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makes it 21,950 square miles, which Schmidtlin thinks is perhaps too much. The population, according to Koppen, is 705,300; but Hassel, in 1820, would make it 783,000; and Hörschelmann, in 1833, states it at 900,000. It must be observed that he makes the area only 16,800 square miles.
Face of the Country, Soil, Climate. The surface is level, and in some places slightly undulating: there are no mountains, though the whole country, is rather elevated. The soil is partly clayey, partly sandy, and in many parts covered with a tolerably thick layer of mould. The eminences and the banks of the rivers contain limestone and sandstone. Boulders of granite are not rare, and are most numerous where there is an extensive plain. The only large lake is Lake Pskow, which is, properly speaking, a bay of Lake Peipus, with which it is connected by a broad channel. The Polista, Podso, Khwat, and Woiskoe lakes are much smaller; there are also numerous meres and many marshes, principally in the south-east part of the government. There is no large river in the province. The Düna rises in it, but soon turns into Witepsk; the Loweth, which also rises in it, runs into Novogorod, is joined by the Polista and the Pola, and has below Velikie Luki
several rocks and whirlpools, which are called cataracts Psittacula Taranta.
Other rivers are the Welikaja, which runs to the north-east, in health. Some, as we have seen, live upon the nectar of and empties itself into Lake Pskow; the Szelon, which flowers, others on soft fruits, and others again on hard fruits, runs into Novogorod, and falls into Lake Ilmen; and the for breaking which they are gifted with a powerful vice of a Toropez, which falls into the Düna. Most of these rivers, bill. We have known a case where the upper mandible of though not deep enough for large vessels, are however navithe bill of a parrot of this last description, which had been gable by struses* and other barks, and therefore extremely kept upon soft food, grew to such a length as to begin to useful to the government by giving it a communication with penetrate its throat. To such a moderate proportion of Petersburg, Narva, and Riga. hard food, such as almonds, and even harder food, should As the whole province is beyond the 56th parallel, the be presented. Some of the tribe have bred in captivity; climate is cold. and there is little doubt that if pairs were kept in good Natural Productions.- Agriculture is the chief occuparoomy cages, with a part of them so fitted up as to remind tion of the inhabitants. The soil is in general tolerably them of iheir favourite hollow trees, and furnished with dry fertile, but requires careful cultivation and manure; it prorotten wood or vegetable earth, the instances would be com- duces however not only sufficient for the consumption of paratively frequent.
the inhabitants, but an annual surplus of about a million of PSITTIROSTRA, M. Temminck's name for a genus of chetwertst for exportation. The grains chiefly cultivated are granivorous birds, which he places between the Crossbills rye, barley, oats, and buckwheat; and of puise, peas, beans, (Loria) and the Bullfinchos (Pyrrhula).
and lentils: very little wheat is grown. Culinary vegetaGeneric Character.— Bill short, very much hooked, a bles, such as cabbages, turnips, onions, garlic, and cucumbers, little convex at its base, upper mandible curved at the point are cultivated. No fruit is to be seen, at least in the gardens over the lower one, which is very wide (evasée), rounded of the peasants, who do not plant a cherry or an apple tree, and obtuse at the point. Nostrils basal, lateral, half closed but content themselves with the wild berries which grow by a membrane covered with feathers. Feet, tarsi longer in abundance in the woods and the marshes. On the estates than the middle toe; all the toes divided, lateral, and equal. of the nobility small orchards are here and there to be seen. Wings, first quill null* ; second rather shorter than the Flax and hemp, both of excellent quality, are staple prothird. (Temminck.)
ductions. The extensive forests furnish abundance of Example, Psittirostra Psittacea (Loxia Psitticea, Lath.; timber, chiefly pines, firs, birches, and alders: the oak, Psittirosira icterocephala, Temm.).
maple, and lime-tree are rare. The breeding of cattle is M. Temminck remarks that the above is the only species merely subservient to agriculture. The oxen are mostly of known to him, and that it is found in New Holland; but the Russian breed, and so are the horses, to which more he adds that he possesses a portrait of a second species, attention is paid. Besides Russian sheep there are many of which is green, with a grey beard.
German breed. Swine are kept in great numbers, but only Description of Psit:irostra Psittacea.—Male.--Head and few goats and a little poultry." Birds and hares are scarce, part of the neck yellow: body entirely green olive brown, and it is seldom that a stag or deer strays hither from the paler below; edge of the quills and tail-feathers yellowish; forests of Lithuania. But beasts of prey and fur-bearing tail equal; legs pale brown.
animals abound, such as bears, wolves, lynxes, foxes, marPemale.—Plumage nearly the same as that of the male, tens, squirrels, and badgers. Beavers and otters are nearly but without yellow on the head, which is green and yellowish. extinct. The lakes and rivers produce abundance of fish. grey upon the temples.
The only mineral products are bog.iron, limestone, sand Ń. Temminck 'observes that this genus has the bill stone, and clay. There are salt-springs near the Szelon, but formed nearly like that of the Parrots, and remarks that if no use is made of them. its toes were disposed in pairs, and nothing were known of
Manufactures and Trade. The inhabitants excel in its habits, it might be classed with them.
dressing skins and manufacturing leather; but, unlike the Mr. Swainson places the form in his subfamily Pyrrhu- Russians in general, they have not a turn for mechanics, line, family Fringillide, between Spermophila and Cory- and do not willingly apply to any kind of handicraft. The thus.
countrywomen hardly spin wool and flax sufficient to manuPSKOW was formerly a part of the government of St. facture linen, stockings, &c. for their own use. Some struses Petersburg, and afterwards of that of Novogorod, but it was and barks are built, and there are many sawmills; the erected into a separate government by the empress Catha- distilleries of brandy are few in number. There are three rine II. It is situated between 56° and 58° N. lat., and be
or four glass-furnaces. Some improvement has undoubtedly tween 27° 20' and 32° 5' E. long. It is bounded on the been made of late years, yet still, with the exception of Rusnorth-west by lake Pskow, on the north by the government sian leather, the exportation of the government is confined of St. Petersburg, on the north-east by Novogorod, on the to its own natural productions-rye, oats, barley, squared east by Twer, on the south-east by Smolensk, on the south- timber, masts, spars, planks, hemp, flax, hempseed and linwest by Witepsk, and on the west by Livonia. The area, seed, wool, hides, and a few other articles, which are sent to according to the survey of 1797, is 15,183 square miles, Pernau, St. Petersburg, and Narva, whence the inhabitwhich M. Arunoff increases to 16,128 square miles, both ants import colonial produce and other necessary articles. which are undoubtedly below the truth; but Storch, who is
A very fat river boat, for the conveyance of timber, straw, &c. On the followed by Hassel, Schubert, and lastly, in 1838, by Koppen, Wolga they are very large, have masts erected on them and have oars and a
sail. Sic in orig.
+ The chetwert, according to Kelly (Cambist), is nearly 6 bushels (596)
Religion and Education.—The great majority of the in- , (ywpaléos), warted, on account of most of the species being nabitants are Russians of the orthodox Greek religion. In covered with little tubercles), a genus of Papilionaceæ, of the north-east part of the government there are a few Finns, the natural family of Leguminosæ, characterised by the in the western cireles some Livonians, and near the chief | tube of the permanent calyx being sprinkled with callous town a colony of Esthonians, who, except that they retain points. Sepals five, united to the middle; stamens ten, usutheir own dialect, are quite blended with the Russians, and ally diadelphous. Legune indehiscent, one-seeded, somehave even embraced the Greek religion. There are also times ending in a beak. Leaves of various forms. Flowers many Germans in the towns. The Greek church is under blue, white, or purple. The species, about sixty in number, an archbishop, who has 450 churches, nine of which are and natives of different parts of the world, are either hercathedrals, and eight monks' and three nuns' convents in baceous plants or low shrubs, some of them ornamental, his diocese. In 1776 there were only 299 churches. Educa- and all of easy culture. They may be propagated either by tion is at an extremely low ebb in this government. Accord-cuttings or seeds, which they produce abundantly. P. esing to Schmidtlin, in 1835, there were only 41 schools, with culenta, the bread-root of North America, is cultivated 47 masters, and 1248 scholars, besides seven schools belong. I along the banks of the Missouri and in other parts of that ing to the clergy, with 24 masters and 870 scholars; in all country. The roots, which abound in farinaceous matter, 2110 scholars--one to 300 of the population; and there was are, like the tubers of the potato, employed as food, espeonly one printing-office, which belonged to the crown. cially during the winter months. In this climate it will This statenient however was given in 1832; and though we grow in the open air, but requires the protection of a frame have no later detailed official statement, it is certain that con to produce abundant crops of roots. P. corylifolia is diffused siderable improvement has since been made.
over every part of India, especially in the vicinity of villages, The government is divided into eight circles, those of during the rainy and cold seasons. It is employed as Pskow, Porkhow, Ostrow, Nowershew, Opotschka, Weli- stomachic and deobstruent. Other species are also used mekaja-Luki, Toropez, and Kholm.
dicinally. P. glandulosa is called in Chili, coulen, culen, Pskow, the capital of the government, is in 57° 40' N. or cullen. Some of the native tribes make a very intoxixat. and 28° 10' E. long., on the left bank of the Welikaja, cating kind of beer from a variety called yellow cullen. near.y five miles from its mouth in Lake Pskow. This PSORIASIS is a disease of the skin distinguished by town has acted a conspicuous part in the history of Russia. slightly raised red patches of various extent and form, and It is said to have been founded in the tenth century by generally covered with whitish scales. Several varieties of the grand-duchess Olga. It appears to have been at first the disease have received different names, according to the surrounded with a rampart of earth, and in the thirteenth form and severity of the eruption in each, and many others, century with a stone wall. At present the interior of the according to the part chietly or alone affected. The former city has some resemblance to that of Moscow. In the varieties are Psoriasis guttata, P. diffusa, P. gyrata, and P. centre of the town is the Kremlin, on the steep left bank of inveterata; among the latter are P. ophthalmica, P. palthe river, which was erected by the brave Prince Dowmont, maria, &c. who reigned from 1266 to 1299, whose remains are depo Psoriasis guttata is a mild form of the disease, consisting sited in the antient cathedral, where his sword is pre- of small red patches two or three lines in diameter covered served, with the inscription, ‘Honorem meum nemini dabo.' with very fine white scales. It occurs in various extent on The middle town, extending in the form of a semicircle all parts of the body, but most rarely on the face. At first about the citadel, is also surrounded with a wall; a third small red spots appear, and soon after present white scales very high and strong wall, five miles in extent, defends the at their centres; then the spots gradually enlarge and the great town, which envelopes the middle town. The forti- scales increase in number, till the redness begins to fade at fications, erected in 1701, by Peter the Great, have almost the centre, and as the scales fall off, the skin slowly assumes entirely disappeared. There is also a large suburb. Pskow its natural colour. The eruption is attended by a moderate must have been formerly a very populous city, if it is true itching, and by very slight symptoms of general disorder. that, in 1466, 48,000 inhabitants were carried off by the P. diffusa is in every respect a more severe form of the plague. It has sustained several memorable sieges, among disease. The spots are large and irregular, and often conothers, in 1614, when it was attacked without success by fluent, and covered with thick scaly incrustations. It apGustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden.
pears most frequently on the limbs and around the joints, Pskow has sadly declined from its antient power and often covering the whole of a limb with one scaly or rawgreatness, but is still a large town; it has one cathedral, looking patch, and sometimes occurring at once and with richly adorned with gilding and carved-work, fifty-nine equal severity on several parts of the body. The skin other Greek churches, in not more than half of which divine beneath the scales is very tender and irritable; it often service is performed, a Lutheran church, three monasteries, cracks and discharges a thin ichor, which concretes about an ecclesiastical seminary, a gymnasium, a district and other the fissures, and is attended by considerable pain and irrischools, an orphan asylum, and a handsome building for the tation, and some constitutional disturbance. The eruption government offices. It is the see of the Greek archbishop, often breaks out successively in different parts of the body, and the residence of the military governor. The present so that it is common for the disease to be protracted for population is 12,000, who manufacture Russia leather, linen, several months and even for years. sail-cloth, and glass,
· P. inveterata is only (as its name implies) a yet less curaTOPOPETZ, the chief town of the circle of the same name, ble form of the same disease. The skin has its whole texhas, according to Hassel, Hörschelmann, and others, a ture thickened and hard, its surface is covered by a population of 12,000, but Schmidtlin says that it does furfuraceous deposit, and in the neighbourhood of the joints not exceed 7500. It is an antient town, extremely well it is often very deeply and painfully cracked. The precedsituated for carrying on an extensive trade, communicating ing forms are commonly met with in those who are otherwise with Riga by means of the river Toropa, on which it is in pretty good health ; but this rarely occurs, except in situaterl, and which joins the Düna. There are thirteenthose whose constitutions are enfeebled by long disease or churches and two convents in the town. Most of the houses want. are of woon.
P. gyrata is a slight but very rare variety, distinguished The Germans call this government Pleskow or Pleskau, by the patches occurring in stripes of a singularly tortucus which is probably the right name, and the most antient that or serpentine form. the town bore, for the historian Cedrenus calls it Pliscoba. Of the local varieties of Psoriasis, the most interesting
(Hassel ; Siein: Hörschelmann; Schmidtlin, La Russe is that which occurs on the palms of the hands, and which, et la Pologne; and Russian official journals.)
being most frequent in those who work with light powders PSO'PHIA. , [AGAMI, in which article, the scientific and other irritating substances, is commonly called bakers', name of the bird is erroneously spelled Trophia.)
or bricklayers', or washerwomen's itch. Mr. Swainson places the form in his family Megapodinæ Psoriasis, in all its forms, is difficult of cure. The general (Megopodiidæ), between the Dicholophus and Crax. (ME- condition of the health being corrected by the means that GAPODUDÆ.]
in each case seem appropriate, the remedy which is most Mr. G. R. Gray arranges Psophia under his famüy Ar- frequently successfui in cases of long standing is arsenic, in deidæ, in the subfamily Psophina, which consists of that the form of from three to five drops of the Fowler's solution, genus and Cariama (Dicholophus, Ill.) only.
three times a day, for an adult. Active purging is also PSORA. (ITCH.]
often useful, especially in recent cases and in young subPSORA'LEA (so called froin the Greek psoraleos Ijects. Another good remedy is tincture of cantharides,
in doses of from three to five drops (for an adult) in water eminent,' says Freind (Hist. of Physic), ' for his great in once or more in the day; but the effects of both this and sight into philosophy and physic, which he learned from the arsenic require to be carefully watched during their ad- his father Hesychius (who was also a physician), and who ministration, ana they must be discontinued as soon as they had travelled into a great many countries in the pursuit of appear to produce any sickness or heat in the stomach. In knowledge. He was made count and archiater to Leo the addition to these, various other internal means have been Great, or the Thracian (who reigned from A.D. 457 to 474), recommended, and sometimes found useful, as decoctions of and was so much beloved by this emperor and the people, dulcamara, mezereon, and orchis, antimony, sulphur, &c. that the senate set up a statue for him in the baths of ZeuIndeed, in many cases it is found necessary to try one means xippus, built by Severus. (Malelas, In Vitâ Leonis.) Isidore after another without any rule, till one is found which pro- of Gaza, called by others the Pelusiote, who flourished in duces benefit. External remedies are generally of less the time of Justinian, saw another erected to him at Athens. value than internal. The most approved are vapour and (Photius, § 559.) And this author gives a further account sulphur baths, and ointments or lotions containing very of him, that he was an Alexandrian, though his family was small quantities of nitrate of mercury, or white precipitate, originally derived from Damascus; that he had great expeor kreasote, or alkalis. These however can only be em rience in physic, and did many wonderful cures; that in his ployed in the later stages of the disease: in the earlier, the practice he frequently ordered clysters and suppositories; mildest fomentations give relief, and all kinds of irritants that in surgery he seldom made use of fire or the knife, and must be carefully avoided.
was no friend to bleeding. He was preferred to all the PSYCHE (Yuxń). Apuleius is the first writer who modern physicians by his scholar Asclepiodotus, who grew relates the loves of Cupid and Psyche (Metamorph., lib. iv., famous for reviving the use of white hellebore, which in v.). According to his account, Psyche was the most lovely that time had grown quite out of vogue, and was not so creature that the world ever beheld. People flocked from much as known to Jacobus himself. Suidas is still larger all parts to see her, and neglected the worship of Venus, in his praise of this Jacobus, and says he attained to a perwho became in consequence so incensed against her, that fect knowledge in physic, both in theory and practice: ihat she commanded her son to inspire Psyche with love for he excelled all his contemporaries, that he might be comsome vile creature. Cupid however, instead of obeying the pared to the antients, and was superior to many of them. commands of his mother, became enamoured with 'Psyche, that he was beloved and adored by his patients, who thought and made her his wife. She was however subsequently de- him inspired by heaven; that they had an implicit faith in serted by him for disobeying certain injunctions which he him, because they never found his prognostic tail. Such an had given her. Inconsolable at her loss, she wandered eagerness had he for improving his own art, that they through the world in search of him, and after enduring many thought the soul of Æsculapius was transfused into him. trials and sorrows, was at length united to him. Jupiter Kuster tells us he has retrieved his true name Vúxplotos out conferred upon her immortality, and her union with Cupid of Malelas, whereas in the former editions of Suidas it was took place with the approbation of Venus and the other printed Yuxóxplotos; however, in the translation of Aëtius deities. A child was soon afterwards born to them, who i Tetrab., iii., Serm. 4, cap. 43, col. 608), we read Psywas called Pleasure.
christus. But I have reas n to believe that both these readMany writers consider the above tale an allegory, repre- ings are wrong; and if we consult Alexander Trallianus, senting the union between the divine love and the human we shall plainly discover that it ought to be read vuxóxonosoul. The word Psyche signifies in Greek both 'soul' and τoς or Ψυχρόχρηστος (for it may be either), as Φιλόχρηστος a butterfly.' We frequently find in antient works of art for he says in express terms that this name was applied 10 Cupid pressing Psyche to his bosom in the form of a but- him, őrı iypalvotoy tpopõ éxéxento (lib. v., cap. 4, p. 249, ed. terfly. It is thought by some modern writers that Psyche, Basil). Alexander gives him tlie epithet of θεοφιλέστατος, or the soul, was personified in the form of a butterfly in the and Suidas, after him, calls him copiang: and therefore there earlier representations of the allegory. When Psyche is must be an error in the text of Photius, where he and his represented with a human form, the wings of the butterfly father it is said doeßée noonv: and whoever attends to what are usually placed on her shoulders.
follows in Photius, will perceive it ought to be read eigeßée.' Though Apuleius is the first writer who mentions the To this account by Freind, it should be added that (appaloves of Cupid and Psyche, it is supposed the tale must rently to increase his influence over his patients) he prehave been current before his time, as there are many works tended to be able to divine their thoughts as well as to disof art representing this subject, which appear to have been tinguish their diseases. Some of his medieal preparations executed before the second century of the Christian æra, are preserved by Alexander Trallianus (pp. 645, 649), but which was the time in which Apuleius lived. (Brit. he does not appear to have left any works behind him. (See Museum, Townley Gallery, vol. i. pp. 147-148, Lond. 1836.) also Kühn, Additam. ad Elench. Medicor. Veterum d J. A.
PSYCHOʻTRÍA, a name variously derived, which is ap- Fabricio in Bibl. Gr. Exhibitum, 4to., Lips., 1838, Fascic. plied to a rather large tropical genus of the division of the great xvii.) family of Rubiacem which is called Cinchonaceæ. It is PSYLLA (Geoffroy), a genus of insects belonging to the characterised by having a calyx 5-parted, somewhat entire ; family Aphidie, which, according to Latreille, forms the corolla regular, funnel-shaped, five (rarely four) cleft; sta- second family of the Homopterous Hemiptera. mens five, rarely four, exserted or included within the The Psyllæ are minute insects, allied to those commonly throat of the corolla. Stigma bifid. Berry drupaceous, called plant-lice, and live upon trees and plants, from which crowned with the limb of the calyx, usually marked with they derive their nutriment by suction, and in so doing they ten ribs, and containing two nuts. Nuts ribbed; single often produce excrescences somewhat resembling gall-nuts, seeded. Trees or shrubs ; rarely herbaceous plants. Some particularly on their leaves and buds. They have two joints of the species are ornamental in foliage, and one, P. para- ) to the tarsi; the antennæ are composed of ten or eleven sitica, as its name indicates, is found growing on trees in joints, the last of which have two bristles; both sexes have the West India Islands.
wings, and they possess the faculty of leaping. Their larvæ Several of the species are supposed to possess considerable usually have a very flat body, broad head, and the abdomen medicinal properties. P. emetica is a small under-shrub, a rounded behind: the legs are terminated by a little memnative of New Granada on the banks of the Magdalena, and branous vesicle accompanied beneath with two hooks. Four probably of other parts of South America; the Cephælis wide and flat pieces, which are the sheaths of the wings, emelica of some other authors. The stem is erect, simple, distinguish the pupa state; several of the species in this hairy, and tomentose ; leaves oblong, acuminate, narrow at stage, as well as in ihe larva state, are covereu with a white the base, membranous, ciliate, rather hairy on the under substance resembling cotton. The species are very numesurface; stipules very short, ovate, acuminate; peduncles rous, and are often named after the plants which they few-flowered, axillary, sub-racemose. This species has long infest. Mr. Stephens records twenty-six species as natives been celebrated as yielding the black or Peruvian or striated of this country. ipecacuanha, which, analysed by Pelletier, gave of emetine 6, PSY'LLIUM, a name of a plant which occurs in Dios. fatty matter 2, and of starch and ligneous matter, the latter corides, &c., supposed to be so named froni Psyllus (vórdoc), bearing but a small proportion, 92. P. herbacea is an In a flea, from the resemblance of the seeds to that insect. The dian species used for the same purposes. The roots of P. plant, Plantago Psyllium of botanists, is common in the south sulphurea and of P. tinctoria are employed in dyeing. of France; its seeds are small, oblong and tiatrish, smoothi,
PSYCHRISTUS, JACOBUS (’iákwßoc vúxploros), a slippery, and shining, abounding in mucilaginous matter ; celebrated physician of the fifth century. He was very whence their decoction is employed as a demulcent, and for
many of the same purposes as linseed tea is in this country. To Collini, the director of the elector-palatine at MannThey are also employed by the manufacturers of muslins, heim. we are indebted for the first introduction of this and hence form an article of commerce in the south of Heteroclite. He described the skeleton of the long-billed France. It is remarkable, according to Dr. Royle, that in species from a specimen, found at Aichstädt near Solenthe Eastern countries, where translations of Dioscorides con- hofen, in that Museum, and figured it in the Memoirs of tinue to be employed for the description of medicinal plants the Palatine Academy (Part. Phys., v. 58, et seq.), and drugs, the seeds of another species of Plantago, Collini had well made out the head, the neck, the retrothe P. Ispaghula of Roxburgh (from the Persian Ispagool), grade direction of the trunk, the small tail, the left leg, should be employed for and considered identical with the and the two arms; but beyond this he seems to have been fuslioon, that is, the psyllium of the Greeks.
at a loss. He came to the conclusion that the animal was PTARMIGAN. TETRAONIDÆ.)
neither a bird nor a bat; inquired whether it might not be PTEROCARPUS (from arepòv, a wing, and caprós, some amphibian; and finished by expressing his opinion fruit, from its pod being winged), a genus of the natural that the type must be sought among the marine vertebrata. order.of Leguminosæ, containing many plants valuable for Blumenbach took a widely different view of the subject, the nature of their products, and all of which are found in- and referred this extraordinary form to the Palmipede or digenous in the tropical parts both of the Old and New web-footed birds. World. The calyx is 5-cleft, corolla papilionaceous, sta Professor Hermann of Strasburg, who drew upon his mens 10, ovary long-stalked. Legume indehiscent, irre- | imagination for a restoration of the animal, and clothed it gular, somewhat orbicular, surrounded with a wing, often in a hairy skin, considered it to be a mammal, and assigned rugose, and 1-seeded. The species are about 20 in number, to it a situation between the mammiferous class and birds, forming trees or shrubs: Leaves unequally pinnate, with still more intermediate than that occupied by the bats. the inflorescence in axillary racenes or forming terminal Sömmering also arranged the form among the mammals panicles. Many of the species, as P. dalbergioides, Marsu- in the neighbourhood of the bats, not without an elaborate pium, Indicum, and Santalinum, afford excellent timber; detail of the reasons which had conducted him to that consome, as the bark of P. flavus, are employed in dyeing; and clusion. others are thought to possess medicinal properties.
It was reserved for the penetrating eye and acute but paP. dalbergioides is a native of the Andaman Islands, tient investigation of Cuvier effectually to destroy these where it grows to an immense size, and forms a valuable theories, supported though they were by weighty authoritimber-tree, of which the wood is known as Andaman red ties: the satisfactory reasoning by which he disposes of them wood, from its resemblance to mahogany; but it is redder, one after the cther, and proves conclusively from the organ heavier, and coarser grained, though that of the root is finer ization of the animal that it was a Saurian (in which opi than that of the stem. It was introduced by.Col. Kyd into nion he was supported by Oken) will be found at large in the Calcutta botanic garden in 1794, whence it has been the fifth volume of the last edition of his Ossčmens Fossiles. spread into the country. P. Santalinus, or three-leaved Our limits will not permit us to detail the links of the harPterocarpus, is a native of India, which yields the Red monious chain of his proofs; and we must here content Sandal or Red Saunder's wood of commerce, a substance ourselves with observing that the form of the os quadratum long known for its employment in medicine, being described appears to have been the principal key by which the great in the works of the Arabs under the name of sundroos. French naturalist solved this intricate zoological puzzle, and The tree is distinguished by having the three leaflets detected its Saurian character. 'Behold,' says he, after roundish, retuse, and glabrous. Racemes axillary, simple, or having built, as it were, the animal befure our eyes, 'an branched. Stamens triadelphus (5, 4, and 1). The wood animal which, in its osteology, from its teeth to the end of from the centre of the tree is imported in large billets, its claws, offers all the characters of the Saurians; nor can which, when fresh, are of a brilliant red colour, but which we doubt that those characters existed in its integuments gradually deepens by exposure to air, so that the outside and soft parts—in its scales, its circulation, its generative becomes blackish-coloured. It is insipid, inodorous, and organs. But it was at the same time an animal provided takes a fine polish, and may be distinguished from Brazil with the means of flight,—which, when stationary, could not wood by the latter yielding its colour to water alone, whilst have made much use of its anterior extremities, even if it the red-sandal wood barely tinges it.
did not keep them always folded as birds keep their wings,Many of these trees exude a reddish-coloured juice which nevertheless might use its small anterior fingers to which hardens into a kind of astringent gum. The suspend itself from the branches of trees, but when at rest name of dragon's blood has been applied to that from must have been ordinarily on its hind feet, like the birds P. Draco, a native of South America and the West India again ; and, also like them, must have carried its neck subislands, as well as to the similar product of several other erect and curved backwards, so that its enormous head trees, while that of P. erinaceus has long been considered should not interrupt its equilibrium.' to be the real Kino of the west coast of Africa.
Well may Cuvier remark, that of all the beings whose This substance seems to have been first mentioned by antient existence is revealed to us in his great work above Moon, in his travels into the interior of Africa, as quoted by alluded to, these Pterodactyles are the most extraordinary; Murray, ' App. Med.,' vi, p. 202, as a red gum issuing from and that if we could see them alive, they would be the most incisions in trees, which he mistook for dragon's blood. Dr. at variance with living forms. Their 'flight was not perFothergill introduced this into British practice in 1757, formed by means of ribs as in the dragons (Dragon); nor having been first indebted to Dr. Oldfield for information by means of a wing without distinct fingers, like that of a respecting its virtues. The red astringent gum, or Kino, as bird; nor by a wing leaving the thumb alone at liberty, as it was called, was said to have been procured out of a ship in the bats; but by a wing sustained principally on one very from the coast of Africa. Mungo Park discovered a tree, elongated finger, whilst the rest preserved their ordinary which he found called pao de sangue by the Portuguese, on brevity and their claws. At the same time these flying the coast of Senegal, and which was afterwards ascertained reptiles-a denomination almost contradictory—have a long to be P. erinaceus of Lamarck. Substitutes were early intro- neck, the bill of a bird, everything in short that could conduced for this substance, so that doubts may be entertained duce to give them a strange aspect. (Oss. Foss.) respecting what was originally employed, as the name Kino is Dr. Buckland (Bridgewater Treatise) ranks these flying so similar to the Sanscrit and Hindu names, Kinsuka and reptiles among the most remarkable disclosures made by Kuenee, of the gum of Butea frondosa, which is, no doubt, geology, and considers them as presentirug inore singular one of the earliest substitutes for this substance. [Kino.] combinations of form than we find in any other creatures
P. Marsupium is another species, a native of the Circar yet discovered amid the ruins of the antient earth. He Mountains of India, and grows to a large tree. It also calls attention to the extraordinary discordance of opinion exudes a red juice which hardens into a strong simply astrin- respecting a creature whose skeleton was almost entire, and gent gum of a dark red colour, so much resembling that observes that this discordance arose from the presence of of the Butea frondosa, that, according to Dr. Roxburgh, the characters apparently belonging to each of the three classes same analysis might answer for both. [Kino.]
to which it was referred; the form of its head and length of PTERÓCERAS. (STROMBIDÆ.]
the neck resembling that of birds, its wings approaching to PTE'ROCLES. [TETRAONIDÆ.]
the proportion and form of those of bats, and ihe body and PTERODACTYLE (Pterodactylus of Cuvier; Orni- tail approximating to that of ordinary mammalia. These thocephalus of Sömmering), a genus of fossil Saurians, characters, connected with a small skúll, as is usual among whose type is entirely extinct
reptiles, and a beak furnished with not less than sixiz
pointed teeth, presented, he remarks, a combination of ap- | the entire animal-machine for the functions of flight. The parent anomolies, which the genius of Cuvier reconciled. details of this inquiry will afford striking examples of nume. * In his hands,' says the Professor, in continuation, this ap- rical agreement, in the component bones of every limb, with parently monstrous production of the antient world has those in the corresponding limbs of living lizards, and are been converted into one of the most beautiful examples yet at the same time illustrative of contrivances for the adjustafforded by comparative anatomy, of the harmony that per- ment of the same organ to effect different ends.' vades all nature in the adaptation of the same parts of the Dr. Buckland observes that we are already acquainted animal frame to infinitely varied conditions of existence. with eight species, varying from the size of a snipe to that of In the case of the Pterodactyle, we have an extinct genus of a cormorant. the order Saurians, in the class of Reptiles (a class that now Hermann von Meyer enumerates the following named moves only on land or in the water), adapted by a peculiarity species:of structure to fly in the air. It will be interesting to see 1. Pterodactylus longirostris, Cuv. (Ornithocephalus how the anterior extremity, which in the fore-leg of the longirostris, Somm.; Pterodactylus crocodilocephalöides, modern lizard and crocodiles is an organ of locomotion on Ritgen). land, became converted into a membraniferous wing; and Locality, Solenhofen. (About the size of a woodcock.) how far the other parts of the body are modified so as to fit
5. Pterodactylus Münsteri, Goldf.
6. Pterodactylus Macronyr, Buckland (Ornithocephalus Banthensis, Theodori).
Localities, Lyme Regis, Buckl.; Banz (Germany), H. von Meyer. (Size about that of a raven; wings, when expanded, about four feet from tip to tip.)
7. Pterodactylus grandis, Cuv. (Ornithocephalus gigan. teus, Sömm.).
Locality. Solenhofen? (About four times as large as Pt. longirostris.)
8. Pterodactylus Bucklandi, Goldf. Locality, Stonesfield. Dr. Buckland remarks that in Pterodactylus Macronyx (lias at Lyme Regis) there is an unusual provision for giving support and movement to a large head at the extremity of a long neck, by the occurrence of bony tendons running parallel to the cervical vertebræ, like the tendons that pass along the back of the
Pigmy Musk (Moschus pig. mæus) and of many birds. This provision, he observes, does not occur in any modern Lizards, whose necks are
short, and require no such aid to support the head. In the Pterodactylus brevirostris
compensation which these tendons afforded for the weakness
arising from the elongation of the neck, Dr. Buckland sees 3. Pterodactylus crassirostris, Goldf.
an example of the same mechanism in an extinct order of Locality, Solenhofen.
the most antient reptiles, which is still applied to strengthen P. C., No. 1179.