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lity to Dacca, where it is used in the fabrication of the swimming Brachyura• the two last pair are inserted mora finest muslins. The principal imports are cotton piece- or less high above the preceding, above which they bend goods, from Britain, Bengal, and Madras, British woollens, themselves back. The abdomen is very small, and in iron, steel
, quicksilver, copper, cordage, borax, sulphur, the male does not even cover the appendages fixed near its gunpowder, saltpetre, fire-arms, coarse porcelain, English base. (M. E.) glass.ware, opium, tobacco, cocoa and areca nuts, sugar, and M. Milne Edwards makes this tribe consist of three gee spirits. Crawfurd estimated the value of the imports be- nera, thus characterized :fore 1823 at 300,0001., and that of the exports at the same
Linear between , Carrying on the sum. According to a census taken by Crawfurd in 1826
the base of the external border the town and suburbs contained a population of 8666 in
feet of the se- a great auriculi- Ranina. dividuals, exclusive of strangers.
form prolonga(Symes, Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava ;
Second joint of having the
tion. Snodgrass's Narrative of the Burmese War; Crawfurd's
the external not enlarged Journal of an Embassy to the Court of Ava.)
plastron. RA'NIDÆ. [Frogs, vol. x.] The reader should refer to
Very wide between the base of Mr. Bell's interesting History of British Reptiles. where
the second pair of feet, which are Raninoïdes. the experiments of Edwards proving the existence of cuta
widely separated from the third neous respiration in the frog after the possibility of commu
pair. nication with the lungs was prevented, are recorded, and many very valuable remarks are concentrated.
Ranina dentata may be taken as an example of the tribe. RANINIANS, the name by which M. Milne Edwards
Locality. The Indian Seas; Isle of France. designates the fourth tribe of the family Apterura, belong-creeps even to the tops of houses (sur le fafte des maisons)
Habits.-Rumphius states that it comes to land, and ing to the section of Anomourous Decapod Crustaceans.
(M. E.) This tribe, in its general form and in the conformation of its feet, approaches very closely to the Hippians, and espe- figured by Rumphius, and confounded by most modern
M. Milne Edwards remarks that the Cancer dorsipesa cially to the Albuneæ. [HiPPA.]
authors with Raninoïdes lævis and Albunea Symnista, The carapace of the Raninians is convex laterally, nearly straight from before backwards, wide and truncated ante. appears to belong to this genus. riorly, and gradually narrowed backwards. The ocular would place Eryon Caribensis of Fréminville (Ann. des
In the neighbourhood of this tribe M. Milne Edwards peduncles are lodged in the orbits, but are bent (coudés), Sciences Nat., 1st series, tom. xxv., p. 275, pl. 8, B). and composed of three moveable pieces. The internal antennæ have no fossets, and are not capable of bending
Fossil RANINIANS. themselves back under :he front; the external antennæ are The fossil designated by Ranzani as Ranina Aldrovandı very short and very srout at their bases. The external belongs, in the opinion of M. Milne Edwards, to the tribe jaw-feet are very much elongated, but not pediform, and of Raninians, and may be referred to the genus Ranina. behind their insertion the pterygostomian regions of the RANSOM, a word common to the French (rançon) and carapace unite themselves to the sterr.al plastron, without English languages, the sense of which is a sum of money leaving any aperture for the entry of the water into the paid for the redemption of a captive. branchial cavity. The sternal plastron is very large ante The paying of ransoms is an event of frequent occurrence riorly, but becomes linear between the third or fourth last in the middle-age history, and indeed may be traced in the pair of feet. The anterior feet are very much compressed, history of the older nations. Nothing appears on the first and their immoveable finger projects but very little, so that view more reasonable, or would more naturally arise out of the moveable finger is bent back against the anterior border the relations of two parties in a state of hostility, than that of the hand, nearly as in the subcheliform feet. The suc- compensation of some kind should be made for the receeding feet are all flattened, very wide, and terminated by storation of prisoners, which compensation was most easily a great lamellar joint, like that of the natatory feet of the estimated and discharged by means of the common medium
of exchange. In moderu warfare we hear little of ransoms. It rarely happens that a person is taken captive whom it is of importance to redeem; and when prisoners are to be redeemed, it is usually done by way of exchange, and those who remain over, at the conclusion of a war, are usually delivered up as a part of the concession of the party in whose favour the difference is found to be.
In the indentures of military service in the middle-age period, as in the wars of Henry V. for instance, it was a usual stipulation that, while the ransom of persons of inferior condition taken in the war was allowed to those by whom they were captured, the ransom for persons of rank was to belong to the king.
The ransoms demanded for persons of eminence were often very large sums of money; so much beyond the power of any family, however great, to command by the ordinary resources, that the persons who held lands of them were called upon to contribute in proportion to the extent of land held. It was one of the three casual occasions of expense when this kind of extraordinary aid was demanded as of prescriptive right by the lord ; the other two being on occasion of knighting the eldest son, and of marrying the eldest daughter. In France these casual payments were required of the tenant on other occasions.
The ransom paid for King Richard I., when he was a captive in the hands of the emperor Leopold, was no less a sum than 100,0001. To raise this sum an aid of twenty shillings was required of each knight's fee, and the clergy contributed liberally. This was the only occasion on which England had to pay for the redemption of its king. The ransom of David Bruce, king of Scotland, in the reign
of Edward III., was 100,000 marks, which sum was paid by 6
instalments, usually of 40001. By the treaty of Bretigny it was stipulated that a sum equal to 500,0001. should be paid
to King Edward III., which was in fact the ransom money Ranina deulata.
for John, king of France, his prisoner. These three are the C, as seen from above; 6, seep from below.
most remarkable ransoms in English history.
RA'NULA is a tumour formed beneath the tongue, and towns, Quand reverrai-je un jour-tous les objets de mon probably resulting from an obstruction of one or more of the amour? nos clairs ruisseaux, nos coteaux, nos hameaux, nos ducts of the sublingual salivary glands. The tumour is usu- montagnes,' &c., which reminds the English hearer of his ally of a rounded form, with a smooth polished surface similar own 'Home, sweet home.' to that of the adjacent mucous membrane. When small, such A collection of the various Ranz des Vaches and other a tumour produces so little inconvenience, that it is usually Swiss airs has been published: Sammlung von Schweizer not discovered till it has existed for some time. As they in- Kuhreihen and Volksliedern,' Bern, 1818. Tarenne has crease in size however, these growths, though scldom attended written Recherches sur les Ranz des Vaches,' Paris, 1813. with pain, produce great inconvenience, by obstructing all | See also Laborde, 'Essai de la Musique ancienne et mothe movements of the tongne. They usually burst when derne;' and Ebel, 'Schilderung der Gebirgsvölker der they have attained the size of a walnut, but they sometimes Schweiz.' continue to increase beyond this size, and have been seen RAPA'CES, M. Temminck's name for the Birds of large enough to contain a pint of fluid. Their most usual Prey. [RAPTATORES; RAPTORES.] contents are a transparent yellowish viscid fluid, resem RAPE is defined to be the having unlawful carnal knowbling in consistence the white of an egg; sometimes how- ledge of a woman by force and against her will; and it is erer the material within them is much thicker, and some a capital felony. It is doubtful whether fraud is equivalent times mixed with portions of earthy matter, similar to the to force for the purpose of constituting this offence; as larger masses by which the salivary ducts are occasionally where a man takes advantage of circumstances which induce
a woman to suppose he is a husband; but if he obtains her The treatment of Ranula consists in making a free inci- consent by menacing her with death, or by duress, it is sion into the front of the tumour, so as to let out all its con- clearly rape. A person under fourteen years of age is in tents. Means must then be adopted to prevent the edges law presumed to be incapable of perpetrating this offence • of the wound from uniting again; and the best plan for this this presumption however is based on physical grounds enpurpose is to rub the surface of the cyst with nitrate of silver tirely, so that such a person, by assisting others of maturer (lunar caustic). If the wound be not prevented from unit- age, may render himself liable to the full penalty of the law ing, the tumour will form again, and the same proceedings as a principal in the second degree. In the case of a female must again be adopted for its cure.
under ten years of age, whether the act takes place with or RANUNCULA'CEÆ form a tribe of plants founded on without her consent, it is equally punishable as rape; if she the common crowfoot, or buttercup, but embracing a large be above ten and under twelve years of age, her consent variety of different structures within its limits. The essential reduces the act to a misdemeanour punishable by imprisoncharacter of this order is to have numerous indefinite sta- ment and hard labour for such term as may be awarded. mens growing from below the pistil, disjoined carpels, a An assault with intent to commit a rape is a misdemeanor minute embryo lying in abundant albumen, and an annual, punishable by imprisonment for any term not exceeding two or at least nearly herbaceous stem. Great numbers of species years, and with or without hard labour, at the discretion of answer to this description, and, when combined, form a very the court before which the offender is convicted. Upon a natural assemblage. All are more or less acrid and poisonous, trial for the capital offence, where the evidence is incomplete, and some vehemently so, as aconite and hellebore; others are d prisoner may be convicted of a misdemeanor, deautiful with their gay flowers, as the pæony, ranunculus, RAPE. This plant, which is of the cabbage tribe, is larkspur, and columbine: many however are mere weeds. cultivated like cole, or colza, for the sake of its seeds, from The most striking variation that takes place from the usual which oil is extracted by grinding and pressure. It is also form of this order is when the calyx or corolla becomes un- extensively cultivated in England for the succulent food isually formed, and more or less imperfect. When this which its thick and fleshy stem and leaves supply to sheep occurs, as in larkspur and aconite, the general resemblance when other fodder is scarce. of such plants to the regular portions of the order is much The mode of cultivation of the colza and rape for seed is obscured. Occasionally the petals are not present, as in nearly the same. The colza takes a longer time to come to clematis, and thus additional evidence is afforded of the maturity, and produces more seed. The rape grows on less comparative unimportance of petals in forming the great fertile soils, and may be sown in spring as well as in autumn. suborders of Exogens.
Both are hardy, and resist the winter's frost. RANZ DES VACHES (“Kubreihen’ in German) is the The colza (Brassica oleracea, or campestris) is a plant name of certain simple melodies which are great favourites which grows with a strong branching stem, three or four with the mountaineers of the Alps of Switzerland, and feet high, and requires room to spread; the plants are therewhich are commonly played upon a kind of long trumpet fore raised in a seed-bed, and transplanted when they have called the Alp-horn. The sounds of these tunes, as well as acquired a certain size. When rape (Brassica napus) is 'he words which are set to them, are expressive of the scenes cultivated for the seed, it is treated in the same manner; and business of pastoral life; the hut, the roaring torrent, the one description will therefore serve for both. bellowing of the cattle, and the tinkling of the bells which The seed-bed, where the cultivation is on a small scale, are suspended from their necks; and the associations which is usually prepared by digging or trenching with the spade, they thus recall to the minds of the natives when they are in a good loamy soil, neither too sandy nor too wet. A large in foreign countries, often produce that unconquerable longo proportion of rotten dung is spread evenly over it, and dug ing for home which is said to have been especially remarked in six inches deep, and the surface is raked fine. The seed among the Swiss soldiers on foreign service ; for ihis reason, is sown broad-cast or in drill; the latter is the best method: the bands of the Swiss regiments in foreign service were it is then slightly covered with the rake; and if the ground forbidden to play the Ranz des Vaches. Theodore Zwinger, will allow of it, without risk of its being bound too hard in of Basle, wrote, in 1710, a 'Dissertation on Nostalgia,' in case of dry weather, it is well rolled or trod with the feet. which he gave the music of the Kuhreihen of Appenzell, The seed must not be sown too thick; and the plants, as soon which is one of the oldest, and which was introduced as they have six leaves, must be thinned to a distance of into England in the time of Queen Anne, who had it four or five inches in the rows, which will make them often played by her band. The words begin thus: ‘Wänder stronger and better furnished with roots. One acre of seediha, wänder iha, wänder iha, Lo....ba, Alsamma mit bed will furnish plants for ten acres or inore. The seed is nama, alsamma mit nama, die alten, die jungen, die alten sown in July or August, that the plants may not run to seed alisamma, Loba, Loba, Loba.' Each of the various pas- the same year, which they are apt to do if sown early; and toral districts, the Oberland, the Emmenthal, the Entli- they are transplanted in September or October, on land buch, the Appenzell, has its Kuhreihen. The western which has already borne a profitable crop. As this crop is or Romand districts of Switzerland have their Ranz des a substitute for a fallow on rich heavy land, too much pains Vaches in their respective patois or dialects. The following cannot be taken to keep it free from weeds. Winter barley, is a specimen of that of Gruyères in the canton of Fribourg: and rye, which are reaped early in July, are very proper crops Lé-z-armailli dei Colombette-Dé bon matin sé san leha- to be succeeded by rape or colza. The stubble should be Ha ah! Ha ah!-Liauba, Liauba, por arià - Vinidé tote- ploughed two or three times, to pulverise and clean it. A Bliantz et nairé-Rotz et motailé,' &c.
good coat of rotten dung should be put on, and the land In recent times the words of the original Ranz des Vaches ploughed in ridges, as for turnips: the plants should be put have appeared too rude to refined ears, and more sentimental in on the ridges ten inches apart. It requires great care in expressions have been substituted. This is the origin of the taking them up not to break the fihres of the roots: they pretty air which is often heard in the societies of the Swiss I shoulă be raised with a ful and placed gently, with the
fine earth adhering to them, in flat baskets, and in a slanting | obtained for the seed when compared with wheat, which can position, so that the tops may be upwards. In planting, be raised on the same land, and is a more certain crop. the holes should be made with a large thick dibble, that the The rape and colza ripen their seed very unequally. The plants may be introduced without doubling up the principal lower pods are ready to burst before those at top are full. roots or breaking the fibres. The earth should be pressed If the season is wet at harvest, much of the seed is lost; and, to the root by a short dibble, inserted to the right or left of without great attention, some loss is sustained in the most the hole made by the first dibble; or, which is better in stiff favourable seasons. It should be cut when the dew is on it, soils, a hole should be made with a narrow hoe of sufficient and moved as little as ible. If the weather permits, it depth to allow the plant to be placed in it, and another hoe is threshed out on a cloth in the field, and as many threshers should follow to draw the earth to the plant. Thus two are employed as can be conveniently collected, that no time men with hoes, and one woman, will plant a row more may be lost, when the weather is fair. The seed is spread rapidly than could be done any other way: the man who out on the floor of a granary that it may not heat, and is fills up the holes places his foot by the side of each plant as turned over frequently. It is then sold to the crushers, who he goes on, to press the earth to the roots.
express the oil. The pods and small branches broken off An expeditious mode of planting rape is used in Flanders. in threshing are much relished by cattle. This crop, reA spade ten inches wide is pushed vertically into the ground, turns little to the land, and is of itself very exhausting. Not and, by drawing the handle towards his body, the labourer so however is the rape, when sown as food for sheep. It is, on makes a wedge-like opening; a woman inserts a plant in the contrary, a valuable substitute for turnips, upon land each side in this opening, and when the man removes the which is too wet and heavy for this root. The Brassica spade, the earth falls back against the plants. The woman oleracea is more succulent than the Brassica napus. Its puts her foot between the two plants, and they are then stem is not so hard, and the soft pith which it contains is fixed in their places. In this operation the man moves much relished by every kind of live-stock. To have it in backwards; and the woman, who puts in the plants, forward. perfection, the land should be prepared and manured as for Instead of the spade, an instrument is also used called a turnips. The rape should be sown in drills ten inches apart, plantoir. It consists of two sharp-pointed stakes a foot or about the beginning or middle of August, which gives ample more apart, connected by a cross-handle at top, and a bar at time for preparing the land, without interfering with the about eight or ten inches from the points. The instrument turnip crop. It will be sufficiently forward before winter, is pressed into the ground by the handles, assisted by the and it should then be hoed over once. If the crop is very foot placed on the lower bar, and makes two holes, a foot forward, it may be slightly fed off: but, in general, it is best apart, into which the plants are placed, and earthed round to let it remain untouched till spring. In the end of as before. This is done when the land has not been laid up March and beginning of April it will be a great help to the into high ridges.
ewes and lambs. It will produce excellent food till it begins When a large field is to be planted, a more expeditious to be in flower, when it should immediately be ploughed mode is adopted; and this is the most usual practice in up. The ground will be found greatly recruited by this Holland and Germany. The land having been prepared, crop, which has taken nothing from it and has added much and the manure well incorporated, a deep furrow is drawn by the dung and urine of the sheep. Whatever be the sucwith the plough; women follow with baskets of plants, ceeding crop, it cannot fail to be productive; and if the land which they set, a foot apart, slanting against the furrow slice. is not clean, the farmer must have neglected the double When the plough returns, the earth is thrown against these opportunity of destroying weeds in the preceding summer plants; and a man or woman follows, who, with the foot, and in the early part of spring. If the rape is fed off in presses the earth down upon the roots. Sometimes plants | time, it may be succeeded by barley or oats with clover or are put into each furrow, which is then len inches or more grass seeds, or potatoes, if the soil is not too wet. Thus, no wide; but the best cultivators put them only in every alter crop will be lost, and the rape will have been a clear addinate furrow. In this case also there are no ridges. The tion to the produce of the land. Any crop which is taken season of the year affords sufficient moisture in the north of off the land in a green state, especially if it be fed off with Europe to ensure the growth of the plants; and if they have sheep, may be repeated, without risk of failure, provided the escaped the fly in the seed-bed, they are now tolerably safe. land be properly tilled; but where cole or rape have proNo further attention is requisite till spring. The weeds are duced seed, they cannot be profitably sown in less than five then carefully extirpated by hand and hoe; and where the or six years after on the same land. distance of the plants admits of it, the light plough stirs the When the oil has been pressed out from the seed, the ground between the rows, throwing the earth towards the residue (which contains a portion of starch and mucilage not stems; yet so as to leave each plant in a little basin to changed into oil) and the husk of the seed form a hard cake catch the water and conduct it to the roots. When the known by the name of rape cake. This is used on the Conplants are invigorated with rich liquid manure, such as tinent to feed cows and pigs with, as we use the linseed night-soil mixed with water, or the drainings from dunghills, cakes: but it is also much used as a rich manure, and for they become extremely luxuriant; and every trouble or this purpose it is imported in large quantities. When rape expense bestowed upon them is amply repaid. The differ- cake is ground to a powder and drilled with the seed on ence between a crop partially neglected and another care poor light lands, it supplies nourishment to the young plants, fully cultivated often exceeds fifty per cent.
and greatly accelerates their growth; but if it be added in A moderate return of seed for colza is thirty bushels per a large proportion in immediate contact with the seed, on acre, but it frequently exceeds fifty. The value on the heavy impervious soils, it often undergoes the putrid ferContinent is nearly the same as that of wheat. In England mentation, which it communicates to the seed sown, and, init is somewhat less, owing to the quantity imported, on stead of nourishing, destroys it. In this case it is useful to which there is a fixed duty of 108. per quarter. It is usually mix it with some dry porous earth or with ashes, which sold by the last of ten quarters.
will prevent the too rapid decomposition. Dissolved in There is not much difference between the value of colza water and mixed with urine, it forms one of the most efficaand rape-seed (called navette in French): but the latter pro- cious of artificial manures. Hence it is probable that luces less. When the rape is transplanted before winter, it is the most advantageous mode of using it on the land, after much more productive than when sown in spring. In the it has been dissolved in the urine-tank, is to apply it by latter case it produces seed the same year. It is sown in means of a water-cart to the rows where the seed has been drills, and thinned out by the hoe, and in favourable seasons already drilled, or some time before it is put in. Where a tolerable crop is obtained. It is generally sown on land flax is to be sown, this mixture applied a few days before which could not be brought into a proper tilth after harvest, the seed is sown, so as to allow it to sink into the soil, is and which would require the frost of winter to mellow it. considered in Flanders as next in value to the emptyings of
Great crops of cole-seed and rape have been produced in privies, which with them hold the first rank, for producing the fens of Lincolnshire and the alluvial soils in Essex, by fine crops of flax. When a crop appears sickly, and not merely paring and burning the surface and ploughing in growing as it should do, owing to poverty in the soil, a topthe ashes; and these crops, alternating with oats, have in dressing of rape-cake dissolved in water, if no urine is at many instances so exhausted the soil as to cause a great hand, will in general excite the powers of vegetation; and prejudice against them in the minds of the landlords. Many it is highly probable that it may greatly assist the effects of leases have a clause prohibiting its cultivation, except to be saltpetre or of nitrate of soda, where these salts are applied. eaten green by sheep. The principal cause however of the The cultivation of rape or cole for spring food cannot be too diminution of this crop in England is the inferior price strongly recommended to the farmers of heavy clay soils.
RAPHAEL, or RAFFAELLO SANZIO, was born at|The fresco in San Severo, and the altar-piece for the An. Urbino, on Good Friday, March 28, 1483. He was the son sidei family (now at Blenheim) were painted in 1505. of Giovanni de' Santi, a painter of merit in that city, some Whether the picture executed for the nuns of St. Antonio of whose works still exist. A specimen of them may be of Padua at Perugia, which is at Naples, be of the same or seen in the Berlin Gallery (No. 215, first division), bearing of a later date, is a disputed point. The separate portions the name of Giovanni, and showing considerable beauty, of the ‘Predella,' or step belonging to the latter picture, are but with weak colouring. Although Raphael lost his in England, in the respective collections of Mr. Rogers, parents before he was twelve years old, he imbibed the Mr. Miles of Leigh Court, and Mr. White of Baron Hill. rudiments of art from his father. Other artists of that pe Four pictures of the Virgin and Child of Raphael's culiar school which fixed itself in Umbria, such as Nicolo Florentine period are distinguished by different characters, Alunno of Foligno, and Andrea Luigi of Assisi, probably though all exquisitely beautiful. The Madonna del Gran exercised some influence over the young painter. At what Duca, in the Pitti palace, is the most simple, and, to our age he became the pupil of Perugino we know not, but judgment, the most admirable of them all. It still breathes traces of the scholar's hand are supposed to be visible in much of the spirit of the Umbrian school. The other three several of the works of the master; among others in the are the Madonna Tempi at Munich, the Colonna Madonna frescoes of the Cambio at Perugia, which where painted at Berlin, and the picture in the possession of Lord Cowper about the year 1500.
at Panshanger. To the same time must be attributed the The career of Raphael is usually divided into three pe- Madonna del Cardellino, in the Tribune at Florence, the riods, of which the first terminates with his visit to Florence, Belle Jardinière at Paris, and the Holy Family with the in the autumn of 1504; the second comprises the time from Palm, in the Bridgewater collection. The first of these that date until he was invited to Rome by Julius II., about three was painted for Lorenzo Nasi. Raphael's power and the middle of 1508; and the third extends to his death, in fidelity as a portrait painter are well shown in the beautiful 1520.
portraits of Angelo and Maddalena Doni, in the Pitti palace, 1. To begin with the works executed before Raphael's and in two heads of monks, in the Academia at Florence. visit to Florence. One of the earliest of these now extant is The St. Catherine, which passed from the Aldobrandini probably the Virgin with the Book, in the Berlin Gallery collection into that of Mr. Beckford, and still more lately (No. 223, first division), and a still more important picture into the National Gallery, was executed in the latter part of this period is the Adoration of the Magi, in the same of the artist's residence at Florence. The two works which collection (223 a). The latter is executed on linen, in size must be considered as closing this division are the Madonna colours (“al guazzo'), and was originally intended for the del Baldacchino, or di Pescia, left unfinished when the high altar at Ferentillo ; it was purchased by the late king painter started for Rome, and the Entombment of Christ. of Prussia, from the Ancajani family at Spoleto, for the sum The former picture bears some resemblance in its technical of 6000 scudi, and has suffered a good deal from the peeling details to the works of Fra Bartoiomeo; it is now in the of some of the colours.
Pitti palace. The latter was painted by order of Atalanta The pictures painted at Citta di Castello were, the Coro- Baglioni, for S. Francesco at Perugia, and forms part of the nation of St. Nicholas of Tolentino (said to have disap- Borghese collection. It is an elaborate composition, of peared from the Vatican during the French occupation); the greatest beauty and power of expression, proving how ihe Sposalizio, or Marriage of the Virgin (now in the Brera much Raphael had profited by his Florentine studies. The at Milan), and the Christ on the Cross, in the collection of figures from the Predella are in the Vatican. Cardinal Fesch. Lanzi, on the authority of mere tradition, The invitation given by Julius II. to Raphael would be states that the first of these three was painted when Raphael sufficiently accounted for by the celebrity of the artist himwas only seventeen, that is, in 1500, and he assigns the last self, although it is very probable that his connection with to about the same time. Both probably approach very nearly the family Della Rovere, or the favour of his fellow-countryin time to the Sposalizio, which bears the date of 1504. man Bramante, facilitated his introduction at the sapal court. The Coronation of the Virgin (now in the Vatican) clearly He seems to have left Florence, rather suddenly, towards shows the struggle of new principles, although Vasari, the end of the year 1508. whose contempt for the simplicity of the earlier style led The .Stanze decorated by the pencil of Raphael were him to content himself with very general resemblances, the living-rooms of the papal court in the time of Leo X. refers to this picture as one of those which prove how closely His frescoes suffered during the occupation of Rome by the Raphael imitated the manner of Perugino. Notwithstand- imperial troops, in 1527, and by subsequent neglect, when ing Vasari's assertion to the contrary, it seems probable the popes had transferred their residence to the Quirinal. that both the Coronation of the Virgin and the Crucifixion In the years 1702 and 1703 they were cleaned and restored, belonging to Cardinal Fesch were posterior to the Sposalizio. by Carlo Maratti, who re-painted the larger portion of the
Raphael's share in the frescoes executed by Pinturicchio, decorative framework. in the Libreria of the Cathedral at Siena, has been The Camera della Segnatura was the first worked on by much exaggerated. There is little doubt that he never Raphael. The figures of Theology, Poetry, Philosophy, and worked there in person, although he furnished some draw- Justice on the ceiling preceded in execution the large paintings to his fellow-pupil; two of these are yet extant, one ings on the walls. Of these last the Disputa del Sacrain the Florence Gallery, and the other in the Baldeschi mento, as it is commonly called, was the earliest. In collection at Perugia. Vasari's whole account of Raphael's simple beauty and severe dignity, in energy and individual first visit to Florence is confused in the highest degree. He character, this work has never been surpassed; in techdescribes him as induced to quit Siena by the report of nical excellence, and the picturesque qualities of breadth, Leonardo's Battle of the Standard and of M. Angelo's Car- composition, and softness, it is certainly inferior to the toon, although the latter work was not exhibited till 1506, Parnassus and the School of Athens, which came next. while the frescoes of Pinturicchio were probably coinpleted The allegorical figures of Temperance, Fortitude, and Pruin 1503, and the date of Raphael's journey is fixed to Octo dence, in the semicircular division on the remaining side of ber, 1504, by the letter of recommendation for the Gon the room, are among the most beautiful of Raphael's defaloniere Soderini from the duchess of Sora. Quatremère signs. de Quincy tries to solve the difficulty by assuming a visit In the Stanza d'Eliodoro, the fresco of Heliodorus, toto Florence in 1503, and another in the following year, but gether with that of the Mass of Bolsena and the scripture a strong presumption against this supposition is furnished subjects in the ceiling were executed in the pontificate of by the total absence of all trace of Florentine principles in Julius. It is impossible to show more complete understandthe Marriage of the Virgin. Susceptible of new impres- ing of the application of painting to a story than Raphael sions in art as Raphael afterwards showed himself, it is im- has displayed in the first of these compositions. The colouring possible that the first introduction to his great Florentine of the Mass of Bolsena is admirable. contemporaries should have left no trace in his works. In 1513 Leo X. succeeded to the papal chair. The two Now the pictures of 1505 exhibit clear traces of a new in- remaining frescoes in the Stanza d'Eliodoro, that is to say, Huence. In fact, at the time of his arrival at Florence, art Attila repelled from Rome, and the Liberation of St. Peter, had just reached the point which enabled him to reap the belong to his reign. The latter is supposed to allude to the fullest benefit from the new field thus thrown open. He pope's escape, when Cardinal de' Medici, after the battle of studied the works of Masaccio, and became the friend of Ravenna, and the former to the retreat of the French from Fra Bartolomeo and Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. [PAINTING.] In Italy. the following year we find him employed again at Perugia. In the third room, or Stanza del Incendio, the ceiling
contains some paintings of P. Perugino, which were spared | be engraved better than any other in the world. It is when those of other masters were destroyed to make room for painted on canvas, and Rumohr conjectures that it was inthe works of Raphael. The subjects on the walls are the tended for a‘ drapellone,'or large standard, to be carried in Burning of the Borgo, or suburb of Rome, the Victory over procession, attached to two poles. A picture, by Guido, the Saracens at Ostia, the Coronation of Charlemagne, and painted on grey silk, and called 'il pallione,' from being the Death of Leo III. The execution of all these was more used in this manner, is to be seen in the Pinacoteca at or less left to pupils; those in the Sala di Costantino Bologna (No. 138). The most striking points in the Ma. were wholly painted by Julio Romano and others, from de- donna di S. Sisto are the deeply meditative anticipation of signs by Raphael.
future suffering in the Virgin, and the superhuman chaThe loggie, or open colonnades, designed by Bramante, racter imparted to the Christ by the union of a childish form were decorated under the directions of Raphael by his prin- with the severe thoughtfulness of maturer age. cipal scholars. The Cartoons for the tapestry to be hung 3. The Spasimo di Sicilia, executed for Santa Maria dello round the Sistine Chapel were prepared in 1515 and 1516, at Spasimo, at Palermo, is now in the public gallery at Madrid. the desire of Leo X. These cartoons were cut into strips for There is something academical in ihe figure of the executhe convenience of the workmen at Arras. By some unac tioner, but the deep feeling in the right-hand group of countable neglect they remained in Flanders, and seven of women reminds us of the Borghese entombment. This picthe ten were, after the expiration of a century, bought by ture has suffered much by restoration, and has acquired a Charles I. at the suggestion of Rubens. When the pro- sort of brickdust colour. perty of the crown was sold by the Commonwealth, they 4. The Transfiguration, usually considered to be Raphael's weré valued at 3001., and purchased by Cromwell's order at masterpiece. It was left unfinished at his death. that price for the nation. William III. caused these pre Besides the above-named works, we must allude to the cious fragments to be properly mounted and put up at Visitation and the Perla, both in the Sacristy of the EscuHampton Court. In 1766 they were removed to Bucking- rial. The latter formed part of the collection of Charles I. ham House; thence carried to Windsor; and in 1804 again of England. restored to Hampton Court. The Cartoons have far greater The Archangel Michael, and the Holy Family, painted in pretensions to be considered as original works of Raphael 1518, for Francis I., are first-rate pictures of the artist's ihan the paintings in the two last rooms of the Vatican just later time. In the portrait of Leo X., with the Cardinals referred to. In composition they are unrivalled, and their de' Medici and Rossi (painted not earlier than 1518), Rawhole conception is admirably adapted to the purpose which phael has shown that he could rival the Flemish masters in they were meant to fulfil. [CARTOONS.]
the accurate imitation of ordinary household objects. The The Isaiah in San Agostino was probably painted in 1512 Violin-Player, in the Sciarra palace at Rome, also bears the or 1513; and the Sibyls in Santa Maria della Pace shortly date of 1518. The portraits of Joanna of Aragon, Baltasar afterwards. Rumohr, on technical grounds, places the Castiglione, and others, we have not space to dwell on. latter (one of the artist's most admirable works) about 1515. Raphael occupied himself with architecture as well as Their subjects and their mode of treatment sufficiently esta painting, and seems to have felt a zealous interest in al. blish in a general sense that imitation of Michael Angelo of remains of antient art. The Psyche and the Galatea, exewhich so much has been said.
cuted in the Farnesina at Rome for Alessandro Chigi, are his We must now return to the smaller works of Raphael. principal works which represent mythological subjects.
Vasari says that his portrait of Julius II. was so like as to On ihe 6th of April, 1520, being Good Friday, this greatest inspire fear, as if it were alive. The original thus spoken of all modern painters died of an attack of fever, at the age of is supposed to be in the tribune at Florence. Two copies of thirty-seven. of it are in the Pitti Palace, and one in our own National All that is recorded of his public and private character Gallery. The last came from the Borghese collection. On represents him as most amiable, and as the object of sin. the subject of Raphael's own portrait a good deal of contro cere affection on the part of his immediate friends. As an versy has taken place. It is certainly difficult to detect artist he was especially distinguished in two things. In the much resemblance between the portrait in the Florence col- first place, whatever was the principle of art which he lection and that purchased by the king of Bavaria from the adopted at different periods of his life, in each and all suc Altoviti family; and the expression of Vasari, ‘à Bindo cessively he attained the greatest excellence. In his early Altoviti fece il ritratto suo,' is ambiguous, but nevertheless pictures the spirit of Perugino and of the Umbrian school we believe the picture now at Munich to be the work of beamed with double purity and beauty; but his powers Raphael, and his own portrait. Missirini and the Italians were not limited within the narrow circle which hemmed would probably have discussed the question with much less in his master and caused him to reproduce the same forms angry zeal if the picture had not been transferred to a foreign and the same expression through the course of a long life. country.
Raphael came to Florence at a fortunate moment. The Three portraits exist, which are believed to represent anatomical studies of Leonardo and M. Angelo, and the Raphael's mistress, the so-called Fornarina, painted by him- powers of Masaccio, had exactly provided the fresh food for self. One of these is in the Barberini, another in the Sci- which his genius was craving. The religious feeling of his arra palace (at Rome), and the third is in the Tribune at earlier works became a little unspiritualised in the worldly Florence. This last picture bears the date of 1512, and was city of Florence, but his technical power received a great at one time attributed to Giorgione. Certain it is that the accession of strength, while his capacity for seizing real life colour would be worthy of the Venetian master, and that the is sufficiently shown by the portrait of Maddalena Doni. His face and form are Venetian in their character.
Madonnas at this time lose something of their thoughtfui The Madonna della Seggiola, the Madonna del Duca di Alba, melancholy, and often acquire a smiling character, such as and several others of somewhat similar feeling belong to the we find in the works of Leonardo. Still his pictures exbibit early part of Raphael's residence at Rome. The Madonna excellence peculiar to himself. di Foligno, now in the Vatican, was painted for Gismondo In his third period, many persons, like Monsieur Rio (l'Art Conti, probably about the time of the completion of the Chrétien), may consider the Disputa’ as the last gleam of Camera della Segnatura. The Vision of Ezekiel is said primitive simplicity or beauty. It may be said that thenceto have been paid for in 1510; two pictures of the subject forth the Christian painter became paganised by contact exist, one in the Pitti palace, and another, from the Orleans with the heathen courts of Julius II. and Leo. X It is gallery, in the collection of Sir Thomas Baring. It is dis- true that at this particular time a change took place in the puted whether either, and if either, which of these two is the style of art adopted by Raphaei. He had acquired a new original. Dr. Waagen prefers the claims of the Florence sense for the effect of masses in his drapery and in his picture. The St. Cecilia at Bologna was ordered about 1510, lights and shades, and he worked on principles more conand completed somewhat later ; it has suffered greatly from sonant with the modern notions of picturesque composition. restoration.
Which of the two sources of pleasure from painting is the The four great altar-pieces of Raphael's later time purest and the most genuine may be a subject of dispute;
but there can be no dispute as to the fact that in each line, as 1. The Madonna del Pez, painted for San Domenico at he successively adopted them, Raphael attained the highest Naples, and now (1833) in the Iglesia Vieja of the Escurial. pitch of excellence of which they respectively admitted We It is a composition of the purest and simplest beauty. cannot however allow that an artist who could execute the
2. The Madonna di S. Sisto, the well known pride of the Cartoons had lost the power of conceiving and worthily emDresden gallery. This picture has had the good fortune to bodying Christian subjects