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On the 23rd of November, 1824, the late lamented Mr. I additional evidence of the sensibility of this organ. While Vigors had spoken at the Zoological Club of a living Toucan, taking his prey he never used his foot for the purpose of which was then exhibited in St. Martin's Lane. Mr.Vigors conveying it either to his bill or elsewhere. The bill was the stated that the bird had been fed on a vegetable diet; but sole vehicle and the organ actively employed; the foot that the proprietor had told him that on the occasion of a merely confined the prey on the perch. young Canary bird having escaped and gone near to the ' But there is yet another of the peculiarities of this bird Toucan, the latter appeared more than usually excited, that which cannot be passed over in silence. When he settles thereupon the barrier between them was removed, and that himself to roost, he sits a short time with his tail retroverted, the Toucan instantly seized and devoured the Canary bird. so as to make an acute angle with the line of his back; he On the next day Mr. Broderip went to the place where the then turns his bill over his right shoulder, nestling it in the Toucan was exhibited, and thus describes what he saw: soft plumage of the back (on which last the under mandible • After looking at the bird which was the object of my rests), till the bill is so entirely covered that no trace of it is visit, and which was apparently in the highest state of visible. When disturbed, he did not drop his tail, but almost health, I asked the proprietor to bring up a little bird, that I immediately returned his bill to the comfortable nidus from might see how the Toucan would be affected by its appear which on being disturbed he had withdrawn it. He broke ance. He soon returned, bringing with him a goldfinch, a a short time ago some of his tail-feathers, and the proprietor last year's bird. The instant he introduced his hand with informed me that before that accident the bird when at the goldfinch into the cage of the Toucan, the latter, which roost retroverted his tail so entirely that the upper surface of was on a perch, snatched it with his bill. The poor little the tail-feathers lay over and came in contact with the bird had only time to utter a short weak cry; for within a plumage of the back; so that the bird had the appearance second it was dead, killed by compression on the sternum of a ball of feathers, to which indeed when I saw him he and abdomen, and that so powerful that the bowels were bore a very considerable resemblance. The proprietor inprotruded after a very few squeezes of the Toucan's bill. As forms me that he always roosts in the same way.' (Zool. soon as the goldfinch was dead, the Toucan hopped with it, | Journ., vol. i.) still in his bill, to another perch, and placing it with his In a subsequent volume (ii.) Mr. Vigors gives the followbill between his right foot and the perch, began to strip off ing interesting account of a Toucan, Ramphastos Ariel the feathers with his bill. When he had plucked away most (Vig.), which he kept in a state of domestication for many of them, he broke the bones of the wings and legs (still hold years :ing the little bird in the same position) with his bill, taking . With respect to the manners of my bird, I can add but the limbs therein, and giving at the same time a strong little to the very accurate and interesting account of those lateral wrench. He continued this work with great dexte of a species nearly allied to it, which has appeared in a prerity till he had almost reduced the bird to a shapeless mass; ceding number of this journal.* I have not allowed it to be and ever and anon he would take his prey from the perch in indulged in that disposition to animal food which so strikingly his bill, and hop from perch to perch, making at the same belongs to this family. I find in fact that it thrives suffi time a peculiar hollow clattering noise; at which times I ob- ciently well upon a vegetable diet; and I fear that if it served that his bill and wings were affected with a vibratory should once be allowed any other, it would be difficult to or shivering motion, though the latter were not expanded. restrain its inclination for it within moderate limits. Eggs He would then return the bird to the perch with his bill, are the only animal food with which it has been supplied and set his foot on it. He first ate the viscera, and con since it came into my possession. Of these it is particularly tinued pulling off and swallowing piece after piece, till the fond, and they are generally mixed up in his ordinary food, head, neck, and part of the back and sternum, with their soft which consists of bread, rice, potatoes, German paste, and parts, were alone left: these, after a little more vrenching, similar substances. He delights in fruits of all kinds while they were held on the perch, and mastication, as it During the period when these were fresh, he fed almost were, while they were held in the bill, he at last swallowed, exclusively on them; and even in the present winter months not even leaving the beak or legs of his prey. The last part | he exhibits great gratification in being offered pieces of gave him the most trouble; but it was clear that he felt apples, oranges, or preserved fruits of any description. These great enjoyment; for whenever he raised his prey from the he generally holds for a short time at the extremity of his perch he appeared to exult, now.masticating the morsel with bill, touching them with apparent delight with his slender his toothed bill and applying his tongue to it, now attempt and feathered tongue; and then conveying them by a ing to gorge it, and now making the peculiar clattering sudden upward jerk to his throat, where they are caught noise accompanied by the shivering motion above men- and instantly swallowed. His natural propensity to preying tioned. The whole operation from the time of seizing his upon animals, although not indulged, is still strongly conprey to that of devouring the last morsel lasted about a spicuous. When another bird approaches his cage, or even quarter of an hour. He then cleaned his bill from the fea- a skin or preserved specimen is presented to him, he exhithers by rubbing it against the perches and bars of his cage. bits considerable excitement. He raises himself up, erects While on this part of the subject it may be as well to men his feathers, and utters that “ hollow clattering sound ” tion another fact, which appears to me not unworthy of noticed by Mr. Broderip, which seems to be the usual exnotice. I haye more than once seen him return his food pression of delight in these birds; the irides of his eyes at some time after he had taken it to his crop, and, after mas- the same time expand, and he seems ready to dart upon his ticating the morsel for awhile in his bill, again swallow it; prey, if the bars of his cage permitted his approach. On the whole operation, particularly the return of the food to one occasion, when a small bird was placed by chance over the bill, bearing a strong resemblance to the analogous his cage at night, he showed great restlessness, as if aware action in ruminating animals. The food on which I saw of the neighbourhood of the bird; and he would not be him so employed was a piece of beef, which had evidently composed until the cause of his anxiety was discovered and been macerated some time in the crop. While masticating removed. it, he made the same hollow clattering noise as he made over * When in his cage, he is peculiarly gentle and tractable, the remains of the goldfinch. Previous to this operation he suffers himself to be played with, and feeds from the hand. had examined his feeding-trough, in which there was nothing Out of his cage, he is wild and timid. In general he is but bread, which I saw him take up and reject; and it ap active and lively; and, contrary to what might be expected, peared to me that he was thus reduced from necessity to the from the apparent disproportion of the bill and the seemingly above mode of solacing his palate with animal food. His clumsy shape of the birds of this genus, as they are usually food consists of bread, boiled vegetables, eggs, and flesh, set up or represented in figures, his appearance is not only to which a little bird is now added about every second or graceful, but his movements, as he glides from pernh to third day. He showsea decided preference for animal food, perch, are light and sylph-like; so much so as to bave sugpicking out all morsels of that description, and not re- gested to an intelligent friend who witnessed them the spesorting to the vegetable diet till all the former is ex cific name which I have ventured to assign him. He keeps hausted.
himself in beautiful plumage, his lighter colours being " It is said that the nerves are very much expanded strikingly vivid, and the deep black of his upper body in within the internal surface of the bill in these birds; particular being always bright and glossy. For this fine and independently of the sensual enjoyment which the condition he seems to be much indebted to his fondness for Toucan above mentioned appeared to derive from palat- bathing. Every day he immerses himself in cold water ing his prey, I have observed him frequently scratching his with apparent pleasure, even in this severe weather and bill with his foot, which may be considered as furnishing
• Mr. Broderip's account, above given.
in no respect indeed does he appear to suffer by the tran- | movements the tail seemed to turn as if on a hinge that was sition from his own warm climate to our uncongenial atmo- operated upon by a spring. At the end of about two hours sphere.
he began gradually to turn his bill over his right shoulder, * Besides the “hollow clattering noise," as my friend Mr. and to nestle it among the feathers of his back, sometimes Broderip so expressively terms the usual sounds of these concealing it completely within the plumage, at other times birds, he utters at times a hoarse and somewhat discordant having a slight portion of the culmen exposed. At the cry when he happens to be hungry, and to see his food about same time he drooped the feathers of his wings and those to be presented to him. On such occasions he stands erect, of the thigh-coverts, so as to encompass the legs and feet; raising his head in the air, and half opening his bill as he and thus nearly assuming the appearance of an oval ball of emits this cry. These are the only sounds I have heard feathers, he secured himself against all exposure to cold.' him utler; and in neither can I say that I have detected any similarity, or even approach, to the word Toucan, as has sometimes been asserted, and from whence the trivial name of the genus has been supposed to originate. Neither have I been able to verify another observation which has been advanced respecting these birds, that the bill is compressible between the fingers in the living bird. The bill, notwithstanding the lightness of its substance, is firm, and capable of grasping an object with much strength. The mode in which Mr. Broderip describes his Toucan as having broken the limbs of the bird which be was about to devour, by“ a strong lateral wrench," sufficiently shows that the bill is not deficient in power. Indeed I generally observe that my bird takes what is offered him rather by the sides than by the point of his bill; and I suspect that much of the powers of that member are centred in this lateral motion. The serration of the edges also may be supposed to tend to these peculiar powers. The manner in which he composes himself to rest is represented in the accompanying plates. Since the cold weather has commenced, he has been brought into a room with a fire, and the unusual light seems tt Dave interfered with his general habits; he does not go o rest as early or as regularly as was his custom; and he sometimes even feeds at a late hour. During the warmer months however, when he was more free from interruption, his habits were singularly regular. As the dusk of the evening approached, he finished his last meal for the day; took a few turns, as if for exercise after his meal, round the perches of his cage ; and then settled on the highest perch, disposing himself, almost at the moment he alighted on it, in the posture represented, his head drawn in between his shoulders, and his tail turned vertically over his back.
Toucan at roost; second stage.
All are now agreed that in a state of nature the Ramphastidæ are omnivorous. Mr. Swainson (Classification of Birds) says, 'The apparent disproportion of the bill is one of the innumerable instances of that beautiful adaptation of structure to use which the book of nature everywhere reveals. The food of these birds principally consists of the eggs and young of others, to discover which nature has given them the most exquisite powers of smell ;' and he notices the size of the bill as ancillary to this development.
Mr. Gould, who alludes to the papers of Mr. Broderip and of Mr. Vigors, states that in their choice of food the Ramphastidæ are perfectly omnivorous; and although their elastic bill and delicately feathered tongue would lead us to conclude that fruits constituted the greatest proportion of their diet, we have abundant testimony that they as readily devour tlesh, fish, eggs, and small birds, to which, in all probability, are added the smaller kinds of reptiles, caterpillars, and the larvæ of insects in general.
The incubation of most if not all of this family takes place in the holes of trees, a habit that was very early known. We find Willughby, after quoting Faber for proof that in the structure of their feet, &c., the toucans resemble the woodpeckers, “to the genus whereof the toucan, as Faber in this place proves, doth undoubtedly belong,' continuing thus : 'for it not only hath a like situation of toes, but also
in like manner hews holes in trees to build its nest, as Fryer Tuncan at roost; first stage.'
Peter Alvaysa, and other Indians and Spaniards, who had
long lived in America, told Faber for a certain truth; and 'In this posture he generally remained about two hours, in Oviedus, in the forty-third chapter of his summary of the a state between sleeping and waking, his eyes for the most history of the West Indies, published in Italian, writes, part closed, but opening on the slightest interruption. At adding that he thinks there is no bird secures her young such tires he would allow himself to be handled, and would ones better from the monkeys, which are very noisome to even take any favourite food that was offered him without the young of most birds. For when she perceives the altering his posture further than by a gentle turn of the approach of those enemies, she so settles herself in her nest head. He would also suffer bis tail to be replaced by the as to put her bill out at the hole, and gives the monkeys hand in its natural downward posture, and would then im- such a welcome there with that they presently pack away, mediately return it again to its vertical position. In these and glad they escape so. From this quality of boring the P. C., No. 1203.
VOL. XIX.—2 P
trees, this bird is by the Spaniards called carpintero, and by the intestine,' wnere it terminates close to the insertion of the Brazilians tacataca, in imitation, I suppose, of the sound the two pancreatic ducts. it makes.' The feathered structure of the tongue is also The same anatomist states that the length of the tongue, there noticed.
one of the most remarkable among
birds, in a full grown Mr. Gould remarks that the true toucans, unlike many of Rhamphastos Toco was six inches. "The posterior ridge, or the araçaris, offer no sexual difference in the colour of the backward-projecting process, was broad and finely notched, plumage ; but the females are rather less than the males in and situated about four lines from the glottis. Anterior to all their proportions. He adds that the young of both this process, Mr. Owen describes the tongue as being soft and genera assume at a very early age the adult colouring; but minutely papillose for the extent of four lines, and here he that their large bills, as might be expected, are not fully thinks most probably the sense of taste resides: the rest of developed for a considerable period.
the organ consists of a transparent horny lamina, flattened The colours of the bill, which are generally very vivid horizontally, and supported by the anterior process of the during life, become, in many instances, greatly changed and os hyoides, which forms a ridge along the middle of its deteriorated by death: this should be borne in mind by inferior surface. At about four inches from the extremity those who describe species from dead specimens, especially of the horny lamina the margins become obliquely notched, if they have been a long time preserved.
and these notches, becoming deeper and closer together Before we proceed to the description of one or two of the towards the extremity, occasion the bristled appearance on species of this most interesting family, it will be necessary each side of the tongue: these bristles were applied to the to lay before the reader a summary of the anatomy of this food in the cases of the captive toucans above recorded. The form, as it has been demonstrated by Professor Owen, in cornua of the os hyoides are 14 inches in length. Mr. Gould's Monograph.
No. 1479 B. (Mus. Coll. Chir., Physiol. Series) is the ORGANIZATION.
preparation of the tongue of a toucan, showing the flat Digestive Organs. - Professor Owen remarks that the sheath of horn and the series of short processes directed fororgans of digestion in the toucan present a general simpli- wards on each side like the barbs of a feather.
The upper city of structure, which accords with its geographical larynx, wide fauces, and commencement of the trachea are position and power of assimilating both animal and vegetable also here preserved. The base of the tongue is soft, and food, so abundantly provided by nature in a tropical climate. covered with fine papillæ ; it forms posteriorly a denticulated The size of the @sophagus and general width of the intes- ridge, which is directed backwards, and may serve to protinal canal correspond to the magnitude of the beak. There tect the laryngeal aperture like an epiglottis. (Cat. Mus. is no lateral dilatation of the crop, nor is the gizzard so en Coll. Chir., vol. iii.) croached upon by its muscular parietes as to render such a reservoir for the alimentary substances necessary. The intestinal canal is equally devoid of lateral pouches, or cæca; the gastric glands are of a simple form, and are disposed for PC the extent of an inch around the termination of the esophagus. The communication of the gizzard with the pro
Upper surface of Tongue of Toucan. (Owen.) ventriculus is free, readily permitting regurgitation to take I, The fringed or feathered portion ; m, srifice of larynx ; n, orifice of pharynx: place; and here Professor Owen refers to the record of that o, cornua of the os hyoides ; p, trachea or windpipe; , gullet. act in the papers of Mr. Broderip and Mr. Vigors, adding Mr. Owen observes that the osseous portions of the manthat as the substances so regurgitated were, after undergoing dibles of the Toucan are disposed in a manner adapted to a second mastication, again swallowed, the act may be com- combine with the great bulk of those parts a due degree of pared to the rumination of herbivorous quadrupeds. strength and remarkable lightness, and the bony structure
In the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, No. is consequently of a most beautiful and delicate kind. The 524 D, prepared by the professor, shows the proventriculus external parietes,' continues Mr. Owen,‘are extremely thin, and gizzard of Ramphastos Ariel, Vig. It will be seen that especially in the upper beak: they are elastic and yield in the lining membrane at the termination of the esophagus is
a slight degree to moderate pressure, but present considerthrown into narrow but distinct longitudinal folds; as it able resistance if a force is applied for the purpose of crushpasses into the proventriculus it becomes finely reticulate,
fde ihe orifices of the gastric glands being situate in the interstices of the meshes. These glands are simple cylindrical
1. follicles, forming a complete zone at the end of the gullet, and not separated from that tube by any constriction. The
h proventriculus communicates with the gizzard by an equally
k wide aperture. The muscular coat of the gizzard does not
h exceed half a line in thickness the lateral tendons are small, but very distinct. The lining membrane is of a horny texture, and was stained of a deep yellow colour. The pyloric orifice is remarkably contrasted in its diminutive size with the ample entrance to the gizzard ; a structure which facilitates the regurgitation of the alimentary substances. The description then goes on to state that as the regurgitated morsels have been observed to undergo a second mastication, the digestive processes exhibit in this bird the analogy to the ruminants above noticed, and that as the thin parietes of the gizzard of this omnivorous bird are sometimes unequal to the comminution of the food, the utility of the extraordinary developed beak becomes apparent, which thus compensates by additional mastication for the absence of the grinding structure so peculiar to the stomachs of the true vegetable-feeders. (Cat. Mus. Coll. Chir.) Professor Owen states that the intestinal canal does not exceed the length of the body including the bill, and that the general structure of the digestive apparatus of the hornbill agrees with that of the toucan. The liver of the latter is composed of two lobes of unequal size, joined by a small band, and the cancellated structure of the beak ; 6, the cavity at the base ; c, brauches of the
1, Section of the cradium and upper mandible of Ramphastus Toco. , The margins of the lobes are more rounded than usual. There fifth pair of nerves; d, d, exterual orifices of the nostrils ; e, osseous parietes of is no gall-bladder, and Mr. Owen remarks that in this defi- the nasal passages: 1, osseous tubes protecting the olfactory nerves; 9. pitui ciency the toucan manifests an affinity to the Picidæ and it; h, superior semicircular canals of the internal ear; i, i, hemispheres of the Psittacidæ, among the Scansores ; while the hornbill, on cerebrum; k, cerebellum. (Owen.) the contrary, resembles the Corvidæ in the large develop- same parts as in the previous figure. 1. The tongue; m, glottis ; n, internal
2, Vertical longitudinal section of the head. The same letters indicate the ment of its biliary receptacle. A small hepatic duct enters aperture of the nostrils; 0, os hyoides ; p. trachea ; , csophagus ; 7, beginning the duodenum near its commencement; and a second duct, of the spinal chord;s, articulating surface of occipital bone; , nasal septum or about two lines in diameter, passes to a more distant part of mandible; , cancellated structure of the lower jaw. (Owen.)
ing the beak. At the points of the mandibles, the outer Hearing:- The external orifice of the meatus auditorius walls are nearly a line in thickness; at other parts in the is situated about half an inch behind the lower boundary of upper beak they are much thinner, varying from 1-30th to the orbit. The membrana tympani closes it so obliquely 1-50th part of an inch, and in the lower beak are from that its plane is directed almost backwards; its anterior edge 1-20th to 1.30th part of an inch in thickness. On making a is consequently about three lines from the external orifice, longitudinal section of the upper mandible, its base is seen while its posterior margin is at least six lines from the to include a conical cavity, about two inches in length and same point. It is convex outwardly, as in bırds generally. one inch in diameter, with the apex directed forwards. The The apparatus of the internal ear is easily exposed, the walls of this cone consist of a most beautiful osseous net- semicircular canals being lodged in a delicate reticulation work, intercepting irregular angular spaces, varying in of the diplöe of the cranium. These parts, with the ossicu diameter from half a line to two lines. From the parietes lum of communication and the cochlea, do not present any of this cone a network of bony fibres is continued to the deviations from the ordinary structure worthy of notice.' outward parietes of the mandible, the fibres which imme Sight. The sense of sight in the Ramphastidæ appears diately support the latter being almost invariably implanted to be sufficiently well developed, but requires no special at right angles to the part in which they are inserted. The observation. whole of the mandible anterior to the cone is occupied with Respiratory and Circulating System.-Mr. Owen found a similar network, the meshes of which are largest in the the trachea narrow and simple in its structure, the rings centre of the beak, in consequence of the union which takes somewhat flattened, and decreasing in diameter towards the place between different small fibres as they pass from the inferior extremity, from which a single pair of muscles passes circumference inwards. It is remarkable that the principle off to the sternum. The length of the lower fourth of the of the cylinder is introduced into this elaborate structure: tube, and the state of tension in the bronchia are regulated the smallest of the supporting pillars of the mand.bles are by a pair of small muscles, which, arising from the sides of seen to be hollow or tubular, when examined with the mi- the tracheal cartilages, are inserted into the bone of divaricacroscope. The structure is the same in the lower mandible, tion at the extremity of the trachea: this part of the tube but the fibres composing the net-work are in general is subjected to variations in length, as is indicated by the stronger than those of the upper mandible.'
tortuous character of the recurrent nerves attached to the Nervous System and Senses.-Mr. Owen states that the sides of the trachea in this part. The lungs, small in promedullary membrane lining these cavities appears to have portion, are of the usual form and structure, and the abdobut a small degree of vascularity. Processes of the mem minal air-cells are also small. The heart is more oblong brane, accompanying vessels and nerves, decussate the than it is in birds generally; its apex, as it were, truncate; conical cavity at the base of the beak. The principal nerves and its length one inch. are two branches of the fifth pair, which enter at the lower Urinary and Genital System.-The kidneys, composed part of the conical cavity, and diverge and ascend as they of three lobes, of which the middle one is smallest, are an pass forward to the end of the bill, giving off branches, inch and a half in length, with a surface convoluted, though which are distributed to the horny covering, and supply it in a less marked degree than it is in reptiles. Between the with sensibility. The air,' says Mr. Owen, is admitted to anterior extremities of these glands Mr. Owen found, in a the interior of the upper mandible from a cavity situated female Rumphastos Ariel, the ovary of a triangular shape, anterior to the orbit, which communicates at its posterior and apparently healthy. The ova were like minute granules, part with the air-cell continued into the orbit, and, at its and disposed in a convoluted manner. The supra-renal anterior part, with the maxillary cavity. The nasal cavity glands were imbedded in the posterior part of the ovary. is closed at every part, except at its external and internal | The oviduct, of the size of a crow-quill, commenced by the apertures, by the pituitary membrane, and has no commu usual fimbriated and wide aperture, was slightly tortuous nication with the interior of the mandible.'
at the commencement, and then continued straight to the Smell.—The organ of smell is confined to the base of the cloaca. upper jaw. The canal, which is traversed by the air and Osseous und Muscular Systems.-Certain parts of this odorous particles in inspiration, forms a sigmoid curve in system bear upon peculiar functions performed by the Tou. the vertical direction. The external orifice is on precisely cans, and are thus described by Professor Owen :- The the same perpendicular line as the internal one. It is pectoral muscles, as in the Psittacidæ, are but feebly desituated at the posterior surface of the upper mandible, veloped, and the keel of the sternum is of moderate size, not where it is raised above the level of the cranium; the orifice projecting more than half an inch from the plane of the is consequently directed backwards, secure from all injury bone. The sternum has four notches at its posterior margin. that might happen to it in the act of penetrating dense or The clavicles, or lateral halves of the furcula, are here, as interwoven foliage. The olfactory canal is at first of almost in the Psittacidæ and Struthionidæ, separate; they are an a cylindrical form, and about two lines in diameter. It | inch in length, slender, pointed at their lower ends, and passes forwards for about half an inch, receiving from the joined to each other and to the sternum by a ligament only.' mesial aspect the projection of the first spongy bone; it then “The peculiar motions of the tail called for a particular bends downwards and backwards, and is dilated to admit examination of that part. It is difficult to state the precise the projections of the two other spongy bones: from this number of the caudal vertebræ, in consequence of the terpoint it descends vertically to the palate, at first contracted, minal ones being anchylosed, requiring for this purpose the and afterwards dilating to form the internal or posterior examination of a young specimen at a period before the anorifice. The first or outermost spongy bone is almost hori- chylosis takes place. In the skeleton of a Black-billed zontal, and has its convexity outwards. The second is Toucan which I have examined, it would appear that three nearly vertically placed, with its convexity directed back- vertebræ are thus anchylosed, making the entire number of wards: it terminates in narrow point below. The third coccygeal vertebræ nine. The Woodpecker has also nine or superior spongy bone makes a small projection towards caudal vertebræ, and this seems to be the greatest numthe mesial plane about the size of a pea. These spongy ber found in birds. The first six of these vertebræ in the bones are formed by inward projections of the inner and Toucan are articulated by ball-and-socket joints, the ball posterior osseous parietes of the nasal passage; they are and the socket being most distinct in the last two joints. cellular, and air is continued into them from the cranial That between the sixth and the anchylosed vertebræ is diplöe; but the parietes of the nasal passage are entire and provided with a capsule and synovial fluid ; the others have smooth, and lined by a delicate pituitary membrane. The a yielding ligamentous mode of connection. The spinous inner table of the skull is continuous with the parietes of processes of these vertebræ, both superior and inferior, are the nasal cavity, by means of the bony canal which accom of moderate size, but smallest in the sixth, where the panies and protects the olfactory nerves, and which repre- greatest degree of motion takes place. The transverse prosents, as it were, a single foramen of the cribriform plate of cesses, on the contrary, are large and broad, so as almost the mammalia. The communication of the cavity of the wholly to prevent lateral motion. The first of the anchyeranium with that of the nose is thus similarly formed, and losed 'vertebræ is broad and flat, and of a rounded form, is only obstructed in the recent state by the pituitary mem- supporting the two coccygeal glands: the last of these probrane, on the posterior cul-de-sac of which the olfactory cesses is compressed laterally, and of the ordinary ploughnerve distributes its branches in a radiated manner. These share form. “The caudal vertebræ can be inflected dorsad branches were confined, as Scarpa has observed in other till their superior spines are brought into contact with the birds, to the pituitary membrane covering the septum narium sacrum; in the opposite direction they can scarcely be bent and the superior spongy bone.'
beyond a straight line; and it is to this structure of the
bones and joints that is to be attributed the capability in and chest white, with a tinge of greenish yellow, terminated the Toucan of turning its tail upon its back (as represented by a band of scarlet; under surface black; under tailin the · Zoological Journal,' vol. ii., pl. xv.*), the muscles coverts scarlet. Total length 24 inches; bill 7%; wings 9; presenting comparatively few peculiarities, since the mo- tail 61; tarsi 2. (Gould.) tion alluded to is remarkable rather for its extent than the Mr. Gould states that this bird is very rare; his own spevigour with which it is performed. The principal elevators cimen, which he says will be added to the museum of the of the tail are the sacro-coccygei superiores (sacro-sus- Zoological Society of London, being the only one which he caudiens of Vicq d'Azyr). They arise from two longitudi- has ever seen, with the exception of another, of which he nal ridges on the inferior and convex part of the sacrum, has some recollection, in the museum at Berlin. He adds and are inserted into the superior spines of the first six that there is no example in the Paris collection. vertebræ by detached tendons terminating broadly in the Locality.—The densely-wooded districts on both sides of anchylosed vertebræ. The principal antagonists of these the Amazon. muscles, the sacro-coccygei inferiores (sacro-sous-caudiens of Vicq d'Azyr), pass over the first five vertebræ, and terminate in the sixth and anchylosed vertebræ; their origins are wider apart than in the preceding pair of inuscles, coming off from the margin of the sacro-sciatic notches. In the interval are situated small muscles passing from the transverse processes to the inferior spines of the first six vertebræ. From the limited nature of the lateral motions of the tail, the muscles appropriate to these movements are feeble, especially in comparison with those which are observed in the birds that spread their tail-feathers in flight, in order to regulate their course during that vigorous species of locomotion. These muscles are in number two on each side, arising from the posterior extremites of the ischia, and inserted into the expanded anchylosed vertebræ. From the disposition of these muscles it is obvious that after the proper elevators have raised the tail to a certain height, they also become dorsad of the centre of motion, combine their forces with the elevators, and by this addition of power terminate the act of throwing up the tail by a jerk. Mr. Vigors, in his observations on the living animal, observes, that “in these movements the tail seemed to turn as if on a hinge that was operated on by a spring."' (Owen, in Gould's Ramphastida.)
Ramphastos Cuvieri. (Gould.)
Tail lengthened, graduated. (Sw.)
of the largest species, being 27 inches in totai length. The bill measures 75 inches; the wings, 20; the tail, ? ; and the tarsi are 2 inches in length. A beautifui figure of the bird, by Lear, is given in Mr. Gould's magnificent work. The range of the species is very wide, pernaps wider than that of any other, being distributed throughout the whole of the wonded districts from the River Plata to Guiana.
We select as an illustrative example, Ramphastos Cuvieri.
Description.-Beak brownish black on the sides, with a large basal belt and culminal line of greenish yellow, the basal belt being bounded behind by a narrow line of black,
Head of Aracari. (Gould.) and before by a broader one of deep black, which is only The following may be taken as examples of the genus apparent in certain lights; the top of the head and whole Pteroglossus Humboldtir. of the upper surface black, with the exception of the upper Description.—Bill large in proportion to the body: a tail-coverts, which are bright orange yellow; cheeks, throat, band of black occupies the culmen from the base to the tip: • See page 289.
the remainder of the upper mandible of a dull yellowish