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151

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Brs.

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Oue, near Chel-Horses. 25,000 50,000 A plate-railway for coal, &c. tenham.

10,000

purchased for 35,0001. by the 35,000

Companies Nos. 4 and 17. Joins No. 59. Locom. 300,000

For passengers and general Engines 100,000

traffic. Gauge + f. 94 in. intended

Made by No. 58 Company.

400,000 82 Joins Nos. 3, 19, Locom. 1,040,000 11,957,800 For passengers and general 53, 60, and 93. Engines. 346,000

with traffic. Gauge 4 f. 81 in

No. 93. United with Nos. 19 & 93.

1,386,000 76 To York & Dur Locom. 1,000,000 1,330,000 For passengers & general traf. ham. Joins 20, Engines

150,000

fic. The live from Darling. 2 35, 87, & 98. intended 1,150,000

ton to York is by Act 1837. To join Nos. 20, Locom.

52,500

Intended chiefly for minerals, Br. 34, and 38. Engines 17,500

merchandize, &c. intended

70,000 1179 To Bradford and Locom. 2,500,000 4,999,999 For passengers and genera. Trowbridge. Engines.

833,333 See note(b) traflic. Gauge 7 f. 75 m Joins 12, 17, & 95. 3,333,333

were open in August, 1840. 7 Joias Nos. 42 & Horses. 13,000

A plate-railway, for coal, mer. 52.

7,000

chandize, &c. The line rises

166 f.

20,000 15 To Durham, &c. Locom. 209,000 492,000 Chiefly for coal, but some Joins Nos. 27 & Engines.

70,000

passengers conveyed. Gauge 35.

41. 81 in.

279,600 Joins No. 45. Horses. 50,000

A plate-railway, for minerals, 15,000

merchandize, &c. The line

is very circuitous.

65,000 12 To Portreath, &c. Locom. 64,000

Used principally for the con. Br. &c. Joins No. Eng. & 16,000

veyauce of minerals. 31 78.

80,000 71

11,300 21,700 For the conveyance of stone to 2,800

the Knottingley and Goole

canal.

14,100 12 Joins No. 37. Horses. 23,000

A plate-railway, in continua12,000

tion of Nos. 52 and 37, for

coal, corn, &c. 35,000

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From near Brecon to Parton

Cross and Eardisley, Here.
fordshire.

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301

43. Hull and Selby Humber Dock, Hull, to No.

48, at Selby, West Riding of
Yorkshire.

July,
1840

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() In addition to the parliamentary capital of 4.999,9991., the directors have been authorised to raise 600,0001. on loan notes, (e) An Act passed in 1839 empowers the Company to raise 208,0001. for making a branch of about a mile long, to connect with the Manchester and Leeds aod Manchester and Bolton Railways, but it has not yet (November, 1840) been commern

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1837

Harbour of Maryport, Cum

berland, to No. 68, at Car-
lisle.

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1837 Part 45$ To Crewe & Mac- Locom. 2,100,000

For passengers and generz. 1840 Brs, clesfield. Joius Engines. 700,000

traffic. Gauge 4 f. 8 in. 26+ 19, 33, & 83.

See note @).

2,800,000 1831 May. 10 Joins Nos, 8 & 9. Locom. 204,000 650,000 For passengers and general 1838 See also note Engines.

traffic. Gauge 4 f. 8. in. (C) p. 263.

Made by the Canal Compy. 1836

Part 50: To Oldham, Hali- Locom. 1,300,000 2,599,000 For passengers and general
1839
Brs.
fax, &c. Joins Eny.inc. 433,000

traffic. Gauge 41. 9 iu.; 41 54 71. Sec(c)p.263. pl.ou brs

1,733,000

miles open, October, 1840. 1817 To Codnor Park Horses. 22,800

Chiefly used for coal, &c. Br. Iron Works.

10,000

Average inclination about 1}

50 feet 32,800

mile.

per
Part 28
Joins No. 68. Locom. 180,000

For passengers and general
1810
Engines. 60,000

traffic. 77 m. opened July, 240,000

1840, chiefly for coal. 1836 June, 57

To Mountsorrel. Locom. 11,000,000 1,533,000 For passeng. & general traffic. 1810 Br. Juins Nos. 3, Enyiues 333,000

Gange 41. 9 in. Rugby to 53, and 71. 1,333,000

Derby 49 m.; to Nott. 474 m. 1810 1817 Total | To quarries, col- Horses. 22,000

For the conveyance of mine. 8 lieries, &c.

6,000

rals, timber, &c., from the Joins 30 and 82.

Forest of Dean.

28,000 1825 1828 91

Horses. 20,000 40,000 For the conveyance of slates.

in sbares. 1829 1839 61 To Redheugh. / Locom. 300,000 930,000 For passengers and general See No. 6. Engines. 100,000

traffic. Gauge 41.84 inch. Joins 10 & 64.

Partly opened in 1835.

400,000 1836 June, 64 To the New Quay, Locom. 120,000 320,000 Chiefly for passengers. Ad 1839 North Shields Engines. 40,000

extension to Tynemouth is 160,000

proposed. 1836 Part 30 Joins No. 28. Locom. 1,200,000 720,000 For passengers and general 1910

Engines. 400,000 240,000 traffic. Gauge 5 f. Projected 1,600,000 960,000

to go to Cambridge, 53 m. 1836 July, 724 To a colliery. Locom. 1,500,000 3,000,000 For passengers and general 1840 Br. Joins 3, 62, 65, Engines. 500,000

traffic. Gauge 4 1. 9 in. 23 81, and 98.

2,000,000 1831 Oct., 221 To New Springs. Locom. 250,000 730,000 For passengers and general 1338 Br. Joins 9, 46, & Eugines. 83,000 with No.97.

Gauge 4 f. 8 n.

traslic. 3 50. See 97.

United with 97 in 1834.

333,000
1804
71 Tu mines, &c. Horses. 8,000

Chiefly for minerals. A few 4,000

passengers conveyed.

12,000 1819

27,783 Total One, to Catdown Horses,

The line

44,983 For minerals, &c. 254 & Sutton Pool.

5,000

is very circuitous.

32,783
1823
2
Fixed 5,000

A plate-railway, for the com-
Engines. 2,000

veyance of Portland stone

for shipment.

7,000 1836 May, 7

Horses. 30,000

For the conveyance of Long. 1840

10,000

ridge stvue, heary goods,

&c. A single track, 40,000

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(in nosition to the pupliamentary capital of 3,500,0001., the directors have been uuthorised to raise 250,0001. on loan notes. (o) The Company purpose constructing the railway from Manchester to Crewe and Macclesfield only, and have abandoned their works on the origine, main line to Chebsey. As now Priloaded, the lengih will be 381 iniles froin Manchester to Crewe, and the Macclesfield branch Il miles.

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154

99. Arbroath and No. 102, at Arbroath Harbour, 1836 Jan.

Joins No. 102 Locom. 70,000 160,000 For passengers and genera: Portar. to Forfar.

1839
Engines. 35,000

traflic. A single track 105,000

Gauge, 5 ft. 6 in. 100. Ardroscan, for- Ardrossan Harbour to Kilwin 1827 Part 9) 5+ Two Branches. Chiefly

95,658 106,666 For coal, passengers, &c. merly Jolinstone ning, Ayrshire; projected to

Brs. Joins 109. Lucom. in shares.

Gauge, 4 ft. 8f in. and Androssan. extend fo Johnstone.

64

Engines. () The main line from Witton Park Colliery to Stockton, is 28, or to Middlesbrough, 32 miles; and the total length of the lines specified in the Acts of Parliament is about 40 miles. It appears, however, by a letter from the Chairman to the Irish Railway Commissioners, that the Company have formed 54 miles of railway, of which 28 has a double track. The sum of 450,000/. is stated in the same document to have been expended, though the total Porliotentary capital is only 252,0001.

(g) This railway, as projected, was 22} miles long, but only 54 miles of the main line were completed. This part was worked by horses till 1840, wheu the capital was increased and the line adapted to locomotive engines.

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118. Belfast and Stone Quarries at Cavehill, to

1832 Sept.
2

Locom. £7,500 $38,200 For the conveyance of stone Cavehill. Belfast Harbour.

1840
Engines 2,500

&c. Gauge 4 f. 84 in. allowed.

10,000 119. Cork and City of Cork. to Passage, eu- 1837

6+
Locom. 200,000

To convey passengers to a • Passage. trance of Cork Harbour.

Engines 66,000

steam-packet pier. Not in allowed. 266,000

progress, November, 1840. 120. Dublin and Custom-House Quay, Dublin, 1836 In 32

Locom. 600,000 Drogheda.

450,000 For passengers and general near the Coast, to Drogheda.

pro

Engines 200,000 150,000 traffic. Capital reduced by gress.

600,000

an Act passed 1840. 121. Dublin and Westland-row, Dublin, to 1831 Dec. 5%

Locom. 200,000

For passengers and general Kingstown. Kingstown Harbour.

1834
Engines. 70,000

traffic. Gange 4 f. 87 in.

270,000 122. Dundalk Dundalk, county of Louth, | 1837

24
Horses 100,000

For passengers and genera: Western. to Ballaby, county of Mo

intended 32,000

traffic. Works commenced naghau.

132,000

in May, 1839. 123. Great Leinster Dublin, by Naas, "Athy, and 1837 In

734
Locom. 800,000

For passengers and general and Munster. Carlow, to Kilkenny

pro-
Engines 265,000

traflic.

The land required gress.

Jintended
1,055,000

agreed for in 1840. 24. Ulster. From near Durham Street, 1836 Part 36

Locom. 600,000

For passengers and general
Belfast, by Lisburn and

1839
Engines. 200,000

traffic. 8 miles open, and a Portadown, to Armagh.

800,000

farther portion in progress. A) An Act passed in 1837, but which appears not to have been carried into effect, allows the raising of 40,0001. by new shares, for converting this line

into an edge-rail way for locomotive engines.

AMERICAN Railways.

small in comparison with the railways of England, not havThe first railway constructed in the United States of riages. The average speed is equal to that on the English

ing exceeded 10,000l. per mile, including engines and carAmerica was a line of about four miles, for the conveyance lines, and the amount of travelling has been very great, of granite from the quarries at Quincy to Boston harbour, although the returns are small, the object of the government which was opened in 1827. The successful introduction being rather to provide accommodation at the lowest posof steam locomotion in England was immediately followed sible charge, than to make the railways a source of revenue. by the formation of numerous important lines of railroad The main line from west to east extends from the port of in America, and this species of enterprise has been so greatly encouraged, that, according to a statement pub- 1 Ostend to Liege, and thence to the Prussian frontier, to lished by the Chevalier de Gerstner (an engineer cele join the railway to Cologne. Another line commences at brated for the promotion of railways on the continent of to Brussels and Mons, whence it is to extend to the fron

Antwerp, and, intersecting the former at Malines, proceeds Europe), the railroads completed in the United States, down tier of France. Branches connect Namur, St. Trond, to the summer of 1839, amounted to more than 3000 miles; Courtrai, Tournay, &c. with the main lines, and afford while the extent of those in progress warranted an expecta- facilities for communication with the projected lines of the tion that about 4100 miles would be in operation by the close

neighbouring countries. of that year. In many cases the country over which these lines have been made is favourable in a degree unparalleled Budweis, Linz, and Gmünden, has been in operation several

In Germany a railway of about 130 English miles, between in this country; and, owing to the cheapness of land and tim the great facilities offered by the various states, and worked by horses, and used chiefly for the carriage of mer

years, part having been opened as early as 1829. It is the comparatively slight construction of many lines, their average cost has been greatly below that of English rail chandise. Other lines of great extent, generally for

the ways. Stevenson, in his Civil Engineering of North Ame use of locomotive engines, are in progress, and considerable rica," states the average of several lines to be about 49421. ment has afforded great encouragement to these under

portions are in successful operation. The Austrian governper mile, a statement which appears to be borne out by the takings, which will shortly connect Vienna with the surmore recent calculation of Gerstner. Many lines are laid rounding countries. Important railways are also in progresswith but one track, and the gradients and curves are often in Italy and other parts of the continent of Europe. less favourable than those of the public lines in this country, the thin population of the districts passed through, miles, connecting St. Petersburg with the towns and royal

In Russia an interesting line of about seventeen English and the high price of labour, precluding much expense in parks of Pawlowsk and Zarscoe-Selo, was completed in cuttings and embankments. Timber is used extensively in 1837. It is worked by locomotive engines, and is traversed the construction of the permanent way, on account of the by a great number of passengers. The line has but one facility of working it, and the expense of stone and iron. track, "six feet wide, and was formed by a joint-stock comStone blocks have been found in some instances to split from pany under imperial sanction. It is intended to continue the effect of the intense frost, which forms an additional the line to Moscow, about 420 miles from St. Petersburg, reason for the preference given to wood. The gauge most and some other extensive railways are in contemplation. commonly adopted is four feet eight inches and a half, this width having been taken from the English lines. American in India and several other parts of the world, the engineers

Railways have been introduced into Egypt, and projected locomotive engines do not usually travel so fast as those made by British manufacturers

, but they are frequently adapted for being frequently and the machinery almost invariably from ascending steep inclined planes, and, as described in a pre

ŘAIMONDI, MARC ANTONIO, commonly called by vous page, for traversing curves of small radius. The car

his baptismal names Marc Antonio only, was born at Bologna riages used are very large and commodious, some being as much as fifty or sixty feet long, mounted on eight wheels, about the year 1487 or 1488. He was instructed in the art of and so arranged that passengers may walk from one end of Francia, but having seen some prints by Albert Dürer, he

design by Francesco Maria Raibolini, known as Francesco the train to the other.

According to Stevenson, the only railway in the British determined on adopting engraving as a profession. It does dominions in North America, down to the year 1837, was

not appear by whom he was instructed in that art, though the Champlain and St. Lawrence line, which was formed most probably it was by some goldsmith, for his first essays under an Act passed in 1832. It is about sixteen miles long, with the graver were the embellishment of silver ornaments and is worked by locomotive engines.

worn at that period, a circumstance that seems to have led M.

Ponce, in the ‘Biographie Universelle,' to state that Marc AnA railway of between forty and fifty miles, for the conveyance of passengers and goods by locomotive engines, has tonio was originally intended for that business. One of his been made in the island of Cuba, between Havana and earliest engravings on copper was a plate from a picture by Guines. The rails, engines, carriages, &c. were made in executed, with some others, it is supposed, after the same

Francia, representing Pyramus and Thisbe, dated 1502, and England.

artist, before Raimondi's departure from Bologna At Venice, CONTINENTAL RAILWAYS.

whither he removed, he purchased, with all the money he The first railway laid down in France was a short line had taken with him from home, a set of thirty-six prints enformed in 1783, at Mont Cenis, for the use of the graved on wood by Albert Dürer, representing the Life and foundries of Creusot. In 1828 a line of about twelve Passion of our Saviour. Charmed with the correctness of iniles was completed between St. Etienne and Andrezieux, the design and the precision of the execution, he imitated and others uniting it with Lyon and Roanne have since them on copper, according to Vasari, with such exactness, that time been brought into operation, partly worked by that they sold in Italy for the originals. The same authority locomotives and partly by horses. Though useful, they states that Dürer, having seen one of them at Nürnberg, have not proved remunerative. Preliminary measures have complained to the senate at Venice of the fraud that had been taken for several important lines, bui comparatively been practised, and that Marc Antonio was forbidden to use little has been done in their formation. Railways are his signature, which was the only redress he could obtain. open from Paris to Versailles and St. Germain, and a second It seems that Vasari must have fallen into an error in this line to Versailles and one to Orleans are in progress. story, and mistaken the Life of our Saviour for the Life of The Paris and Rouen railway, which will probably be ex the Virgin, as Marc Antonio copied both sets from the cuts tended to Havre, is about to be formed by a company com of Albert Dürer, to the latter and not to the former of which posed of French and English capitalists.

he affixed the mark of that great artist. M. Heinecken In Belgium a comprehensive system of railways is in also points out that, besides the tablet which Dürer used as course of execution by the government. The scheme was his mark, Marc Antonio added within it his own initials sanctioned by the legislature in 1834, and the first section joined, and that he also used the tablet without any mark of railway was opened in the following year. The aggre- at all. Indeed there seems altogether very little probabigate length of the lines comprised in the original plan was lity in the story told by Vasari. Persons acquainted with nearly 250 miles; but subsequent additions have increased the subject of engravers' monograms are aware that the the total length to upwards of 400 miles, of which 258 miles tablet of the peculiar form adopted by these two great were in use in March, 1840, and the remainder was expected rivals, namely, an oblong square with a small arched piece to be complete within two years of that time. Of the lines on the centre portion of the top, was a favourite mark of then completed, about three-fourths have but a single track, many artists, as may be seen on the works of Van Assen, and the country being generally flat, the expense has been | Dolendo, Krugen, Saelert, and Voghter. After quitting

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