentior. Porta Triumphalis at the north-western entrance of the of such great architectural works as those which were built Circus Maximus. Near this gate, or perhaps connected during the period of the kings; but, with the increase of with it, were the so-called-8, Duodecim Portæ, which Pliny the population, many of the uncultivated and uninhabited reckons as one gate. 9, Porta Trigemina, a little below the districts must have gradually become covered with houses. Clivus Sublicius, leading up the Aventine from the Forum About 120 years after the establishment of the republic, Boarium. On the steep side of this hill towards the river when the city was taken by the Gauls, the whole was conthere was no gate. The next was the-10, Porta Navalis, sumed by fire, with the exception of the Capitol, a few houses which, in early times, probably led to Ostia. The district on the Palatine, and some of the works above enumerated, before it was called Regio Navalis; it was the ship-wharf the magnitude of which saved them from destruction. The and maritime arsenal of the city, and a great number of hasty mode in which the city was rebuilt explains the fact magazines were built in this plain. Between the Porta that down to the time of Nero the streets of Rome were Navalis and the Porta Capena, on the Cælius, we have three narrow, irregular, and crooked, and, in point of beauty and gates-11, Porta Naevia; 12, Porta Raudusculana; and, regularity, Rome was far inferior to most of the other great 13, Porta Lavernalis. The first of these three lay probably towns in Italy. After this restoration, a long time probably in the valley between the Aventine and Monte San Balbina; passed before any new ground was built upon. Down to the second on the hill of San Balbina, and the third in the the fifth century of the city, private houses were generally valley between this hill and the Cælius, ihat is, south of the covered with shingles, and there continued to be a number Porta Capena. The Porta Raudusculana must have been of groves within the walls of the city. But towards the the point at which the road to Ardea commenced. 14, end of the period which is comprised between the Gallic Porta Capena was probably at the foot of the Cælian hill. conflagration and the end of the second Punic war, Rome The exact course of the wall from this gate towards the began to be embellished with temples, which however, both east, and then north towards the Esquiline gate, cannot be as to material and architecture, were far inferior to the 1emclearly ascertained, though we know that the Lateran was ples of Greece. High roads and aqueducts also began to be not included. 15, Porta Cælimontana must have been built. The streets the city itself were not paved, though towards the Esquiline. 16, Porta Esquilina was at the we have no reason to suppose that they were neglected. southern end of the great north-eastern wall, near the arch At a somewhat later period we find public places, streets, of Gallienus; from it issued the Via Prænestina and Labi- and walks under the porticos, commonly paved with large

17, Porta Querculana was probably in the valley be- square blocks of tuffo or of travertino. In ihe year 176 B.C., tween the Cælius and Esquiline. The great wall commenco the censors ordered the streets of the city to be paved with ing at the Esquiline gate, in its whole extent from south to blocks of basalt, which were laid on a stratum of gravel, north, had two gates besides the Esquiline, viz. 18, Porta such as is still visible in a part of the Via Appia. At the Viminalis, which lay about the middle of the wall; and time of the war with Hannibal, the district near the river, 19, Porta Collina, which must have been on the spot where between the Capitoline and Aventine, was almost entirely the Via Salaria and Nomentana meet. The sites of the covered with buildings, and it was called Extra Portam Porta Catularia and Piacularis are entirely unknown. Flumentanam.

The whole circumference of the walls of Servius Tullius The private houses had from the earliest times been very was about six miles. They included considerable tracts of simple in structure; but after the conquest of Greece, and land which were not occupied by buildings, but were either more especially of Asia, individuals began to build their pasture-grounds or covered with wood or thickets, such as dwellings in a magnificent style, and the taste for splendid great parts of the Esquiline and Viminal. Accordingly in mansions and palaces increased so rapidly, that a house like times of war the people of the surrounding districts took that of Crassus, which at first was universally admired for refuge within the walls of the city, where they found suf- its splendour and magnificence, in the course of a few years ficient space and food for their cattle. It was however prin- was lost among superior buildings. Public edifices howcipally the inner space near the wall itself which was not ever still remained the chief objects of the pride of the occupied by buildings until a very late period. Servius Tullius Romans. Theatres, a class of buildings which had once divided the whole city within the walls into four regions, been scarcely tolerated, were erected in several parts of which coincided with the four city tribes into which he Rome during the last century of the republic, especially divided the commonalty. The Capitoline, which was the after the time of Sulla. During the civil wars between city of the gods, and the town on the Aventine, were not Marius and Sulla we find that the number of houses had included in these regions. Their names were : 1, Regio increased to such a degree, that the walls of Servius TulSuburana, comprehending the Cælius, the Carinæ, and ihe lius in several parts lay within the city itself, and Niebuhr valley between them (afterwards the site of the Colosseum), thinks it not improbable that at this sime a suburb already the Via Sacra, and the Subura ; 2, Reyin Esquilina, com- existed in the plain west of the Tiber, which was afterwards prising the whole of the Esquiliæ, as far as they were in- called the Regio Transtiberina. At the beginning of the cluded within the wall; 3, Regio Collina, extending over eighth century of the city, another suburb is mentioned the Viminal and Quirinal; and 4, Regio Palatira, which In Æmilianis, between the Circus Flaminius and the Quicomprehended the whole of the Palatine.

rinal. A third arose south of the Cielius, a mile from the Each of these regions was again subdivided into six dis. Porta Capena, and was called Ad Martis. tricts, which derived their names from the Sacella Argaeo Of all the splendid buildings which were raised during rum, which probably stood wherever two streets crossed each the latter part of the republic, scarcely any traces exist, other, so that these subdivisions appear to have been com- and the only remains which can with any probability be pact masses of houses, such as were subsequently called reckoned among them, are the substructions of three anvicus. Their number is stated by Varro to have been twenty- tient temples below the church of San Nicola in Carcere ; seven : twenty-four belonging to the four regions, and the the so-called temple of Fortuna Virilis, not far from the three remaining ones probably to the Capitoline.

theatre of Marcellus; and perhaps also the three columns of Many great buildings were erected at Rome during the the so-called temple of Castor and Pollux, near the Forum. kingly period. The great temple of Jupiter was on the Augustus might well say that he had changed Rome froid Capitol. The prison of Tullius, called Carcer Tullianus, or a city of bricks into one of marble, for the roads, aqueducts, Mamertinus, was at the eastern foot of the Capitoline. It is and public buildings of every descript on, temples, arcades.


and theatres, which were raised during his long and peace. | assumed a totally ditterent aspect. On the ruins of the ful reign, were almost innumerable. The whole plain be- temples and the imperial palace on the Palatine rose the sotween the Quirinal and the river became a new town, which called Golden House of Nero, which occupied a space equal in splendour and magnificence far surpassed the city of the to a large town. The greatest care was taken to make the hills: this new town was one mass of temples, arcades, new streets wide and straight, and that the buildings should theatres, and public places of amusement, not interrupted not exceed a reasonable height. In order to render possible by any private habitations. Aqueducts for the purpose of the execution of the regular plan, the several quarters of supplying the city with water had been built as early as the the city were measured, and the heaps of ruins were removed year 313 B.C., and the first (Aqua Claudia) was begun by and conveyed in ships to Ostia to ill up the marshes in its Appius Claudius. It ran almost entirely under ground, and vic...ity. All the new buildings were massive, and conconveyed the water from a distance of about eight miles in structed of the fire-proof peperino, without the old wooden the direction of the Porta Capena into the city. Other upper story. The width of the new streets rendered it neaqueducts (Anio vetus, 273 B.c. ; Aqua Marcia, 145 B.C.; cessary to extend the city beyond its former limits. Some Tepula, 127 B.C. ; Julia, 35 B.c.) were constructed, but it time afterwards, in the reign of Vespasian, a measurement was not until the Imperial period that this kind of architec. of the circumference of Rome was taken, according to which ture reached perfection, and most of the remains which are it amounted to 13] Roman miles. The subsequent emperors still extant belong to the period of the Empire. They were continued to increase and embellish the city; but under mostly built upon arches, which had an easy inclination, so Commodus a great part was again consumed by a fire, which that the water ran gently from its source towards the city. destroyed all the buildings on the Palatine. Septimius Augustus built two new aqueducts (Aqua Alsietina or Severus exerted himself to restore the parts which had been Augusta, and Aqua Virga), and increased the Marcia. burnt, and to ornament the city, and some of his buildings Subsequent emperors added the Aqua Claudia, Anio are still extant. But the grandeur and magnificence of the novus (both in A.D. 50); Aqua Trajana, a.d. 111); Antoni- thermæ of Caracalla, south of the Porta Capena, surpassed niana (A.D. 212); Alexandrina (A.D. 230); and Jovia (A.D. all the works of his predecessors. Almost all the great 300). (Frontinus, De Aqurductibus Urbis Romie : Platner, buildings, or their remains, which still exist at Rome, belong Beschreibung der Stadt Rom, i., p. 195, &c.) The division to the period between Nero and Constantine. into four regions, made by Servius Tullius, had remained un. The most extensive work of this latter period is the im altered; but Augustus, for the convenience of administration, mense wall, with its numerous towers, with which Aurelian divided the whole city, both within and without the walls of surrounded the city. The work, which was completed in Servius, into fourteen new regions, a division which continued the reign of Probus (A.D. 276), does not however enable us tú to the eighth century, when it began gradually to give way to form a correct estimate of the real extent of the city, as the the Ecclesiastical division into seven regions. Each of the objects of the fortification may have rendered it necessary to Augustan regions, according to a survey taken in the reign enclose parts which were not covered with buildings. The of Vespasian, contained nineteen, or, according to a later Janiculus, which seems to have been fortified from the account, twenty-two vici, with as many sacella in places earliest times of the republic, was now for the first time inwhere two streets crossed each other (in compitis). Each cluded within the city walls, together with the Regio Transvicus seems, on an average, to have contained about 230 tiberina. On the north it embraced the whole of the Campus dwelling-houses, so that every region contained rather more Martius, together with a considerable part of the Collis than 3000. About one twenty-fifth part of this number of Hortulorum, or Mons Pincius; and on the south, the Mons houses were domus, that is, habitations of the rich (palazzi), Testaceus and a considerable portion of the Via Appia and with a portico in front and an extensive inner court (atrium). Latina. On the eastern side it enclosed the Amphitheatrum The remaining twenty-four twenty-fifths consisted of in- Castrense, and then proceeded northward to the Prætorian sulæ, that is, habitations for citizens of the middle and camp. Most of the gates in this new wall were determined lower classes; they had no portico in front, but mostly an by and named after the great roads which commenced at open space which served as a shop or workshop. In the in- the grates in the Servian wall. The walls of modern Rome, terior they may have had a court, but of smaller extent as well as the gates, differ in many parts from those built than the atrium of a domus. The number of these insulæ by Aurelian. The names of the gates of the Aurelian wall, was about 44,000. All Roman houses were very high. beginning on the north and proceeding to the east and south, Augustus fixed 70, and Trajan 60 feet as the height, above are: Poria Flaminia, Pinciana, Salaria, Nomentana, Tiburwhich none were allowed to be built; and the upper story tina, Collatina, Prænestina, Labicana, Asinaria, Metronia, was generally of wood. It was a law of the Twelve Tables Latina, Appia, and Ostiensis. Seven bridges connected the which also occurs in the Roman legislation of later times, that eastern and western sides of the river. The whole circumno two houses, whether domus or insulæ, should be built ference of these new fortifications was about 21 miles. In closely together; but that an open space of five feet should the time of Honorius some parts of this wall were decayed, be left between them. The fourteen regions of Augustus are: and others had become useless on account of the great -1, Porta Capena, to the south of the gate of this name. quantity of rubbish which had accumulated near them; 2, Calimontium, which embraced the whole of the Cælian but they were restored by this emperor. (Platner, Beschhill. 3, Isis et Serapis, the valley between the Caelius, reibung der Stadt Rom, i., p. 618.) Though the present Palatine, and Esquiline. 4, Via Sacra, or Templum Pacis. walls, as already observed (p. 87), do not much exceed the 5, Regio Esquilina. 6, Alta Semita. 7, Via Lata. 8, Fo- height of fifteen or twenty feet on the inside, owing to the rum Romanum. 9, Circus Flaminius. 10, Palatium. 11, accumulation of rubbish, they are in many places as much Circus Maximus. 12, Piscina Publica. 13, Aventinus. as fifty feet high on the outside. 14, Regio Transtiberina.

The Prætorian camp, south of the Porta Nomentana, inTiberius, besides completing many of the buildings of his tersected the Aurelian wall; but Constantine destroyed the predecessor, began the Prætorian camp on the north-east western side of the camp, which faced the city, and made side of the city, in the Campus Viminalis, and surrounded the three remaining sides serve as continuations of the it with high walls. The wealthy Romans at this time had | Aurelian wall. Some remains of these fortifications are their palaces principally in the district from the Porta still visible. Collina to the Porta Cælimontana; they did however not After the time of Constantine, when the emperors and form streets, but lay in gardens within the fields between the Roman nobles had adopted the Christian religion, the the high roads which issued from the city; and hence they decay and destruction of the antient edifices commenced. are generally called Horti, as Horti Mæcenatis, Pallantiani, The building of numerous churches was the immediate Epaphroditi, &c. All that had been done for the embel cause of this destruction. Neither the court nor private in. lishment of the city previous to the reign of Nero was dividuals possessed sufficient wealth to raise buildings equal eclipsed by the magnificent buildings of this emperor; but in form or material to those of their ancestors, and as heathen the greater part of these works, together with those of temples could not always be converted into Christian former days, perished in the contlagration which took place churches, they were generally pulled down and ibe materials in his reign. His plan of restoring Rome was gigantic, and used for other purposes. Numerous columns were thus moved proved to be impracticable: he proposed to make Rome a from their places, and the remaining parts of the edifices were port, and to connect it with the sea by long walls from the carried away and used by any person who chose to take them, Capitol to Ostia. But all that he could do, notwithstanding During the fifth century of our æra great calamities were inhis profusion, was to restore those parts of the city which ficted upon Rome by the ravages of the northern barbarians had been destroyed. The face of the new city however though it is a mistake to suppose that the buildings of Rome

suffered much injury from the invaders, for they could have of the external history of Rome, and endeavour to trace the po interest in destroying anything, and all historians agree gradual development of the Roman constitution, so far as in stating that it was their principal object to carry away this has not already been done in other articles. Taking gold, silver, and other costly things. The few buildings moreover for granted that the reader is acquainted with the which were destroyed at the capture of the city by Alaric legends of the early history of Rome, we shall only give (410) were near the Porta Salaria, where the enemy entered the results of the latest investigations on the subject, There are in this part still some remains of the house and refer our readers for further information to the best of Sallust which was destroyed on that occasion. A harder modern works, of which we subjoir. a list. Each of the fate befell the city in 455, when it was taken by the Vandals, Roman kings and emperors is treated of in a separate though even then, and notwithstanding the sack of fourteen article, and a chronological list of their names is given here. days, the buildings seem to have suffered little; the precious Period 1.:- From the building of the city to the establishmetals were the main object of the cupidity of the barbarians. ment of the Republic, from 753-510 B.C. - Romulus, 753Theodoric and his immediate successors not only took the 714; Numa Pompilius, 715-673; Tullus Hostilius, 673-641; greatest care to preserve what remained, but even exerted Ancus Marcius, 641-616; L. Tarquinius Priscus, 616-578; themselves to restore the public buildings which had suffered Servius Tullius, 578-534; Tarquinius Superbus, 534-510. or were beginning to decay. The population however ra Rome, or at least that portion of the city which ultipidly decreased during the fifth century, and became im- mately gave its name to the whole, was a Latin colony from poverished, so that towards the end of the century the su- Alba Longa, established on the Palatine hill, on ihe left burbs around Rome seem to have no longer existed, with the bank of the river Tiber. Alba, which for several centuries exception of that which had arisen between the northern before and at the time of the foundation of Rome was at extremity of the Janiculus and the Vatican. Rome was the head of the confederacy of Latin cities, was now, like thus confined to the walls of Aurelian and their resto- the other Latin towns, governed by an annual dictator, who ration by Honorius, and even within its precincts extensive however was probably under the control of a senate. Alba districts were uninhabited. The most remarkable buildings had previously been governed by kings. The legends of of former days indeed still existed, but after the reign of Romulus seem to suggest that in his time Alba was disDeodatus they were entirely neglected, and thus one after tracted by internal dissensions, which, in all probability, another they fell into decay and ruin.

induced a number of the citizens, who were discontented The antient writers who furnish information respecting with the form of government, to seek a home elsewhere. the topography of antient Rome are: Varro, Livy, Pliny, and thus led to the foundation of Rome. The time of this Festus, two little works commonly ascribed to Aurelius event is involved in great obscurity, for all the chronological Victor and Rufus, the ‘Notitia,' the ‘Curiosum Urbis statements which we possess are founded upon calculations Romae,' Strabo, Dionysius, and Dion Cassius. The prin- made at a time when most of the authentic documents had cipal modern works on the topography of Rome are: Fla- perished in the capture of the city by the Gauls, and upon vius Blondus, 'Roma Instaurata,' Florentiæ, 1742. The such numerical combinations as seemed best to agree with author of this work lived about the middle of the fifteenth certain symbolical theories which were familiar to the Rocentury. Bartholomæus Marlianus, •Urbis Romae Topo- mans. But for the sake of expediency we shall follow the graphia,' Rome, 1534, reprinted in 1588, though the author Varronian æra, which has been adopted by most modern had published an improved edition in 1544, fol. Onuphrius writers, according to which the foundation of Rome is rePanvinius, . Commentariorum Rei publicae Romanae,' libb. ferred to the year 753 B.C. Tradition had even handed iii.; the first book contains, ' Antiquae Urbis Imago,' Venice, down the day on which Rome was founded, and in comme1 538, 8vo. Guido Pancirollus, " Urbis Romae Descriptio et moration of the event the festival of the Palilia was celede XIV Urbis Regionibus Commentarius,' Venice. 1593, fol. brated on the 21st of April. If, according to our supposition, Georgius Fabricius, *Romanarum Antiquitatum Libri Duo, Rome was founded by a portion of the Alban population ex aere, marmoribus, saxis, membranis veteribus collecti.' who left their home because they were dissatisfied with the The first edition appeared at Basel, without date, in 8vo.; a dictatorial government, we see why the colony adopted the second appeared in 1567. It is reprinted with the work of old kingly rale, which, though abolished in the metropolis, Panvinius and others in the 4th vol. of 'Graevii Thesaurus.' continued to exist in the colony for nearly two centuries Alexander Donatus, · Roma Vetus ac Recens,' Rome, 1638, and a half. It is another proof that the colony was not Ito. This work has often been reprinted. Famiano Nar- founded under ordinary circumstances, but by a secession, dini, “Roma Antica, cum Figuris,' Rome, 1666, 4to. This that until the time of the third king we do not read of any work, which gained very great celebrity, has often been re- intermarriages having taken place between the colony and printed, and was translated into Latin by Jac. Tollius in the the other Latin towns; and hence the legend of the rape of Thesaurus of Graevius). An improved edition, with nu- the Sabine women. merous additions, maps, plans, &c., appeared in 1818 at The constitution of the colony on the Palatine was a Rome, by Nibby, in 4 vols. 8vo.

limited monarchy, for in the reign of Romulus, whom the Olaus Borrhichins, . De Antiqua Urbis Romae Facie,' legends call the first king of Rome, it is said that there Hafniæ, 1687. T. P. Bellorius, · Fragmenta Vestigii ve existed a senate consisting of one hundred members, which, teris Romae ex Lapidibus Farnesianis, nunc primum in like that of the Latin towns, had criminal jurisdiction, and lucem edita, cum notis,' Rome, 1673, fol. A new edition the preparation of new measures, which were to be laid beof this work, with notes, and plates of the Capitol, was made fore the assembly of the people, who might either accept or by Joh. Christoph. Amaduzzi, Rome, 1764, fol. Antoine reject them. How long this Latin colony stood alone and Desgodeiz, ‘Les Edifices Antiques de Rome, mesurés et des- unconnected with any of the towns on the neighbouring sinés.' Paris, 1682, fol. J. Chr. Adler, ‘Ausführliche Be- hills, cannot be historically ascertained. There existed schreibung der Stadt Rom, mit Kupfern,' Altona, 1781, 4to. on the Cælius and the Esquiline an Etruscan seitle. Ridolfino Venuti, •Accurata e succinta Descrizione topo- ment, which was said to have been founded by Cælius grafica delle Antichità di Roma,' Rome, 1763. This work Vibenna, who seems to have come with a band of malconhas been edited by F. A. Visconti, in 1803, and by Stef. tents from Vulsinii, and who is said to have joined his forces Piale in 1824, 2 vols. 4to. Gius. Antonio Guattani, 'Roma to those of Romulus in the war against the Sabines. This descritta ed illustrata,' 2nd edition, Rome, 1806, 2 vols. 4to. seems to show that the Etruscan settlement in these parts D. Carlo Fea, Descrizione di Roma, Rome, 1822, 3 vols. was older than that of the Sabines. The Etruscan town, Anton. Nibby, · Viaggio antiquario ne' Contorni di Roma,’ in which Niebuhr calls Lucerum, seems to have fallen into a 2 vols., with plates, Rome, 1819. Burton's • Antiquities of state of dependence upon the town on the Palatine (Roma), Rome,' have been translated into German and greatly im- as may be inferred from the story that the Etruscans were proved by F. C. L. Sickler, Weimar, 1823, 8vo. The last compelled to leave their fortified places on the hills, and to and most important work on the topography and antiquities descend into the plain. (Vicus Tuscus; Varro, De Ling. of Rome is, Beschreibung der Stadt Rom,' by Platner, Lat., iv., p. 14, ed. Bip.) The Etruscan colony seems from Bunsen, Gerhard, and Kösiell, 3 vols. 8vo., with numerous time to time to have received new settlers from the mothermaps and plans, Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1830. The pre- country, and the last accession of this kind may have been face to this work (p. xiii-lvi.) contains a critical account of those Etruscans who, after the war with Porsenna, remained the whole literature of Roman topography.

behind and inhabited the Vicus Tuscus. HISTORY OF ANTIENT ROME.

The Latins on the Palatine had made the Capitoline hill

their citadel (Acropolis), but a band of Sabines, led by T. We shail confine ourselves in this article to a brief outline Tatius, who settled on the Quirinal and Viminal (this settle

ment is called Quirium by Niebuhr), appear to have been the comitia curiata, or receive the honores; they either tilled hostile to the Latin colony, and to have taken from them the lands or tended the flocks of their patrons, or followed the Capitoline. A short time afterwards however the three the various trades which the burghers were not allowed to different cities or tribes appear reconciled to one another, carry on. Numa Pompilius is said to have divided the and united into one state, with a new pomerium, which in- clients into two classes, those of the city and those of the cluded the three original cities. The Latin and Sabine country. The former were again subdivided into nine colparts of the new state enjoyed equal rights, and each of leges or crafts, while the latter were subdivided into pagi as them was at first governed by its own king and senate of husbandmen. Servius Tullius gave to some clients the one hundred members. The gods of these two were the right of voting in the comitia centuriata, and incorporated Dii Majorum Gentium. The Etruscans, on the other hand, them into his four city tribes (tribus urbanæ), though they were in a state of dependence, had no king of their own, continued in the same relation to their patrons as before. and did not obtain equality of rights until the time of By the legislation of the Decemvirs the clientela was legally Tarquinius Priscus. Their gods were the Dii Minorum abolished, and the clients appear almost on a footing of Gentium.

equality with the plebeians, and consequently they voted in Rome was thus, in its origin, a state consisting of three the comitia tributa. But practically the clientela continued distinct elements, which together formed the Populus Ro- to exist. manus, and each of which exercised a certain influence A new element was introduced into the population of upon the whole, an influence which is discernible in various Rome by the third king, Tullus Hostilius, which was enways down to the end of the republic. Each of them also larged by his successor Ancus Marcius. This was the class seems in some particular departments to have given the tone of plebeians. Under Tullus Hostilius, Alba Longa was to the rest. The Latins appear to have had the superiority destroyed by the Romans, and the greater part of the inhain political wisdom, and accordingly their influence in this i bitants were transplanted to Rome, where they settled on respect prevailed over the two other tribes, while all those the Cælius, as far as this hill was not occupied by the political institutions, the introduction of which is ascribed Luceres. In the reign of Ancus Marcius many other Latin to the Etruscans, consist of little more than mere ceremo towns were conquered, and the inhabitants, being removed nies and formalities. As regards religion, each of the three to Rome, had the Aventine and the valley between it and tribes retained its own peculiar worship and rites, though the Palatine assigned for their residence. (Göttling, Gesch. the intluence of the Sabines seems to have prevailed in d. Röm. Staatsverf, p. 221, &c.) Some of these new settlers many points. In all matters relating to the military con were probably incorporated into the existing tribes, but the stitution, the influence of the Etruscans and Sabines appears bulk of them formed the class which is henceforth called to have predominated ; and the Roman armies, down to the Plebes, and which in ambers far exceeded the Romans intime of Camillus, were drawn up in the Etruscan manner. cluded in the tribes, who are from this time distinguished by This original diversity however was, in the course of time, the name of patricians (patricii or patres). As the plebeians effaced by the overwhelming influence of the Latins, and were not included either in the tribes, curiæ, or gentes, they the various elements of the Roman state appear united into did not enjay the full rights of citizens (non optimo jure cives). one organised body, the constitution and vital energy of They had also no connubium with the pairicians, that is, which have attracted the attention of political inquirers in a marriage between patricians and plebeians was not a legal all ages and countries.

Roman marriage, and consequently the children of such After the death of T. Tatius, the king of the Sabines, marriage had not the privileges of those children who were Romulus governed alone, and it was determined that in sprung from persons who could contract a legal Roman future there should only be one king, chosen alternately marriage, or, to use the legal phrase, had connubium. It from the Latins and Sabines. Romulus is said to have

was a consequence of a marriage where there was connubium now divided each of the three tribes, Ramnes (the Latins), that the children were in the power of their father, and were Tities (the Sabines), and Luceres (the Etruscans), into ten Roman citizens. This restriction as to marriage was subsecuriæ, and each curia into ten decuries, so that each tribe quently sanctioned by the laws of the Twelve Tables, and contained 100 decuries, whence they were sometimes also was strictly observed till the year 445 B.C., when it was done called centuriæ. The decuries were not identical with the away with by the Lex Canuleia. The plebeians differed gentes, but were a subdivision made for the purpose of re from the clients, inasmuch as they had their own sacra, which presenting the curiæ, as each decury in early times had to were regulated by the pontiffs, their own auspicia, some also appoint one senator and one eques. (Gottling, p. 62, &c.; their own gentes, the independent possession of landed proLiv., i. 36; Festus, v. Centuriata Comitia.) Tribunes, perty, and did not require the protection of a patron. The cuciones, and decuriones were at the head of these respec-old burghers, in contradistinction to the plebeians, and in tive divisions, which they represented in political, religious, their relations to them, formed a real aristocracy, or body and military affairs. Each tribe also consisted of 100 of nobiles, a character which they had not possessed before, gentes or houses, so that on the whole there were 300 unless we apply that name to the relation in which they gentes. These gentes did not necessarily indeed consist of stood to their clients. In the armies the plebeians formed families connected by blood, but their relation was such a distinct body, and in the infantry they always formed ihthat the members of each gens had one common name, majority. Hence Tullus Hostilius increased the original generally ending in ius (nomen gentilicium), had the number of three centuries of equites, each decury having right to inherit the property of a gentilis who died without formerly appointed one eques, io six, so that each century agnati, and had their common sacred rites (sacra gentilicia) now appointed two equites instead of one. The two orders, and sacred places (sacella). Each gens contained a number patricians and plebeians, stood opposed to each other, withof families. To belong to a gens was a characteristic inse. out their mutual relations being accurately defined; nor do parable from a Roman citizen. Hence every citizen had, the plebeians themselves appear to have formed a compact besides his personal name, another which was derived from body with a regular internal organization. This was an that of his gens, of which Caius Julius Cæsar is an example, evil, which Tarquinius Priscus first endeavoured to remedy Caius being the name of the individual, and Julius that of in some measure by admitting the noblest plebeian families

into the old tribes, each of which thus consisted of a ma. Besides the Roman citizens, or burghers, contained in the jority of the old burghers and a number of noble plebeians tribes, curiæ, and gentes, we find from the earliest times a (maiores gentes, and minores gentes : Cic., De Rep., ii. 20). class of dependents called clients (clientes), who were The number of the equestrian centuries was now again under the patronage of the burghers. What they originally doubled, and the six new centuries were formed of the genies were is not quite certain, though it seems probable that they minores, so that out of the 1200 equites, 600 were called partly consisted of poor emigrants who had accompanied the secundi or posteriores, to distinguish them from the 600 old first settlers on these hills, and partly of other poor and patrician equites. (Göttling, 1.c., p. 229.) It was probably oppressed strangers who tlocked to Rome as an asylum from owing to the opposition of the patrician gentes that Tar. various neighbouring places, and settled there under the quinius Priscus did not place the plebeians on a footing of protection of the established colonies. In subsequent times equality with the patricians, at least in the main points, their number wa increased by freedmen, who, on being and it was reserved to his successor, Servius Tullius, to manumitted, had a relation to their former masters similar organise the body of the plebeians and to fix their relato that of the clients. The relation of clients to their

patrons tions to the patricians. This king divided the plebes into is one of the noblest features in the history of the Romans. thirty local tribes, four for the city (tribus urbanæ), and The clients were indeed citizens, but they could not vote in twenty-six for the countrv (tribus rusticæ). For further

his gens.

particulars respecting his new constitution see the article constitution of Rome. Che plebeians derived scarcely any SERVIUS Tullius. His successor, Tarquinius Superbus, benefit from it, but the patricians extended their power. the last king of Rome, not only undid what his predecessor inasmuch as they appoinied, in the place of a king, two had done for the plebeians, but his oppression was equally magistrates, originally called Praetors and afterwards Confelt by both orders. This led, in 510 B.C., to the abolition suls, who were proposed by the senate and appointed in the of the kingly power and the establishment of the Republic. comitia centuriata. Patricians only were eligible to this The constitution of Rome during the kingly period was

and the other great offices of the state. With the excep an elective monarchy, with a king, a senate, and an assembly tion of the office of high-priest (pontifex maximus), which of the people (populus). At the head of it was the king, as was transferred to the rex sacrificulus, the consuls possessed chief magistrate, high-priest, and commander of the army. all the rights and privileges as well as most of the insignia On the demise of a king, the assembly of the curiæ (comitia of the former kings; but their office was only annual, and curiata) for the election of a successor was held under the upon its expiration they might be called to account for their presidency of an interrex. The king received the potestas conduct. On the termination of their office, they returned as well as the imperium from the populus, and was inau- indeed to a private station, but as members of the senate gurated by the augurs or the college of pontiffs. All other they still retained some influence in the administration of officers were appointed either by the particular bodies or di- the republic. The number of senators, which had been visions of the people, whose affairs they managed, or by the greally diminished by the last king, was completed 10 300 king, but always from among those in whom the people by admitting some plebeian equites into the senate (Dionys., themselves had already shown their confidence. The v. 13; Festus, V., qui patres, qui conscripti), and these populus thus in reality possessed the supreme power, and new plebeian senators were called conscripti or adlecti, and even if it be true, as stated by Livy (i. 8), that the king had hence the phrase patres conscripti, i.e. patres et conscripti. the power of electing senators from the tribes and curiae, Valerius Publicola, to whom this completion of the senate still they were always elected from those who were equites, is ascribed, and who according to some accounts was the or bad held one of the great offices to which they had been successor of Tarquinius Collatinus, gave to the new republic appointed by the populus.

a somewhat more definite and regulated constitution, by The senate of the Ramnes on the Palatine consisted of a series of laws called Leges Valeriae. (PUBLICOLA.] one hundred members. This number was increased by a The banishment of the Tarquins involved the Romans in hundred members when the Sabine tribe became united a war with the Etruscans, in which the Romans, and espewith the Latin ; and when at last the Etruscans also ob- cially the plebeian order, suffered very severely; but ihe tained equal rights, the senate was increased to the number Romans soon recovered their strength. [Porsens.] The of three hundred, each tribe being represented by one hun- patricians gained a considerable addition to their power dred. This number seems to have remained unaltered down when the Sabine Claudii with their 5000 clients emigrated to the time of the Gracchi. (Dionys., v. 55, 60 ; Liv., Epit., to Rome, and were received among the patricii, of which Jib. 60.). The sunale was convoked by the king, who also body they subsequently formed a distinguished gens. The proposed the subjects for discussion. The majority of votes, plebeians, who had never recovered some of the rights conwhich was either ascertained by counting or by a division ferred upon them by the constitution of Servius Tullius, (secessio), was decisive (Senatus auctoritas, decretum, or began to show their discontent; but the patricians, who had consultum). But the decrees of the senate did not become gained new strength by the accession of the haughty law until they obtained the sanction of the populus (jussum Claudii

, endeavoured to quell the aspiring spirit of the or scitum populi). (Senatus.]

plebeians. Accordingly in 300 B.C., when the plebeians The assembly (comitiatus or comitia curiata) consisted of refused to take up arms against the revolted Latin towns, the burghers only. These assemblies met either to decide on Titus Lartius was made dictator (prætor maximus, or mamatters concerning the gentes, or concerning public affairs. gister popuri) with unlimited power both within and withIn the former the pontiffs presided. The latter related either to out the city, so that during his rule the Valerian laws, by matters connected with the constitution, or to religion, or to which the plebeians were in some degree protected, were military affairs. They were assembled by the king or his suspended. The war with the Latins lasted till 496 B.C. vicegerent. In these assemblies the chief magistraies were and the battle of the Lake Regillus, when the Romans again elecied, and the measures prepared by the senate were laid became masters of Latium. This successful event embefore the populus, who might either accept or reject them. boldened the patricians still more, and they no longer In the former case the measure became law, lex regia, or feared the plebeians. The latter had by their service in i he tribunitia, according as it had been passed under the pre- armies been obliged to neglect the cultivation of their fields, sidency of the king or of the tribunus celerum. The decision and in the war against Porsena they had lost a considerable as to war or peace, after the subject had been proposed by portion of their lands. Receiving no compensation for the senate, was likewise made by the assembled populus. Their losses, they had been compelled through want to be. By virtue of the Imperium, which the populus in its assembly come the debtors of the patricians, who, when the time of gave to the king, he became the supreme judge, but he was payment came, exacted their money with the most merciless allowed to transfer this power to deputies (quæstores, or the cruelty, and in cases of insolvency made their debtors their assembly of the populus), but there was no appeal from his sen- prisoners, and, in a certain sense, their slaves (addicti, tence. In the constitution of Servius Tullius, the plebeians, neri; see Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, i., p. 571, &c.; Göttbeing contained in his five classes, were admitted to the na- ling, p. 283. &c.). The most conspicuous among the opprestional assemblies of the centuries, which were distinct from sors was the Sabine Appius Claudius, who in 495 B.C. was the comitia of the curiae, which still continued to be held. consul with P. Servilius Priscus. The indignation of the (Servius Tullius.] The plebeians did not obtain the pri plebeians now rose to such a height, that when a war vilege of meeting as a body independent of and unconnected against the Volscians broke out, they again refused to bear with the patricians before the year 491 B.C. (comitia tri. arms. But a promise that their condition should be conbuta).

sidered and their wishes satisfied, induced them to follow At the close of the kingly period we find Rome mistress their patrician general. The Volscian city of Suessa Pomeof nearly all the tribes of Latium and of a part of the tia was taken, but the plebeian debtors on their return from Sabine territory. In the territory of the Volsci, the first the campaign were again thrown into the dungeons of the two Roman colonies, Signia and Circeii, were founded, rich. This incensed the plebeians to such a degree, that though Ostia, founded by Ancus Marcius, is also sometimes nothing could prevent an insurrection but the iron rule of called a Roman colony. On the Etruscan side of the Tiber, a dictator, M. Valerius, who, with an army of 40,000 Rome was in possession of the Janiculus, which was pro- plebeians, defeated the Volscians, A equians, and Sabines. bably fortified, as a contest with Etruria was to be expected Being again deceived, the plebeians seceded from Rome, sooner or later. From the first treaty of Rome with Car- and took up a fortified and threatening position on a neighthage, which was concluded in the first year of the republic, bouring hill (Mons Sacer). The senate in great alarm we must conclude that the Romans had already formed granted the demands of the plebeians, the exact nature of important mercantile connections with foreign nations. which is unknown. Some important advantages however (Polyb., iii. 22.)

were gained: two, or, according to others, five plebeian triPeriod II:- From the establishment of the Republic to the bunes (tribuni plebei) were created to protect their order, Dictatorship of Sulla, from 510 to 82 B.C.—The abolition and two other plebeian magistrates, called aediles. The of the kingly power and the establishment of the re most important concession however was that which the public did not produce any other material change in the plebeians shortly afterwards obtained, the right of sum: P. C., No. 1244.

Vol. XX.-P.

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