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orange, with the exception of an indefinite mark of black which springs from each serrature, and a fine line of the same colour surrounding it near the base ; lower mandible black, with the exception of the base, which is surrounded with pale yellowish orange; the head, back of the neck, throat, and chest black; all the upper surface, except a spot of scarlet on the rump, of a dull olive; primaries blackish brown; under surface pale straw-yellow with a slight tinge of green; thighs chesnut; naked space round the eyes and tarsi lead-colour. Total length about 16 to 17 inches; bill 4, wing 51, tail 64, tarsi 13. (Gould.)

Mr. Gould's elegant figure of a male is taken from a specimen, supposed to be unique, in the Cabinet of Natural History at Munich.

Locality.--Brazils; probably near the Amazon.


Pteroglossus pluricinctus.
Upper figure, female; lower, male. (Gould.)
RAMPHO'STOMA, Wagler's name for the Gavials
(CROCODILE, vol. viii., p. 167.]

RAMPION (Campanula Rapúnculus) is a biennia. plant, indigenous to Britain as well as to various parts of the continent of Europe. It has a long white spindleshaped root, which may be eaten in its raw state, like a radish, and is by some esteemed for its pleasant nutty flavour. Both leaves and root may also be cut into winter salads, The seeds should be sown at the end of May, in rather light soil, and thinly covered. The roots will be fit for use

throughout the following winter. Ptenglossus Humboldtii. (Gould.)

A different plant, the Enothera biennis, is sometimes

called German Rampion (Rapunzel Sellery). Its roots are Pleroglossus pluricinctus.

used like those of the above, and the plants are cultivated Description.-(Male.)—A broad band of black advances in the same manner as carrots or parsnips. from the nostrils along the whole of the culmen, and forms RAMPOOR. [HINDUSTAN, p. 219.] a narrow belt down the sides of the upper mandible at its RAMSAY, ALLAN, was born in 1685, of parents of the base; the elevated basal margin of the bill is yellow; the humblest class, at a small hamlet, or settlement of a few sides of the upper mandible beautiful orange-yellow, fading cottages, stated to be now in ruins, on the banks of the into yellowish-white towards the tip; under mandible wholly Glangonar, a tributary of the Clyde, among the hills that black with a yellow basal ridge; head, neck, and chest divide Clydesdale and Annandale. The parish was probably black; whole of the upper surface, except the rump, which that of Crawford in Lanarkshire, through which the Glanis scarlet, dark olive-green; breast marked with two broad gonar flows, and where are situated Lord Hopeton's leadbands of black, the upper separated from the throat by an mines, in which Ramsay's father is said to have been a workintervening space of yellow dashed with red; a similar but ing man, and he nimself to have been employed when a broader space separates the two bands of black, the lower of child as a washer of ore. When he made his first appearwhich is bounded by scarlet, advancing as far as the thighs, ance in Edinburgh, about the beginning of the last cenwhich are brownish-olive; under the tail-coverts light tury, Allan was apprenticed to a barber ; and he appears yellow; naked space round the eyes, tarsi, and feet dark lead to have followed that trade for some years. In course of colour.

time however ne exchanged it for that of a bookseller, led Female.-Differs from the having the ear-coverts probably by a taste for reading which he had acquired. He brown, and a narrow belt of scarlet bordering the black of seems to have early in life enjoyed considerable popularity the throat.

as a boon companion, and we may presume that it was in this Total length 20 inches; bill 4}, wings 6}, tail 87. character that he first gave proof of his poetic talents. He (Gould.)

gradually however obtained the acquaintance of many of the La cality.-Brazil.

most distinguished persons both in the literary and fashionThe most characteristic figures of the Ramphastidæ able circles of the Scottish capital; and in 1721 he pubknown to us are those by Mr. Swainson, in his · Zoological | lished a volume of his poems, which was very favourably Illustrations,' and the highly finished plates in Mr. Gould's received by his countrymen. In 1724 he published, in two Monograph; the latter, from their size, beauty, and accu- small volumes, 'The Evergreen, being a Collection of Scots racy, have all the air of portraits.

Poems, wrote by the Ingenious before 1600. The materials

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of this collection (which has been lately reprinted) were | patent right in achromatic telescopes. His occupation chiefly obtained from the volume called the Bannatyne afforded him frequent opportunities of observing the defecMS., preserved in the Advocates' Library; but Ramsay, who tive construction of the sextants then in use, the indications had little scholarship, and who lived in a very uncritical age of which, as had been pointed out by Lalande, could not as to such matters, has paid no attention to fidelity in be relied on within five minutes of a degree, and might making his transcripts, patching and renovating the old therefore leave a doubt in the determination of the longitude verses throughout to suit his own fancy. • The Evergreen' amounting to fifty nautical leagues. The improvements was followed the same year by. The Tea-Table Miscellany, introduced by Ramsden are said by Piazzi to have reduced or a Collection of Choice Songs, Scots and English,' in four the limits of error to thirty seconds. This circumstanoe, volumes, which has been often reprinted. The edition be added to the cheapness of his instruments, which were sold fore us, dated 1763 (London), is designated the twelfth. This for abont two-thirds the price charged by other makers, soon collection, besides many new verses contributed by Ramsay produced a demand which, even with the assistance of nuhimself and some of his friends, contains numerous old merous hands, he found difficulty in supplying. In his Scottish songs, which, he observes in his preface, ‘have been workshops the principle of the division of labour was carried done time out of mind, and only wanted to be cleared from out to a considerable extent, and a proportionate dexterity the dross of blundering transcribers and printers.' His was acquired by the workmen; but it is asserted that in scouring however went the length in many cases of rubbing none of these, even the most subordinate, and least of all in away the old song altogether; and his substitutions are by the higher departments, did the skill of the workmen surpass no means always a compensation for what he thus destroyed, that of Ramsden himself. His attention was incessantly though most of them are clever and spirited, and have ac directed to new improvements and further simplification, quired general currency among Scottish song-singers. No the result of which was the invention of a dividing-machine, older copies, it ought to be stated, either printed or manu- which has been already noticed under GRADUATION. The script, are now known to exist of many of the songs profess-date of this invention is prior to the year 1766. At first it ing to be antient preserved in this collection; and there had many imperfections, but by repeated efforts of ingenuity can be little doubt that Ramsay was indebted for many of throughout a period of ten years, they were successfully them merely to oral tradition. Ramsay afterwards wrote removed. In 1777 it was brought under the notice of the many more verses in his native dialect; but his only two Commissioners of the Board of Longitude, by Dr. Shepherd, original performances of any considerable pretension are his and by them a premium of 6151. was paid to the author, comic pastoral, the 'Gentle Shepherd,' published in 1729, upon his engaging to divide sextants at six, and octants at and his continuation of the old Scottish poem of Christ's three shillings, for other mathematical instrument makers, Kirk on the Green,' attributed by some to James I.; by A description of the machine was immediately published, others, with more probability, to James V. There is a good by order of the Board, under the supervision of Dr. Maskelyne deal of rather effective though coarse merriment in the (London, 1777, 4to.), and was shortly after translated into latter attempt. The 'Gentle Shepherd ''is, as a whole, not French by Lalande. A duplicate of the machine itself is very like anything else that Ramsay has written; but there said to have been purchased by the president, Bochard de seems to be no evidence for the notion which has been sug- Saron, and introduced into France concealed in the support gested, that in this instance he fathered the production of of a table made for that purpose. (Weiss, Biog. Univers.) some other writer. The name of this supposed other writer, As early as 1788 no less than 983 sextants and octants had we believe, has never been so much as suggested' or at issued from Ramsden's workshop. In 1779 the description tempted to be guessed at; nor were any of the circum- of another machine constructed by Ramsden for dividing stances attending the publication suspicious or mysterious straight lines by means of a screw was also published by The poem too, although more careful and elaborate than order of the Board; but this invention does not appear to anything else that Ramsay has left us, is not without the have been of much practical use. It was however in the wonted qualities of his manner, both good and bad. It has construction of many of the larger class of astronomical in no more elevation or refinement than any of Ramsay's other struments that Ramsden acquired most reputation, though works, though less that is offensively coarse or boisterous they were probably least productive of pecuniary gain. The than some of them; both in the diction and the thought it theodolite employed by General Roy in the English Survey flows easily and smoothly; and though there are not many was made by Ramsden, and no instrument of the kind that happy touches, and no daring strokes, there is a general had been previously made would bear comparison with it, truth of painting about it in a quiet tone, which is very A similar remark is applicable to the equatorial constructed soothing and agreeable. It has also some humour, which for Sir George Schuckburgh, which was also the largest that however is rather elaborate and constrained.

had then been attempted. Ramsden took out a patent Ramsay died in 1758, leaving a son of the same name, for his new equatorial, and a description of it was published who acquired considerable distinction as a portrait-painter. by the Hon. Stewart Mackenzie, brother to the earl of Bute;

(See Currie's Life of Burns ; and, for a very severe, in- but his inventive genius seldom permitted him to construct deed an outrageous critique of the 'Gentle Shepherd,' two instruments alike. His telescopes, erected at the obPinkerton's List of the Scottish Poets, prefixed to his An- servatories of Blenheim, Mannheim, Dublin, Paris, and tient Scottish Poems, 1786, vol. i., pp. 132, &c.)

Gotha, were remarkable for the superiority of their objectRAMSDEN, JESSE, was born at Salterhebble, near glasses; and in his mural quadrants, furnished to the obHalifax, Yorkshire, in 1735. He was the son of an inn- servator'es of Padua and Vilna, Dr. Maskelyne was unable keeper. When nine years old he was admitted into the free to detect an error amounting to two seconds and a half, a grammar-school of Halifax; and after attending there for degree of accuracy which was then a matter of admiration about three years, he was placed under the protection of an among astronomers. Ramsden however always recomuncle, who resided in the north of Yorkshire. By him he was mended that the mural quadrant should be superseded by sent to a school conducted by Mr. Hall, a clergyman, who the mural circle; and the circles erected in the observawas in repute as a teacher of the mathematics, and under tories of Palermo and Dublin, the first of which was of five whom he attained to some proficiency in geometry and and the latter of twelve feet diameter, were constructed by algebra. His studies were interrupted oy his father ap- him in accordance with this recommendation. prenticing him to a cloth-worker at Halifax. At the age Among Ramsden's minor inventions and improvements of twenty we find him engaged as a clerk in a cloth ware- may be enumerated his catoptric and dioptric micrometers house in London, in which capacity he continued till 1757-8, (described in the · Phil. Trans.,' 1779), the former of which when his predilection for other pursuits led liim to bind was an improvement upon that of Bougier; optigraph; himself for four years to a working mathematical and phi- dynamometer (for measuring the magnifying powers of losophical instrument maker, named Barton, in Denmark telescopes); barometer; electrical machine; manometer; Court, Strand. Upon the completion of his term, he en- assay-balance; level; pyrometer; and the method intro gaged himself as assistant to a workman named Cole, at a duced by him for correcting the aberrations of sphericity salary of twelve shillings a week; but this connection was and refrangibility in compound eye-glasses. (Phil. Trans. of short duration. He then commenced working on his 1783.) own account, and his skill as an engraver and divider gra Ramsden was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in dually recommended him to the employ of the leading in- 1786. In 1794 a similar compliment was paid him by the strument-makers, more particularly Nairne, Sisson, Adams, Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg; and the following and Dollond. Ramsden subsequently married Dollond's year the Copley medal was awarded to him by the Royal daughter, and he received with her a part of Mr. Dollond's Society, in testimony of the importance of his various in

ventions By this time his health had become much trade; coal is imported in considerable quantity; and ship impaired by his ardent devotion to his profession. In 1800 building and rope-making are carried on. It is observable he was advised to visit Brighton, where he died, on the 5th as indicating the commercial character of the place, tha; of November of that year

. From 1766 to 1774 his shop though the population of Margate exceeds that of Ramsgate and residence was in the Haymarket; but in the latter year by 2300 or 2400, there are not half as many persons en he removed to Piccadilly, where his business continued to gaged in retail trade or handicraft as at the latter place. bo conducted after his decease.

The markets are on Wednesday and Saturday. A consideraIn his habits we are told that he was temperate to ab- ble fishery is carried on; in the summer steam-boats sail stemiousness, and that for many years he restricted himself regularly between London and Ramsgate. to very few hours of repose. Most of the time that he could The living of Ramsgate is a vicarage, of the clear yearly spare from the immediate duties of his profession was devoteu Talue of 4001.

, in the gift of the vicar of St. Lawrence, the to the perusal of works of science and literature. His me- mother church. mory was remarkably retentive, and at an advanced


he There were, in 1833, two infant schools, with 217 children made himself sufficiently master of the French language to of both sexes; a national day and Sunday school with 150 read Molière and Boileau. The fortune of which he died boys and 100 girls ; twenty day-schools, estimated to contain possessed was not considerable, and a large portion of it was about 525 children; six boarding-schools, supposed to condirected by his will to be distributed among his workmen. tain 170 children; and three Sunday-schools, two of them

See CIRCLE; EQUATORIAL; GRADUATION; TRANSIT-IN- containing 300 children; from the other no return was STRUMENT; SEXTANT; &c.; and Pearson's Practical Astro- inade. nomy, Lond., 1829, vol. ii., pp. 12, 18, 47, 181-5, 194-6, RAMSON (Allium ursinum), a species of garlic found 285-6, 413-28, 519, 533-46, 558-60, and 573.

wild in many parts of Britain, and formerly cultivated in (Piazzi's Account of the Life and Labours of Ramsden, in gardens; but its use is superseded by the Allium sativum, a a letter addressed by him to Lalande, and published by the native of Sicily, which is ihe Garlic now in cultivation. latter in the . Journal des Sçavans' for Nov., 1788, p. 744. RAMTILLA, a genus of plants of the natural family of This interesting letter was written by Piazzi while urging Compositæ, and subtribe Heliantheæ, so called from the Inthe progress of his mural circle, the construction of which dian name ram-tilla, by which the oil of its seed is designated had been undertaken by Ramsden, but the advance of The plant is remarkable for the number of names by which towards completion does not appear to have kept which it has been described by botanists. Of these we need pace with Piazzi's wishes; and though it doubtless contains only mention the Verbesina sativa of Roxburgh, and the no unmerited eulogium, it seems to have been intended by Ramtilla oleifera of De Candolle. Cassini had however prePiazzi to act as a stimulant. Philosophical Magazine, vol. viously formed it into a new genus, and under the name of xvi.; European Magazine, February, 1789; Biog. Univers.; Guizotia 'dedicated it to the celebrated historian, then miand the Communication of the Rev. L. Dutens to Dr. Aikin, nister of public instruction. This name, being prior to that in General Biography, art. Ramsden.')

of Ramtilla by a year or two, is now retained as that of the RAMSEY. [MAN, ISLE OF.]

genus. De Candolle, having obtained specimens and seeds RAMSGATE, a town in the Isle of Thanet in Kent, 71 from various countries, discovered that the Indian plant miles from London-bridge, through Dartford, Rochester, and was identical with one from Abyssinia, which has been Canterbury. The ville of Ramsgate, comprehending 260 mentioned by Bruce under the name of Polymnia fronacres, was included formerly in the parish of St. Lawrence, dosa. The fact is interesting in a plant cultivated in both in the hundred of Ringslow or Thanet, in the lathe of St. countries for the same purposes, and forming one of the Augustine ; but provided separately for its own poor: in links which indicate the connection which existed in early 1827 it was made a distinct parish. The ville is a member times between India and Upper Egypt. This plant is culof the Cinque-Port of Sandwich. Ramsgate was antiently tivated in different parts of India, from October to March, a poor fishing-town, consisting of a few meanly-built houscs, in fields, for the sake of the seed, from which an oil is extuilt on the coast of the Isle of Thanet, which here fronts pressed, and used as a substitute for that of the Sesamum, the south-east: it had a small wooden pier. After the Reo which is considered the best kind. It is used both in dressvolution of 1688, some of the inhabitants engaged in the ing food and as a lamp oil. Russian trade, by which they acquired wealth, and this led RAMUS, PETER (PIERRE DE LA RAME'E), was to the improvement of the town. When the practice of born in a village in Picardy, in the year 1502, according families from London and elsewhere resorting to the sea- to one account, and in the year 1515 according to another. side became general, Ramsgate was one of the earliest fre. His parents were extremely poor, and the future philosoquented spots, though for some time eclipsed by the superior pher was set when a boy to tend sheep. Disgusted with this attractions of Margate. The improvement of the barbour employment, and having an ardent desire to get knowledge, by the erection of the piers and other works in the middle he ran away from his parents to Paris. After some time, and and latter part of the last century, gave another impulse to after he had encountered much misery, one of his uncles the prosperity of the town. Early in the present century a offered some pecuniary assistance, and Ramus now entered stone lighthouse was erected on the head of the west pier ; a the College of Navarre as a servant. He made great prosmall battery is fixed at the head of the east pier. The east gress in all studies, with very little assistance from masters. pier is one of the longest in the kingdom, extending 2000 At the completion of his course, when he presented himself feet; the western pier extends about half that length: they for the degree of master of arts, he undertook as an exerare built of Portland and Purbeck stone and Cornish cise what then seemed the almost impious task of showing granite. The harbour includes an area of 48 acres, and that Aristotle was not infallible. This was the beginning of furnishes a convenient shelter for vessels which are obliged the anti-Aristotelian opinions by which Ramus afterwards by heavy gales to run from the Downs. It is provided with gained his notoriety and fame. The exercise was adjudged a basin and floodgates in the upper part of the harbour for successful, and Ramus henceforth devoted himself to ibe scouring it from the drifted sand or mud.

study of the works of Aristotle as to the object of his life. The old part of Ramsgate is situated in one of those na: In 1543 he published his new system of logic, with strictural depressions (called in the Isle of Thanet 'gates,' or tures on the logic of Aristotle. The publication of this work

stairs') in the chalk, which open upon the sea. This part of exposed him to great obloquy. He was charged with impiety the town is low compared with the nigher parts on each side and sedition, and with a desire to overthrow all science anil of it. The streets in the old part of the town are narrow religion, through the medium of an attack on Aristotle. On and indifferently built. The newer part of the town, from the report of an irregular and partial tribunal, appointed to its elevated site on the cliffs, commands an extensive sea consider the charges made against him, the king ordered his view, and consists of several streets macadamized and lighted works to be suppressed, and forbade his teaching or writing with gas. Many of the houses are very handsome: some against Aristotle on pain of corporal punishment. Ramus are arranged in streets, terraces, or crescents

, while others availed himself of the leisure which the compulsory cessa are detached villas. At present (1840) a considerable num- sion of his lectures procured for him, to study mathematics ber of houses are building. There are bathing-rooms, as and prepare an edition of Euclid. Shortly afterwards he sembly-rooms, boarding and lodging houses, a handsome began a course of lectures on rhetoric at the College of new church, a chapel-of-ease, and several dissenting meet- ! Presles, the plague having driven away numbers of students ing-houses.

from Paris. ' He was named Principal of this college, and The population of the ville of Ramsgate, including the the Sorbonne ineffectually endeavoured to eject him on the town, was, in 1831, 7985. There is considerable coasting ground of the royal prohibitory decree. This decree was

cancelled in 1545, through the influence of the Cardinal de course by Ramusio ; Andrea Corsali, a Florentine, Two Lorraine, to whom he had dedicated his edition of Euclid. Letters to Julian and Lorenzo de' Medici ; Alvarez, Travels He now began a course of mathematics in Paris. In 1551, he to Ethiopia, with the submission of Prester John to Pope was named by the king (Henri II.) professor of philosophy Clement VII.; Ramusio, Discourse on the Rise of the Nile, and eloquence in the College of France. During the next with a reply by Fracastoro; the Voyage of Nearchus transten years, he published a Greek, Latin, and French gram- lated from Arrian's text; Journey of a Venetian from Alexmar, and several treatises on mathematics, logic, and rhetoric. andria to Diu in India in 1538; Arrian's Navigation from Ramus had embraced Protestantism, and now shortly again the Red Sea to India; Barbosa, a book of travels to the brought upon himself great trouble by the zeal wila which East Indies; a brief account of Kingdoms and Towns behe advocated the new doctrines. Charles IX. offered him tween the Red Sea and China, translated from the Portuan asylum at Fontainebleau ; but while he was absent from guese; Antonio Conti, a Venetian, Journey to India, wriihome, his house was pillaged and his library destroyed. He ten by Poggio Bracciolini; Jeronimo da San Stefano, a returned to Paris in 1563, and resumed possession of his Genoese, his letter written from Tripoli in 1499; Ramusio, royal chair. Civil troubles again drove him away from Paris, Discourse on the Voyage round the World by the Spaniards; and in 1568 he asked permission to travel. He went Maximilian of Transylvania, Epistle concerning the Navigato Germany, and was received everywhere with honour. tion of the Spaniards; a short account of the Voyage of He gave lectures on mathematics at Heidelberg, and while Magalhaens; Pigafetta, Voyage round the World; the in this town he made public profession of Protestantism. Navigation of a Portuguese who accompanied Edward BarShortly after his return to Paris, he fell a victim in the mas bosa in 1519; Ramusio, a Discourse concerning the Voysacre of St. Bartholomew.

ages to the Spice Countries; Juan Gaetan, a Castilian pilot, Although Ramus had many merits as a philosopher, and Discovery of the Moluccas; Information concerning Japan, did much good by his opposition to the Aristotelian philoso- by the Portuguese Jesuits; João de Barros, Chapters exphy, which then held men's minds in bondage, he was want tracted from his History.' ing in depth and caution, and his strictures on Aristotle Vol. ii. contains · Marco Polo's Travels, with a preface by are by no means altogether just. He had many followers. Ramusio; Hayton, an Armenian, Discourse on the origin The influence of Melanchthon, on the other side, did not of the Great Khan and the condition of the Tartars ; Angioprevent the progress of his system of logic in the German lelli, Life and Actions of Hussan Cassan; the Travels of a universities." France, England, and particularly Scotland, Merchant into Persia in the years 1517-20; Giosafat Barwere full of Ramists. Andrew Melville introduced the logic baro, a Venetian, Journey to the Tana (the river Tanais) of Ramus at Glasgow.

and into Persia ; Ambrosio Contarini, Journey into Persia ; The following is a list of the principal works of Ramus: Alberto Campense, Leiters to Clement VII. concerning the 1, ‘Institutiones Dialecticæ Tribus Libris distinctæ ;' 2, ‘Ani- affairs of Muscovy; Paul Giovio, Reports on the affairs of madversiones in Dialecticam Aristotelis ;' 3, * Rhetoricæ Dis- Muscovy, by him collected; Herbestein, Commentaries on tinctiones in Quintilianum ;' 4, • Arithmeticæ Libri Tres ; 5, Muscovy and Russia ; Arrian's Letter to Hadrian concern*In Quatuor Libros Georgicorum et in Bucolica Virgilii Præ- ing the Euxine; Interiano, a Genoese, on the habits and lectiones;' 6, 'Ciceronianus.' (A life of Cicero, interspersed manners of the Zythi, called Circassians; Hippocrates, with many philological remarks on the Latin language. and extract of his Treatise on Air and Water, in which he speaks strictures on the state of education in France.) 7, 'Scholæ of the Scythians; Piero Quirino, a Venetian, Account of Grammaticæ Libri Duo ;'8, “Grammatica Latina ;-9, Gram- his Voyage and Shipwreck; Sebastian Cabota, Navigation matica Græca quatenus à Latina differt;' 10, Gramère in the Northern Seas; Caterino Zeno, a Venetian, Travels Fransoeze;' 11, Liber de Moribus Veterum Gallorum;' 12, to Persia; Niccolo and Antonio Zeno on the Discovery of * Liber de Militia Julii Cæsaris;' 13, Commentarius de Iceland; Travels into Tartary by some Dominican monks : Religione Christiana, Libri Quatuor;' 1.4, Præfationes, Epis- Olderico da Udine, Two Journeys into Tartary; Guagnini, tolæ, Orationes' (Paris, 1599, and Marburg, 1599) "The a Venetianı, Description of European Sarmatia; Matthew Greek Grammar of Ramus received considerable additions Micheow of Cracow, Description of the two Sarmatias.' from Sylburgius.

Vol. iii. : - Pietro Martire of Angleria, extract from his The above list is taken from the article ‘Ramus,' in the History of the New World ; Oviedo, extract from his HisBiographie Universelle. For a complete list of the works of tory of the West Indies; Hernan Cortez, Narrative of his Ramus the reader is referred to Niceron (Mém., tom. xiii.). Conquest of Mexico; Pedro de Alvarado, two letters to

RAMU'SIO, GIAMBATTISTA, was born at Treviso in Hernan Cortez; Diego Godoy, a letter from New Spain; the Venetian State, in 1485, of a family originally from Narrative of one of Cortez's companions concerning Mexico, Rimini, which produced several men of learning. He with two maps, one of the Great Temple, and another of filled several offices under the republic, and became secre the Lake; Alvaro Nuñez, Narrative of the Indies and of tary to the.Council of Ten. Having undertaken a collection New Galicia in 1527-36; Guzman on the Conquest of New of the most important narratives of voyages and travels per- Spain; Francisco Ulloa, Voyage in the Mar Vermejo, or Sea formed in distant counties both in antient and modern of California ; Vasquez de Coronado, Narrative of a Journey times, he translated into Italian those that had been written to Cevole, or the Kingdom of the Seven Cities; Alarcon, in other languages, and added his own remarks and several Voyage to discover the Kingdom of the Seven Cities in dissertations, which show that he possessed very extensive 1540 ; Ramusio, Discourse on the Conquest of Peru; Nargeneral information for the age in which he lived. He was rative of a Spanish Captain concerning the Conquest of a friend of Bembo, Fracastoro, and other learned contem- Peru; Francisco Xeres, Narrative of the Conquest of Peru poraries. His work is entitled • Raccolta di Navigazioni e and New Castile ; Narrative of a Secretary of Francisco Viaggi, 3 vols. fol. The first volume was printed by Giunti Pizarro concerning the Conquest of Peru; Gonzalo de at Venice, in 1550 ; another volume appeared in 1556, and Oviedo, Navigation of the river Marañon; Ramusio, Disa.third in 1559, after Ramusio's death, which took place at course concerning New France; Giovanni da Verazzano, a Padua, in July, 1557. Subsequent editions appeared with Florentine, Narrative written from Dieppe, in July, 1524; the addition of several travels which had not appeared in Discourse of a great Naval Captain concerning the Navigathe first. The most complete edition is that of 1606. The tion of the West Indies ; Jacques Cartier, First and Second following list of contents will convey an idea of the value of Narrative of Voyages to New France; Cesare de Federici, the work :-Vol. i., 'Leo Africanus's Description of Africa; Voyage to the East Indies and beyond India; Three VoyCadamosto a Venetian navigator, preceded by a Discourse ages of Hollanders and Zealanders to China, New Zembla by Ramusio; Sintra, a Portuguese narrative; Hanno's Peri- and Greenland.' plus; Navigation from Lisbon to St. Thomé, by a Portu Among the above series are several curious narratives guese pilot; Ramusio, a Discourse on the Navigation of the which are not found in any other collection. Ramusic Portuguese to the East Indies; Voyage of Vasco de Gama left materials for a fourth volume, which unfortunately were in 1497, written by a Florentine; Pedro Cabral Alvarez, destroyed in a fire which broke out in the printing-press of royage from Lisbon to Calicut in 1500, written by a Portu- Giunti, in November, 1557. guese pilot; Amerigo Vespucci, two letters to Pietro Sode (Camus, Mémoires sur les Collections de voyages : rini; a Summary of Vespucci's Voyages; Thomas Lopez, Gamba, Serie dei Testi di Lingua.) a Portuguese, Voyage to the East Indies ; Giovanni da Ėm RANDAZZO. [MESSINA.) poli, a Florentine, Journey to India ; Ludovico Barthema of RANDERS is a thriving Danish trading town, in the Bologna, Itinerary, preceded by a Discourse by Ramusio ; diocese of Aarhuus, in the province of Jutland. It is lambolus, Voyage extracted from Diodorus, with a Dis- 1 situated in 56° 28' N. lat. and 10° 3' E. long., near the

Baltic, on the river Guden, which is here navigable. It is Both of these branches are navigable, but the Rangoon a walled town with seven gates, and next to Aarhuus, is the River is generally preferred. Though the navigation is most considerable place in Jutland, having a population of somewhat intricate, the difficulties are easily overcome by 5600 inhabitants. There is one church, a large hospital, a the assistance of tolerable pilots. Vessels of 1200 tons grammar-school, and an Agricultural Society. The inha- burden have proceeded to the town. This eastern branch bitants manufacture gloves, stockings, woollen cloth, earth is the only one of the Irawadi which is navigable for large enware, and lampblack; calico-printing, brewing, and vessels, except that of Bassein, which has the disadvantage brandy-distilling are carried on to a considerable extent of being nearly dry above the town of Bassein during the There are some vinegar manufactories and one sugar-house. dry season, whilst the eastern branch may always be naviThis place has a very brisk trade, especially in corn. gated by large river-boats; consequently Rangoon has the

RANDOLPH, THOMAS, an English poet, was born in advantage of an uninterrupted communication with the the year 1605, at Badby in Northamptonshire. He was the upper provinces at all seasons. second son of William Randolph of Little Houghton, steward The town is on the left bank of the river, at a place where to Edward lord Zouche, by his first wife Elizabeth, daugh it runs nearly due east and west. From the banks of the ter of Thomas Smith of Newnham in the same county. river the ground continues to rise gradually for more than

He was educated at Westminster school, and thence two miles to the foot of the hill on which the grand Dagong elected scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, in the year Pagoda is built, the bottom of which appears to be 70 or 1623. He was afterwards made fellow on the same founda- 80 feet above the level of the Irawadi. The town and tion, and admitted to an ad eundem degree at Oxford in suburbs extend about a mile along the bank of the river, 1631. After some stay at Cambridge, he came to London, but the houses are very unequally scattered over this area. where he was much noticed by Ben Jonson, who called him The streets are narrow, but clean and well paved. The his adopted son. He became intimate also with many of the houses are raised on posts, the smaller supported by bamother wits of that day. The promise of his youth was boos and the larger by strong timbers. There are a few marred by a career of dissipation and extravagance, which brick houses, chiefly belonging to Europeans, who pay a shortened his life prematurely. He died while on a visit heavy tax for this privilege: no subject of the Burmese to a friend at Blatherwick in Northamptonshire, where emperor is permitted to erect a brick building. These he was buried, March 17,1634-5, and his memory honoured brick houses are built within the myo, or city, which is an by a monument erected at the charge of Sir Christopher irregular quadrangle, surrounded by a stockade 14 feet (afterwards lord) Hatton of Kirby.

high, and composed of heavy beams of teak timber. The Randolph's . Poems, Translations, and Plays,' were pub- north and south faces of this stockade are 1145 yards lished in London, 1634, 4to.; and his · Poems, with the long; the east 598, and the west 197 yards. It has in Muses' Looking-Glass and Amyntas,' at Oxford, in 1638, some places a stage to fire musketry from, through em4to.

There have been several other editions published brasures or loopholes. On the south side of the stockade since, both in London and at Oxford. His plays are— Aris- towards the river is a ditch, over which there is a causeway. tippus,' and 'The Conceited Pedlar,' published together The ditch is about 20 or 30 yards from the banks of the in 1630, 4to.; Jealous Lovers,' 1632, 4to.; The Muses' | river. In the interior of the stockade are three wide and Looking-Glass, Lond., 1638, 4to.; 'Amyntas,'Oxford, 1638, clean streets running east and west, and three smaller ones 410.; ' Hey for Honesty, Down with Knavery,' a comedy crossing them and fronting the gates on the south face. *The Prodigal Scholar,' a comedy, and · The Dolium Cor Two narrow roads, paved with brick, lead from the nelianum,' a Latin play in the style of Plautus, have been southern face of the stockade to the great pagoda, Shewi attributed to him.

Dagong, and along the sides are built a number of sidis, or Randolph's writings are the production of a mind well monuments in honour of Buddha. In form they may be imbued with classical literature, and he has in many pas- compared to a speaking-trumpet standing on its base. The sages not unskilfully interwoven the language and imagery | lower part is generally a polygon, and the shaft or upper of the best authors of antiquity. He wrote Latin verse part is round, the apex being ornamented with an iron net with ease and fluency, and translated from Claudian with in form of an umbrella, called a ti. The Shewi Dagong is considerable elegance. But his English compositions are in the same style as the rest, but richly gilt all over. It not free from the faults imputed to most of his contempora- is said to be about 278 feet high, and is surrounded by an ries, and are often disfigured by licentiousness, obscurity, and enclosure, in which is an immense bell of very rude fabric. strained conceits

, exhibiting more learning and ingenuity This pagoda is a place of pilgrimage, frequented by many than good taste. They consist of addresses to different strangers, especially Shans, who live in the country east of friends, epigrams, translations, and amatory pieces. His the river Saluen. dramas present very few attractions to the modern reader. Rangoon is very convenient for ship-building, as the tide The characters are either mere impersonations of virtues rises from 18 to 24 feet, and the great teak-forests are near and vices, or feeble and pedantic travesties from Greek and it. The timber may be floated do the whole way from Roman comedy. The plots are perplexed and devoid of in the forests near Sarwa to Rangoon. According to Crawfurd, terest, and the dialogue seldom rises above mediocrity, not less than 111 square-rigged vessels of European constructhough occasionally relieved by passages showing much tion were built there from 1786 to 1824. Some of them original power of description. The most popular of his were from 800 to 1000 tons burthen. plays is the 'Muses' Looking-glass,' which was re-acted in Rangoon was built by Alompra, after the destruction of the last century. For further particulars of his life see Pegu and Syrian in 1755, and the choice of the site shows Jacob's Poetical Register (which contains a curious anec the sagacity of the conqueror. Besides its advantageous dote of his first interview with Ben Jonson); Wood's situation for commerce, the elevated ground on which it is Athene O.xonienses ; Baker's Hist. of Northamptonshire. built secures it from being inundated by the tropical raits His works are reviewed in the Retrospective Review, vol. vi. ; to which all the low lands of the delta of the Irawadi are and a list of them is given in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica. subject. The climate is temperate, agreeable, and salu.

RANELLA. (Malacology.) (SIPHONOSTOMATA.] brious. The place at first rose slowly. Even at the beRANGE. (GUNNERY; PROJECTILES.)

ginning of the present century the number of vessels RANGER (Rangeator), an antient officer in the king's that cleared out was only from 18 to 25 annually. But beforests and parks, appointed by patent, and enjoying certain tween 1811 and 1817 the number increased to 35 and 36. fees, perquisites, and other advantages. His duty was of From 1817 to 1822 the average was 40 ships, and in the three kinds: 1, to make daily perambulations, to see, hear, last-mentioned year 56. Since the time of its occupation and inquire concerning any wrong doings in the limits by the British (from 1824 to 1826) its commerce with Calof his bailiwick; 2, to recover any of the beasts which had cutta and other British possessions in India has been constrayed beyond the limits of the forest or chase; and, 3, to tinually increasing. The most active commerce is carried present all transgressions at the next forest-court.

on with Chittagong, Dacca, Calcutta, Madras, Masulipatam, RANGOON is the most commercial port of the Birman the Nicobar Islands, and Pulo Penang; there is also some Empire. It is near 16° 40' N. lat. and 96° 18' E. long., and trade with Bombay and the Persian and Arabian gulfs. is built on the most eastern branch of the river Irawadi, The articles exported are teak-wood, catechu, stick-lac, about twenty-six miles from the sea. About two miles be- bees’-wax, elephants' teeth, raw cotton, orpiment, gold, low the town, the river divides into two arms, of which the silver, rubies, and horses. The most important of these eastern, running nearly due east, is called Syrian River; articles is teak-timber, and Calcutta is the principal mart and the western, running nearly due south, Rangoon River. I for it. Raw cotton of superior quality goes in great quanP. C., No. 1204.

Vol. XX

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