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The whole Prussian monarchy is divided into eight pro- | ments, the number of inhabitants in a German geographivinces, and these into twenty-five governments.

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cal square mile (equal to about twenty-one English squaro The following table shows the extent of the whole Prus- miles), the principal towns, and the population, according slan monarchy, the population of the provinces and govern- | to the return of 1837, the latest published:

View of the Area and the Population of the Prussian Monarchy at the end of 1837.

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The Constitution is an unlimited monarchy, hereditary in and his successors, to the end of the reign of Frederic the male and female line. Prussia had formerly a representative William II. His son Frederic William III. ascended the body called the Estates. In process of time the power of the throne on the 16th of November, 1797, and immediately crown increased, and the government was carried on without commenced a general reform in the administration, which the intervention of the estates, which fell into disuse. After was very much needed. In the war of the European the conclusion of the wars of the Revolution, the late king powers against France, he maintained a neutrality as Frederic William III. issued, on the 22nd of May, 1815, an stipulated in the treaty of Basle, in 1795, and profited by ordinance, which promised that each province should have this season of peace to promote the prosperity of the people, its own estates; and it was understood that at a subsequent and especially to introduce economy into the public expenditime there should be a general representation of the whole ture. Peace being concluded at Luneville, in 1801, by which kingdom. Accordingly, in July, 1823, a law was promul- the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France, Prussia gated for the institution of provincial estates, which have obtained by the decision of the diet of the Empire in 1803 an been since regularly convoked in all the provinces ; but the accession of territory of nearly 4000 English square miles, with king did not take any steps towards the institution of a above 400,000 inhabitants. In the war of the third coalition general national representation. On the accession of the against France, which broke out in 1805, Prussia still prepresent king Frederic William IV., it seems to have been served its neutrality; but the unexpected march of a French expected that he would fulfil what were understood to have and Bavarian army through part of the Prussian territory, been his father's intentions, and while he was at Königsberg, and a visit of the emperor Alexander to Berlin, induced in Sept. 1840, to receive the homage of the estates of the pro- the king secretly to join the coalition against France, o rince of Prussia, that assembly resolved, by a great majority, the 8th of November, 1805, upon certain conditions. After to insert in their address to his majesty a clause reminding the battle of Austerlitz, peace was concluded between him of the ordinance of 22nd May, 1815, and requesting him Austria and France. A few days before, on the 15th of to fulfil the promise of a national representation. The king, December, 1805, the Prussian ambassador, Count Haug however, in his answer declares, that his father, soon after witz, concluded a preliminary convention between Prussia the issuing of that ordinance, was induced by the events and France, by which Prussia ceded Anspach to Bavaria, that took place in other countries, to take into serious con and Cleves and Neufchâtel to France, which made over the sideration ihe meaning that might be given to his words; that electorate of Hanover to Prussia, and Prussia in fact took reflecting on the sacred duties of the royal office confided to possession of that country. This led to a declaration of war him by God, he resolved to fulfil his promises, but keeping by England against Prussia. Various negotiations followed, aloof from the prevalent notion of a general national re- which ended in a war between Prussia, in alliance with presentation, he should follow, for the real good of the Saxony, and France. Hostilities began on the 9th of people committed to his care, and with the sincerest con- October, on the Saale, and on the following day the adviction, the most natural course, and which, conformably to vanced guard of the Prussian army was repulsed at historical tradition, was the best adapted to the German na Saalfield, on which occasion the brave Prince Louis of tional character. The result was the establishment of pro. Prussia was killed. The battles of Jena and Auerstadt, vincial and district assemblies in all parts of the monarchy. on the 14th October, decided the fate of the Prussian army.

Prussia as a member of the German Confederation, is the The most important fortresses between the Weser and the second in rank; its contingent to the army is 79,234 men, Elbe surrendered in rapid succession, and Napoleon viz. 58,357 infantry of the line, 3071 light in fantry, 11,319 entered Berlin on the 27th of October. Frederic William cavalry, 5075 artillery and train with 100 pieces of cannon, retired to Memel, collected a new army, and, together with 792 pioneers and pontoneers. This contingent, which forms his ally the emperor of Russia, marched to oppose the adthe 4th, 5th, and 6 ih corps of the army, is for the German pro vance of the enemy in East Prussia. The battles of vinces ; Posen and Prussia being no part of the Confedera- Eylau and Friedland led to the peace of Tilsit, 9th July, tion. It contributes 2000 tlorius per annum to the expenses 1807, by which the king lost half of his dominions, and the of the Diet; and in the full council has, like the other kings, French troops continued to occupy the other half. The four votes.

French did not evacuate Berlin till December, 1808, so that History. The history of Prussia is brought down to the the king could not return to his capital till the end of 1809. latter end of the eighteenth century, in the articles Bran- Frederic William non laboured with incesant zeal and DENBURG and FREDERIC WILLIAM the Great Elector, firmness to heal the wounds which war les inflicted, and to

give an entirely new form to the internal administration. | purpose; they can put to sea from certain places only, and if The army was reduced to 42,000 men.

they are found elsewhere, they are liable to be sent to KöIn December, 1808, accompanied by his queen, he went nigsberg or Fischhausen, which, even if they should be found to St. Petersburg to confirm his alliance with the emperor innocent, causes a loss of one or more days. These consiAlexander. After a stay of sorne weeks, he returned to derations induced the government of Königsberg, in 1809, Königsberg, and on the 23rd December, 1809, made his to propose to the inhabitants to farm the amber, but the entry into Berlin. But the joy of the king and of the negotiation failing, the right of collecting amber was farmed peo was damped by the unexpected death of the queen in 1811 to a Mr. Douglas for 10,000 dollars per annum. Louisa, on the 19th July, 1810. On the 24th February, Mr. Douglas showed our travellers his warehouse, which, 1812, he concluded an offensive alliance with France, and on account of the inflammable quality of the amber, is when war broke out between Russia and France, in June, made fire-proof and closed with massy iron doors. There 1812, he sent 30,000 men to join the 10th French corps were at that time 150,000 pounds in the warehouse. This under Marshal Macdonald, which was employed in the siege was a larger stock than usual, because the demand from Conof Riga. On the rapid retreat of the French from Russia, stantinople, which is the chief market, was much diminished, the Prussian corps was likewise obliged to retire, but Gene- partly by the wars in which the Porte was engaged, partly by ral York, who commanded it, concluded a convention with the ordinances of the Sultan to restrict luxury. Mr. Douglas the Russian general Diebitsch, by which the Prussian corps had farmed only the collection from Memel to the territory was declared neutral and separated from the French army of Danzig; that which is collected about Danzig is farmed by The Prussian people now began to entertain hopes of seeing the city itself. It is remarkable that the quantity of amber their country delivered from the yoke under which it had so collected annually has always remained the same, as appears long suffered, when the king called the nation to arms. on examining the accounts from 1531 to 1811. The manuThe enthusiasm with which this call was answered enabled factures of the province are confined to the towns, of which the king to bring into the field, in 1813, a numerous and the principal are Danzig, Elbing, and Königsberg. The comwell-disciplined army. The campaign of 1813, the advance merce of the province has greatly declined in comparison of the allies to Paris

, the capture of that city in March, with its once Hourishing state, as the many great ware1814, the deposition of Napoleon, his removal to the island houses that stand empty in all the ports afford a melan. of Elba, and ihe restoration of the Bourbons, followed in rapid choly proof. The rigorous prohibitory system of Russia is succession. After the conclusion of the peace of Paris, the the chief if not the only cause of this decline. king of Prussia visited London in company with the emperor After the Goths left the shores of the Baltic, they were Alexander, in June, 1814, and he afterwards attended at the succeeded by different Sclavonian tribes. Conrad, duke or congress at Vienna. The return of Napoleon from Elba in Masovia, being unable to defend his country against these 1815 led to a new alliance between Prussia, Austria, Russia, mercenaries, called to his assistance the Teutonic knights, and England, who declared war against him. The battle of to whom he assigned, in 1230, a tract of land on the VisWaterloo led to the general peace of Europe, which has tula, where they built Thorn and Culm. The power of the not since been interrupted. Frederic William continued till Order gradually increased; their territory became very rich his death, on the 7th June, 1840, to devote all his attention and flourishing; but the heavy war-taxes and the prodigal to improve the manufactures, commerce, and administration magnificence of the knights caused the nobles and the great of his dominions: the most important transaction of his towns to put themselves under the protection of Poland, and, reign was the conclusion of the commercial league of which by a treaty concluded at Thorn in 1466, West Prussia was we have already spoken.

ceded to Poland, retaining however its own constitution. PRUSSIA, properly so called, formerly designated by the The German empire, to which the territory of the Order was name of the Kingdom of Prussia, and afterwards divided into considered to belong, refused to recognise the treaty o. the two provinces of East and West Prussia, now forms Thorn, and the knights, who retained possession of East only one province, which is called the Province of Prussia. Prussia, refused to do homage to the king of Poland, and It is situated between 52° 54' and 55° 53' N. lat. and be- chose Albert of Brandenburg, son of the margrave Frederic tween 16° 42' and 22° 45' E. long. It is bounded on the the Elder, of Anspach and Baireuth, for their grand-master, north by the Baltic, which washes the coast for about 270 hoping by the help of his house to be able to throw off their miles, on the east by Russia, on the south by the kingdom vassalage to Poland. But the German empire did nothing, of Poland and the province of Posen, and on the west by and on the peace of i525 the Prussian territory of the Order Brandenburg and Pomerania. Its area is 24,780 English was accepted by the prince for himself and for his own and square miles, of which 800 are water, and the population is his brother's male descendants as a sef dependent on 2,152,873. The climate is temperate and healthy, though Poland, under the title of a grand-duchy. Albert being very cold in winter, very changeable on the coast, and a Protestant, the Reformation spread over the whole progenerally rather damp. The face of the country is level, vince. broken here and there by low ranges of bills. The forests (A. C. Preuss, Beschreibung von Preussen, 8vo., 1835; which cover the sandy plains are estimated at two millions Blumenbach, Gemälde der Preussischen Monarchie, 8vo., of acres.

The principal rivers are the Vistula, the Pregel, 1835; Dieterici, Statistische Vebersicht der wichtigsten and the Memel, or Niemen. There are some hundreds of Gegenstände des Verkehrs und Verbrauchs im Preussischen small lakes, namely, 300 in East and 150 in West Prussia; Staate, fc., 8vo., 1838 ; J. G. Hoffmann, Die Lehre von but no large ones, unless we reckon as such the two Haffs, den Steuern, 8vo., 1840; J. C. Müller, Geographisches which communicate with the sea only by canals, and have Wörterbuch des Preussischen Staates, 4 vols. 8vo., 1836; fresh water. [CURISCHES HAFF; Frisches Hafr.] Of J. W. Heidemann, Topographisch-Statistisches Wörterbuch the smaller ones, M. Preuss names 34 of various sizes, der Preussischen Monarchie, 2 vols. 8vo., 1836 ; Stein; from 5 to 10 or 15 square miles in extent; the two largest Hörschelmann; Cannabich, &c.) are the Mauer lake, 40 square miles, and the Spirding lake, PRUSSIAN BLUE. (BLUE.] 70 square miles in extent. With regard to the natural PRUSSIC ACID. (HYDROCYANIC ACID.] productions, the province produces corn, pulse, flax of ex PRUTENIC TABLÈS. (REINHOLD, ERASMUS.] cellent quality, hemp, tobacco, hops, madder, potatoes, and PRUTH, a large navigable river in the Carpathian mountimber. There are good breeds of the usual domestic ani- tains, in the circle of Stanislawow. It flows for about 30 mals, abundar.ce both of fresh-water and sea fish, and bees. miles to the north, and then to the east through the BuckoThe mineral kingdom is very poor; iron however, in various wina into Moldavia. From the point at which it leaves the forms, is abundant, and that singular production amber is Buckowina, it has formed for the whole remainder of its far more plentiful in this province than in any other part of course, since the peace concluded at Bucharest in 1812, the the world. [AMBER.] We extract a few particulars from boundary between Russian and Turkish Moldavia. After the journey of Messrs. A. von Humboldt, Ehrenberg, and a course of about 500 miles it falls into the Danube below Rose, performed in the year 1829. ' Formerly the collection Galacz. It is remarkable in history for the narrow escape of amber was under the direction of persons appointed by of Peter the Great in 1711, who was here completely surthe government. As much the larger portion is cast up by rounded by the Turks and Tartars near Falezyn. He was the sea, and it is therefore easy for the inhabitants of the happily extricated from his dangerous situation by the address coast

, especially fishermen, to collect it on their own ac- of his consort Catherine I, who, scconded by field-marshal count, they are subject to very annoying restrictions; they Scherematoff, made proposals of peace to the grand-vizir, cannot enjoy an aquatic excursion without subjecting them- supported, it is said, by powerful arguments in the shape of selves to a strict search by the officers appointed for the presents of money and jewels. Peace was concluded on

the 23rd of July, 1711, by which Peter obtained his own diately before the king's trial he was ordered into the cusdeliverance and that of his army by the cession of Azoff tody of the serjeant-at-arms for 'denying the supremacy and some other places.

of parliament' in a pamphlet entitled “The Memento. The Pruth is the Porata (Tópara) of Herodotus (iv. (Rushworth's Collections, vol. ii., p. 1389.) On the 6th of 48).

December he was arrested by the army, and, together with PRYNNE, WILLIAM, an eminent compiler of records, many of his party, ejected from the House of Commons. and a distinguished political character in the reign of From this time he became a bitter enemy of Cromwell and Charles I. and during the Commonwealth, was born in the the army party; and in consequence of his writings against year 1600, at Swainswick near Bath, and received his early them, was again imprisoned for several years at Dunster education in the grammar-school of that city. He became Castle in Somersetshire and Pendennis Castle in Cornwall. a commoner of Oriel in 1616, and took his bachelor's degree Being expressly disabled by parliament' to officiate or be at Oxford in 1620. Soon after taking his degree, he in any office concerning the administration of justice within removed to Lincoln's Inn, in which Society he was called to the Commonwealth,' he was, in September, 1652, discharged the bar, and subsequently became bencher and reader. His from his office of recorder of Bath; to which however he was pame scarcely appears in the Law Reports of his time, again elected shortly after the Restoration. (Council Book and he never practised at the bar to any considerable ex- of the Corporation of Bath.) In the early part of the year tent. He applied himself much to the study of contro- 1660, having returned to his seat in the House of Commons versial divinity, and became a devoted follower of the well as an excluded member, he is said, in a letter to General known Puritan divine Dr. John Preston, who was at that Monk (Wimwood's Memorials, vol. iii.), to have exceedingly time lecturer at Lincoln's Inn. In accordance with the asserted the king's right,' but with so much of his characdoctrines of the Puritans respecting church government, teristic bitterness and imprudence, that Monk sent for him he published, soon after he came to Lincoln's Inn, several and admonished him to be quiet. Upon the dissolution of tracts against Arminianism and prelatical jurisdiction, by the parliament, in March, 1660, he was elected to serve in which, as well as by promoting and encouraging motions in this new parliament for the city of Bath. the superior courts for prohibitions to the High Commission Soon after the Restoration he was appointed keeper of Court, he greatly exasperated Archbishop Laud and the the records in the Tower, an office for which his habits of clergy against him. In the year 1632 he published a viru- study peculiarly fitted him, and which furnished him with lent pamphlet called . Histrio-Mastrix, or a Scourge for the opportunity of compiling his laborious and useful collecStage-Players,' in which he denounced in coarse and scurril- tions respecting constitutional and parliamentary history. ous language the prevailing fashion of the day for masques, After this period, his pragmatical disposition again brought interludes, and other similar entenainments. Amusements him into difficulty by the publication of a pamphlet against of this kind being the favourits recreation of the court (the the proposal bill for regulating corporations. This paper, queen herself having performed in a Pastoral at Somerset- being considered by the House of Commons to be a seditious house), Prynne's book gave great offence, and the attorney- libel, he was reprimanded by the Speaker, and threatened general prosecuted him for it in the Star-Chamber. The with expulsion and prosecution; but upon his making a full court fined him 30001., ordered him to be expelled from the confession and recantation, no proceedings were taken university of Oxford and the Society of Lincoln's Inn, and against him. He died in Lincoln's Inn, in October, degraded from the bar, to be set twice on the pillory, and to 1669. lose both his ears; to have his book burned by the common Prynne was a most laborious and voluminous writer. A hangman, and to be imprisoned for life. In conformity catalogue of his works (which consist of nearly 200 volumes) with this sentence, he was formally degraded in the univer- is given, after an account of his life, in Wood's Athene, vol. sity of Oxford, in April, 1634, and his named erased from iii., p. 844, edit. Bliss. They are justly characterised by the lists. Three years afterwards, while imprisoned in the Wood as displaying great industry, but little judgment. Tower under the above sentence, he published another The most useful among them are his Calendar of Parliapamphlet, entitled “ News from Ipswich,' reflecting severely mentary Writs,' and his Records.' The latter work, coriupon the hierarchy generally, and upon Laud and several of sisting of 3 vols. in folio, professed to illustrate and prove the bishops in particular. For this publication he was again the supremacy of the kings of England in all ecclesiastical prosecuted in the Star-Chamber, and sentenced to pay a affairs within the realm, by records taken from the earliest fine of 50001., to be set on the pillory, to be branded on periods of English history to the reign of Elizabeth, but the both cheeks with the letters S. and L. (Seditious Libeller), author did not live to carry his design farther than the to lose the remainder of his ears, and to be closely im- reign of Henry III. prisoned for life in Caernarvon Castle. These outrageous sen PRYTANIS (Ipútavis), the name of the chief magistrate iences were rigidly executed; and the usual consequence of in many of the Grecian states. In some states the Prytanis undue severity appeared in the popular sympathy and party had the superintendence of all matters relating to religion, spirit which it excited. The Puritan friends of Prynne thus corresponding to the king archon at Athens. (Compare Hocked to Caernarvon Castle in such numbers, that it was Aristot., Polit., vi.

5.) We read of this office in Corinth, thought necessary to change the scene of his confinement; Corcyra, Miletus, Tenedos, Pergamos, Cos, Rhodes, &c. and after he had been at Caernarvon about ten weeks, he was (Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alterth., i., p. 194.) illegally removed by a warrant from the lords of the council At Athens, the name of Prytanes (aputáves) was given to to the castle of Mont Orgueil in the island of Jersey. Here the members of the senate of five hundred, who acted as he remained until the beginning of the Long Parliament in presidents of the senate and of the assemblies of the people. 1641, when, upon his petition to the House of Commons, he The senate of five hundred was divided into ten sections of was released by a warrant from the Speaker, and resolutions fifty each, who were chosen respectively from the ten tribes were passed declaring both the sentences against him in the into which the Athenian people was divided. Each tribe Star-Chamber to be contrary to law. Clarendon and Anthony presided in turn during 35 or 36 days, as the case might be, Wood describe the extraordinary demonstrations of popular so as to complete the lunar year of 354 days (12 X 295). feeling in his favour on his landing at Southampton and on Their period of office was called a prytany (npuraveia). As his journey to London. (History of the Rebellion, vol. i., however fifty was too large a number to conduct business p. 199; Athence Oxonienses, vol. iii., p. 848.) Soon after conveniently, every fifty was divided into five bodies of ten wards he was returned as member of parliament for New- each, who presided for seven days over the rest, and were port in Cornwall, and about the same time was made a therefore called proëdri (apócdpoi); and from these proëdri bencher at Lincoln's Inn. In 1643 he was employed with an éalotárns was chosen for one day to preside as chairman Clement Walker by the parliament to conduct the prosecu- in the senate and the assembly of the people; during his Lion of Colonel Fiennes for cowardice in surrendering the day of office he was entrusted with the keys of the treasury city of Bristol, and seems to have been busily and cordially and archive office, and with the state seal. engaged in the proceedings of the Commons at that eventful The prytanes had a building to hold their meetings in, time. Serjeant Hyde having been dismissed from his where they were entertained at the public expense during office of recorder of Bath, in consequence of the ordinances their prytany. This building was called the Prytaneion of parliament passed in September and October, 1647, (mputaveiov), and was used for a variety of purposes. (HerPrynne was elected recorder by a considerable majority of mann, Political Antiquities of Greece, Ø 127.) the corporation. He took no part in the violent proceed PRZEMYSL is a circle in the Austrian kingdom o. ings of the later years of the Long Parliament; and imme- Galicia, about 2000 square miles in extent, with a popula

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