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the sind first described are used at the points a and b, and, instant, which would require much more power than sufas they have always to be passed through in the same order, fices, when they are started, to keep the whole in motion. they are made self-acting, that at a being held by springs Various contrivances, more or less complete and effective, in the position for guiding carriages on to the lower track, are in use for this purpose, but fig. 20 may serve to give a and being opened by the flanges of the engine-wheels for correct idea of the principles on which they all act. It rethe passage of the trains in the contrary direction, while presents the ground-plan of a passenger-carriage, the body that at b in like manner conducts trains passing towards a being removed. The frame, which is outside the wheels, is into the upper track. This kind of passing-place has been supported on lapped springs, which, by brass bushes or successfully used on the Newcastle and Carlisle and other bearings, rest on the ends of the axles, they being extended railways. cd represents another arrangement for the same beyond the wheels, and accurately turned, for that purpose. purpose, which may have the same kind of switch, but is a aa a are buffers, or discs of wood or métal, sometimes cogenerally used without any, the impetus of the train always keeping it to the straight track, while, if suitable openings

Fig. 20. be made for the flanges, it cannot escape from the rails in running from the double into the single part. ef shows the arrangement of a crossing on a railway with two tracks, switches being placed at both junctions, which, being only for occasional use, are worked by hand, men being stationed at g for the purpose. Owing to the accidents which occur when switches in such situations, or at the junction of two main lines of railway, are neglected or misplaced, plans have been proposed, but not brought into use, for placing them under the command of the engineer of an approaching train, who cannot be absent from his post. It is usual to affix a signal apparatus to them, which, by displaying a vered with cushions, fixed on the ends of long rods which coloured disk of wood or stretched canvass to the engine- pass through the frame and along the sides to the ends of driver, informs him of the position of the switches as he the long springs cc, which are capable of moving towards approaches them, and affords an opportunity of checking his each other when pushed by the rods, but are prevented by speed if they are wrong.

stops on the frame from moving in the opposite direction. At the points where two rails cross, grooves are formed The centre being allowed to slide backwards and forwards, to allow the flanges to pass ; and, to check any tendency both springs are brought into action by an impulse given to in the wheels to escape from the rails, guard-rails, as indi- either end. All the buffers in a train being placed at the cated in Fig. 18, are fixed within the track, to guide the same height and width, they come into contact when the inside of the flanges.

carriages run towards one another in stopping suddenly, Turn-tables are useful in transferring single carriages and the jerk is by them communicated to the springs cc, from one track to another, which they do in much less whose elasticity allows so much motion as to prevent any space than any arrangement of crossings and switches. They injurious shock to the carriage. The traction apparatus, or consist of circular platforms of iron and wood, fixed on a that by which the carriages are drawn forward, consists of level with the tracks, and mounted on friction-wheels

, so as rods passing through the frame at bu, and connected in a to turn on their centres with great facility. Fig. 19 repre- manner which it is unnecessary to describe, with the small Fig. 19.

springs e' e, which also act together, the centre of e pressing against the cross-bar of the carriage-frame as an abutment, when the pull is from b, and that of e', in the like manner, when the traction is in the direction of b'. The connection between the different carriages often consists of a jointed bar of iron, which is disconnected, when necessary, by the removal of a pin. Chains are sometimes used, and occasionally united by a peculiar kind of screw, which draws the carriages so close that their buffers come in contact. In some carriages the same springs serve both for traction and

buffing, and spiral or helical springs are not unfrequently sents two turn-tables so laid as to communicate with one applied to the purpose. Axle.guides, fixed to the framing, another. Four rails are laid across each, and made to tally are used to keep the axles square; but a more elastic conprecisely with those of the track. If it be desired to transfer struction of carriage, in which the axles have sufficient play a carriage from the track a to that marked b, it is rolled on to enable them to adapt themselves to a curved track, and the turn-table at d, and then, the catches which held the the springs for bearing the weight, drawing, and buffing, turn-table steady being released, the platform, with the are made of an unusually light character, is being introcarriage upon it, is turned a quarter round. The carriage duced by Mr. Adams, with great promise of success. Many is then rolled on the turn-table e, and being again turned engineers appear to be of opinion that the construction of a quarter of a circle, is in a right position for running on carriages, as well as of the railroad itself, has hitherto been the track b. Carriages may in like manner be transferred too rigid, and Mr. Adams conceives that the adoption of his to a cross-track, as at c. Locomotive-engine houses are bow-springs, and other improvements, will at once increase frequently made octagonal, with eight radiating tracks, the the comfort and safety of railway conveyance, and diminish engines being moved to or from any of them by means of a the wear and tear, which, with the present heavy and comlarge turn-table in the centre. That at Camden Town has paratively inelastic carriages, is very great. The ordinary sixteen tracks connected in this manner.

first-class carriages convey eighteen passengers, having a Carriages.--Railway carriages for the conveyance of treble body, with six seats in each compartment; and the passengers are usually very capacious, the bodies being, second-class, of similar make, carry twenty-four passengers. made to project over the wheels, which on ordinary lines | Those on the Great Western railway, which are mostly on seldom exceed three feet diameter. This arrangement is six wheels, are much larger, some of the second class not productive of danger, since the evenness of a railway, vehicles seating seventy-two persons,

The wide gauge the comparatively low build of the carriages, and the great allows the use of bodies so large that some are fitted up as weight of the iron wheels, axles, and framing under the elegant saloons. A splendid carriage, about twenty-eight body, prevent the liability of overturning. On account of feet long and nine wide, has been recently prepared for the the rapid speed at which ihey travel, and the violent shocks use of Her Majesty and suite, when travelling on this line. to which they are occasionally subject, great strength of Open carriages, in which the passengers stand, are freconstruction is necessary; and the circumstance of several quently used for short stages. Waggons for goods and vehicles being linked together in one train renders the use cattle, trucks for the conveyance of stage-coaches and private of an elastic apparatus for starting and stopping them essen. carriages, and horse-boxes, are all mounted on springs, but tial, both for the safety and comfort of passengers, and the their buffing-apparatus is often very simple and ine.astic. protection of the vehicles themselves. Elasticity in the The weight of the ordinary passenger-coaches, when empty, traction is also recessary, in order that the engine may not is mostly from three to five tons. have to overcome the inertia of the whole train at the same Locomotive Engines.-In the rapidly extended applica

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tion of locomotive steam-engines since their successful of the boiler. The door by which the fire is supplied with adoption on the Liverpool and Manchester railway, im- coke is made of two iron plates, with a space of a few provements have followed closely upon one another, but inches between them, to prevent the radiation of heat. they have been chiefly of a minor character, when com- Coke is carried in the tender, a supplementary vehicle atpared with that of tubing the boiler, which formed the tached to the back of the engine. The fire-box is usually distinguishing feature of the Rocket engine. Stephenson open at the bottom, to allow the free access of air, so that built several engines shortly after the competition in which cinders fall through the bars upon the road, a circumstance the Rocket had proved victorious, retaining this arrange- sometimes productive of accident. As there is very little ment, but having the machinery disposed in a different water above the flat top of the fire-box a, a fusible plug is manner. The cylinders were placed in a box beneath the inserted in it, to act as a safety-valve in the event of the chimney, and the piston-rods moved horizontally under water becoming too low, and leaving it dry. The tubes the boiler, working two cranks formed on the axle of the through the boiler b for the passage of flame and heated hind-wheels, which were then made the largest. The boiler air are now always made of brass, which is found much and machinery were attached to a massive frame, the sides more durable than copper. They vary in number in differof which were outside the wheels, and rested, by means ent engines from about ninety to a hundred and fifty or of springs and brass bearings, on the ends of the axles. Bear- upwards, being frequently less than an inch and a half in ings outside the wheels have this decided advantage over diameter. The power of generating steam, which is the inner ones,—which are nevertheless preferred by some en measure of efficiency in a locomotive engine, depends much gineers,—that the ends of the axles may be turned away to upon judicious tubing, it being desirable to deprive the so small a diameter as materially to diminish the friction, heated air of its caloric as completely as possible before without the risk of breakage which would attend the re- leaving the boiler. The chief practical limit to the reducduction of the axle within the wheels. The superior economy tion of the tubes, and consequent increase of their number of large engines becoming evident from experience, it was and extent of surface, is their liability to become choked deemed advisable to add a third pair of wheels, which were with cinders and ashes carried into them by the draft. made small, like the fore-wheels, and placed under the fire- Boilers are frequently tubed to such an extent that from box end of the machine. The flanges on the two pair of four to six hundred square feet of heated metal is exposed small wheels being sufficient to guide the machine, Stephen- to the water, in addition to the area of the fire-box itself. son removed them from the central or driving pair, which An important feature in a locomotive boiler is its security thus became mere rolling or propelling wheels, and were from bursting, because, as the tubes are much weaker than relieved from the lateral strains arising from the flange the external casing of the boiler, they are almost certain to coming in contact with the rail at curves and switches, such give way first, and the bursting of one or two tubes is rarely strains having been found injurious to the cranked axle and productive of more serious consequence than extinguishing the machinery connected with it. Some engine-builders the fire, and thereby causing a gradual stoppage of the still retain all the flanges, from an idea of greater security. machine. The following figures may give some idea of the loco Owing to the limited size of the boiler, the steam which motive engine in this improved state, in which form it is collects in the upper part is mixed with spray from the now in use upon most of the railways in this country, and water. A steam-chamber d is therefore added, in which it several on the Continent and in America. Fig. 21 is an becomes free from the spray, and then enters the steam-pipe elevation, and fig. 22 a longitudinal section, in which that passes through the smoke-box c to the cylinders or many minute details are omitted, for the sake of distinct- engines at e. A throttle-valve in this pipe is placed under

the command of the engineer by a rod passing through the boiler and terminating in a handle connected with a gradu

ated scale at the back of the engine. By this the supply of Fig. 21.

steam to the cylinders is regulated or cut off when necessary. The action of the

pistons and connecting-rods needs no explanation here. Eccentrics for working the slidevalves, which admit steam alternately to each side of the piston, are fixed on the main crank-axle, and in some engines two pair are used, one for working in common, and the other when the engine runs backwards. The steam cylinders are usually twelve or thirteen inches diameter, and eighteen inches stroke; and the driving-wheels of the engine from five to seven feet diameter, the small wheels being three or four feet. Driving-wheels of eight and ten feet diameter have been tried on the Great Western railway ; but

the most common diameter on that line is seven, and on HH

railways of the ordinary gauge five or six feet.

The pipe shown in the section passing from the cylinders to the chimney is the blast-pipe for the exit of waste steam, its upper end being tapered to give greater effect to the jet. At the top of the chimney a wire gauze cap is frequently fixed to arrest sparks and small cinders which are

often thrown up by the strong draft, and have been the Fig. 22.

occasion of many destructive fires; but a more effectual remedy has been recently introduced, consisting of a grating at the bottom of the chimney, which stops the cinders before they are affected by the steam-jet. f and g are safety-valves held down by springs, the former only being under the control of the engine-driver. h is a steam-whistle, which by its shrill sound warns persons working on the line of the approach of an engine. i is one of two feedpipes, communicating between the water-tank in the tender and small forcing-pumps under the boiler, which are worked by the engine, and ensure an equable supply of water in the boiler. Valves for regulating this supply, handles for reversing the motion of the machine, steam and water gauges, and numerous other conveniences are added, being placed within reach of the engine-driver, when on the platform at the back of the fire-box. In

order to economise the heat by checking its radiation, 3 is the fire-box, usually formed of copper, and surrounded the boiler is coated with wood, and sometimes flannel is hy an outer casing of iron, leaving a space of three or four placed between them. The steam-dome and similar parts wiches all round, which is filled with water and forms part are double, the space between the inner and outer casing

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answering the same purpose. The tender, and sometimes worked alternately in both directions. The necessary sigthe engine itself, is supplied with powerful brakes, to nals are made by an electric telegraph, invented by Messrs. arrest the motion of the wheels when necessary. Some of Wheatstone and Cooke. This important appendage to a railthe carriages also have them, handles for working them way is described in the article TELEGRAPH. However debeing placed within reach of the guards.

sirable rope-traction may be under the peculiar circumstances On some lines of railway, as the London and Birmingham, of the Blackwall line, it is attended with great expense from engines on only four wheels, with circular fire-boxes, and the wear of the ropes, which are very costly; and, notwiththe axle bearings within the wheels, are still used; and standing every precaution, the noise of the numerous sheaves some engines have been recently introduced on the Hull and that support the rope is annoying. To obviate these objections Selby railway, in which an attempt is made to combine the is a principal object of the invention called the atmospheric advantages of inside and outside bearings, by throwing a railway,' which, within a few months past, has been successfully great part of the weight on bearings within the central or tried on a length of about half a mile on the West London driving-wheels, while steadiness of motion is insured by (formerly called the Thames Junction) railway, at Wormexternal bearings to the fore and hind wheels. Where in- holt Scrubbs. The apparatus consists of an iron pipe nine creased adhesion is desirable, as for luggage engines, or such or ten inches diameter, extending along the middle of the as are intended to ascend steep gradients, four, or even six track; in which a piston is caused to move with a velocity wheels are coupled together by external cranks and connect- of from twenty to thirty miles an hour, by exhausting the ing rods, such wheels being of course of equal diameter. tube in front of it, and admitting the air to press on the op

Many of the American locomotives are arranged in a posite side. A connection is formed between this piston and different manner from that described, with a view to greater the carriages by a rod passing through an opening along facility in passing along curves; the forepart of the macbine the top of the tube, which is kept air-tight by a well-conbeing supported on a four-wheeled truck, which is capable trived valve that opens to allow the passage of the rod. The of adjusting itself to a curved track. It is a singular fact necessary vacuum is produced by air-pumps, worked by a that while British engines have been sent to America for stationary steam-engine. Though several similar propoworking several lines, an American manufacturer has com sitions have been previously made, that of Mr. Pinkus peted successfully with those of England in building loco- being, except in the kind of continuous valve used, almost motives for the Birmingham and Gloucester railway. identical with the present, the credit of proving the prac

Harrison's patent locomotive, though not extensively in ticability of the principle on a large scale is due to Messrs. troduced, deserves mention for its bold departure from the Clegg and Samuda, who anticipate advantages from it established model, the boiler and engines being mounted on which it would be premature here to enumerate. One, separate carriages. These have been built with ten-feet which applies alike to all plans of working with stationary driving-wheels, and also with five-feet wheels, the velocity engines, is the improbability of collision, as but one train of which is made treble that of the cranked axle by the can be moved upon the same engine length of railway at intervention of a toothed wheel and pinion. Hitherto no once; as a set-off to which there is the inconvenience that very striking advantage has been realised by these arrange a casualty to one part of the apparatus deranges the working ments.

of the whole line.

the use of locomotive engines, from the rapid action of the working general traffic, it appears to have been considered that comparts, the addition of their own weight to the load to be con- petition in the supply of locomotive power and travelling veyed, and the injury they cause to the rails, lead some persons accommodation might be advantageously encouraged: and to conceive that stationary engine-power might be applied consequently clauses were introduced in railway Acts to more advantageously. The working of stationary engines enable any person to run engines and carriages on the paythemselves is unquestionably the most economical, but the ment of certain specified tolls, and subject to such regulafriction of ropes to convey their power to the carriages forms tions as might be made by the company to whom the road a serious drawback. Hitherto they have been little used belongs. Such powers have been very rarely put in practice, except for steep inclined planes, which, as at Camden Town and it is obvious that they may be virtually nullified by the and Liverpool, are worked by an endless rope, conducted refusal, on the part of the company, to supply some necesalong both tracks by grooved pulleys or sheaves, to keep it sary facilities. But if such were not the case, it is the deoff the ground, and passing at each end round a wheel fixed liberate opinion of the late Parliamentary Committee, below the level of the road, the upper one of which is turned founded on careful inquiry, 'that it is indispensable, both by the engine. A contrivance is added to keep the rope for the safety and convenience of passengers and the public, always at the requisite degree of tension. It has been pro- to prohibit, as far as locomotive power is concerned, ine riposed, in hilly countries, to use natural or artificial falls of valry of competing parties on the same line of railway;' also water instead of steam-engines for such an apparatus. An that railway companies using locomotive power possess a other mode of employing the power of stationary engines practical monopoly for the conveyance of passengers on the is by means of what are called tail-ropes, an ingenious several lines of railway; and that under existing circumapplication of which has been recently adopted on the stances this monopoly is inseparable, from the nature of their London and Blackwall railway, and seems well adapted establishments, and from the conduct of their business, for working a railway in which numerous stations are with due regard to the safety and convenience of the public, required within a short distance. Very powerful engines As far as regards the supply of locomotive power and the are erected at London and at Blackwall, each of them general control of the trains, a similar arrangement is esturning a grooved wheel, to which a rope of nearly six sential in conducting the traffic in merchandise; but much miles and a half (double the length of the railway) is difference of opinion exists as to the best system of managing attached. A train starting from London is arranged with this department of business. Some companies merely the Blackwall carriages foremost, and then those for the supply locomotive power and carriages, leaving the details intermediate stations in such order that the vehicle required of the business in the hands of the carriers; some have a to stop first shall be last in the train. At a given signal, complete monopoly of merchandise traffic, the companies the Blackwall engine commences winding up the rope, by acting as carriers themselves; and others combine the two which the train is drawn forward at a speed of twenty to systems, the companies being carriers, but conveying goods thirty miles per hour. On approaching the first station, for private carriers also. On these and various other points the carriage intended to stop there is detached from the much interesting and valuable information will be found in train by the guard, and stopped by means of a brake, the the • Reports of the Select Committee on Railway Commurest of the train proceeding without interruption; and, in nication, in the sessions of 1839 and 1840, with the volumilike manner, vehicles are left behind at all the stations. In nous evidence and appendices. These enter upon many sub addition to drawing the train, the Blackwall engine unwinds jects that have been necessarily omitted here for want of the rope from the barrel of that at London, which is thereby space, one of which is the passenger-tax, which is levied under prepared for moving the train back again when reloaded. the Act 2 & 3 Will.IV., c. 120, and amounts to one-eighth of a In returning each carriage is attached to the rope, and the penny per mile for every passenger carried. The Committee, whole are drawn simultaneously, though on different parts in order to encourage raiiway companies to extend the beof the line, towards the London terminus, where they arrive nefit of their undertakings by low fares, recommended a at different times, but in the proper order for another graduated tax, to press very lightly on the lowest fares, and journey. This description applies to one track only, but the form an increasing per centage as they rise to the highest line has two, each having a similar apparatus, and being rate allowed. At the recommendation of this Committee,

6

Year.

Lines.

Year.

Neve Amend.
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0 0

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an Act has been passed for the regulation of railways (3 &

New Amend. 4 Vict., c. 97), which requires that a month's notice shall be given to the Board of Trade before the opening of any rail

1801

1
1822

1 1

1802 2 way, or portion of railway, for the conveyance of passengers

2

1823 0

1803 1 0 1 or goods; and empowers the Board to call for returns from

1824 2

3

1804 1 the railway companies of the amount of the various descrip

0 1

1825 8

1805 0 tions of traffic, of all accidents attended with personal injury,

1

1826 10 1 11 and of all tolls, rates, and charges levied on passengers,

1806 0 2 2

1827 1 5 1807 0

0

1828 5 cattle, and goods. The Board of Trade are also allowed to

5 10 1808 1

2
1829 5

9 appoint inspectors, who may enter upon and examine the works, stations, engines, carriages, &c. of any railway com

1809

3
1830 5

8 1810 1 1

1831 5 4 pany; such inspectors not to be persons who have held any

9 office of trust or profit under a railway company within one

1811
1

1832 5 4 9 1812 2

3
1833 5

11 year of their appointment. The Act further provides for

1813 0 0 0

1834 5 9 the prosecution at the public expense of companies who

14

1814 1 1 may not have complied with its provisions or those of any

2

1835 8 11 19 1815

1 other Act under which they are regulated; and for the

1836 29

35 1816 1

1

1837 15 punishment, by fine or imprisonment, of the servants of

27 42 1817

1

1838 2 17 railway companies, or any other persons wilfully, maliciously,

19 1818 1

1

1839 3 24 or negligently endangering the safety of the works or car

27 1819 1 1

1840 0 24 24 riages, or of the passengers conveyed, and of persons tres

1820

1 1 passing upon the line or stations. The power of arbitration

1821 2 1 3

135 in certain cases of dispute, and of confirming or disallowing

164 299 any bye-laws of the companies, is also vested by this Act in the Board of Trade, whose new functions bid fair to be the ment is near 3000 miles, of which a few have been either

The total length of the lines sanctioned by acts of parliameans of collecting much important and interesting in- j partially or entirely abandoned. Omitting lines of little formation on various points of railway economy. The con- public interest, those intended for the cotiveyance of pasveyance of mails on railways is regulated by the Act 1 & 2 sengers and merchandise by steam-power amount to upwards Vict., c. 98. (Wood's Practical Treatise on Railroads, &c., 3rd edition, ration. The total amount of capital is 68,825,2931., of which

of 2000 miles, of which more than 1100 miles are now in ope1838; and Lecount's Treatise on Railways, reprinted from near one-third is allowed to be raised by loan. Deducting the new edition of the · Encyclopædia Britannica,' are among the most generally useful works on the subject of interest, and making ample allowance for sums authorised,

the capital of lines not proceeded with, or of only private this article.)

but not required, it appears that about 60,000,0001. has been British RailwAYS.

invested in this country alone, in the introduction of a sysThe railways laid down before the present century were tem which, but a few years since, had to struggle into existmostly of very limited extent; and being for the use of pri-ence through opposition arising perhaps as much from invate establishments, were usually formed without the au. credulity and ignorance as from self-interest. thority of an act of parliament. The earliest railway Act

The prospects of success as commercial undertakings are that has come under the notice of the writer is a private very different, but railways have invariably been found act of the 31st Geo. II., 1758, respecting a waggon-way for greatly to increase the amount of travelling, and the receipts the conveyance of coal to Leeds, an undertaking interesting of those lines which have been longest in operation are truly from its having been worked for some years by Blenkinsop's surprising. On the 260 miles of railroad connecting Lonpatent locomotive engines, with toothed driving-wheels don, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, and Preston, with working into a rack-rail. Several of the early canal Acts the branch to Aylesbury, the gross receipts for the year contained clauses empowering the companies to lay railway ending June 30th, 1840, were 1,467,5621. 198. 8d., or upbranches or to make railways instead of canals in certain wards of 56441. per mile; and this astonishing amount of situations where difficult works or extensive lockage would income seems likely to be materially exceeded in future. otherwise occur. The first railway established in this

The following tables contain every railway for which an country as a distinct undertaking, and intended for public act of parliament has been obtained since 1801, with the use, was the Surrey iron railway, the company for which exception of eleven: the Anglesey, 1812; Berwick ana was incorporated in 1801.* In the following twenty years Kelso, 1811; Dulais, 1826; Exeter and Crediton, 1832 ; only twenty new railway companies were incorporated; but Limerick and Waterford, 1826; Manchester and Oldham, the Stockton and Darlington railway, the Act for which 1826; Peak Forest, 1816; Rutherglen, 1831; Sheffield and passed, after much opposition, in 1821, gave an impulse to Manchester, 1831; Usk, 1814; and West Lothian, 1825; ibis kind of enterprise. It was opened in 1825, and ac none of which have been executed, or are likely to be so. complished far more than any previous line had done in There are some private undertakings, as the Stanhope and adapting railway communication to the purposes of ordinary | Tyne, Stockton and Hartlepool, &c., which are of more commercial intercourse. The annexed table shows the num general interest than many contained in the table; but as ber of undertakings in the ten years immediately succeed it would be difficult to draw a line of separation, it has been ing this event to have been fifty-four, of which, though considered better to exclude all for which parliamentary many were of minor importance, several were passenger powers have not been procured; and, with the exceptions railways, and adopted locomotive engines as the moving just named, to embrace all which have been so sanctioned. power. The years 1836 and 1837 added forty-four more to The number prefixed to each line is merely for convenience the list, most of which were extensive undertakings. Al- of reference. The date of opening, when not otherwise stated, terations in the mode of obtaining railway Acts, combined is that of opening throughout, and where the precise period with other circumstances, have imposed such a check on could not be ascertained, a dash is inserted to indicate that new projects, that only five have been sanctioned since that the line is completed. The length given is generally extime, alihough the number of Acts for alterations and exclusive of branches. In the column of Original capital' the tensions, and for raising additional capital, has been con- first line shows the amount of that in joint-stock, which ususiderable. The following table shows the number of rail- ally indicates the estimated expense of the works; the second, way Acts passed from 1801 to 1840, distinguishing those for the further sum allowed by loan or new shares; and the new undertakings from such as give amended or enlarged third, the total sum authorised by the act of incorporation. powers to companies previously incorporated. Acts em- In the second column of capital the same arrangement is not powering canal companies to lay railways are not included. maintained, because it is frequently optional with com

• Tredgold, in his . Practical Treatise on Railroads,' &c., 1825, mentions a panies to raise additional sums by loan or new shares. railway Act of the year 1794, for making a tramway from Merthyr Tydvil to Cardiff. Such a railway. or part of it, was formed, and the experimental

The sum in this column sometimes exceeds the outlay of locutootives of Trevithick were tried upon it in 1805; but the Act, if such

the company,

ng in some cases to the issue of shares at a were really passed, has eluded the search of the compiler of the following sum considerably under their nominal value; and in others, tables, although his examiuatiou has extended back as far as 1771. The leogth of the line, which is chiefly used for iron-works near Merthyr, is vari.

to the company having taken powers for raising money to a ously stated from about nine miles to twenty-six and three-quarters. The diffi- greater extent than has proved necessary. Where the second culties arising from conflicting statements, as well as, in some cases, from the column of capital is blank, it intimates that no powers for paucily of circumstantial information, will, it is hoped, form some excuse for omissions and minor errors in the tables.

raising additional money have been obtained.

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For passengers aud general

traffic. Leased to No. 53 company. Gauge, 4 ft. 8f in.

3. Birmingham & Nos.4,33, and 53, at BirmingDerby Junction. ham, to Nos. 65 and 71 at

Derby.

For passengers and general

traffic. Gauge, 4 ft. 8tin.

4. Birmingham & Nos. 3 and 53 at Birmingham, Gloucester. to No. 17 at Cheltenham,

and by it to Gloucester.

1836 1839
Joins No. 53. Locom.

50,000
Engines. 16,000

66,000
1836 Part Total To No. 53, at Locom. 630,000 1,056,666
1839 487 Hampton. See Engines. 200,000
4,33, 53,65,&712 incl.pl.

830,000
1836 Part 45 To Tewkesbury, Locom.

950,000 1840 Brs.

&c. Joins 3, Engines. 316,666 8 17, and 53.

1,266,666 1837 In pro

To Crook. Joins

Locom. 72,000
gress.
No. 87.

Engines 24,000
allowed.

96,000
1834
Several allowed.

60,000
See Nos. 34 and

20,000 68,

80,000

For passeugers and general traffic. The company to use 64 m. of No.17, Gauge, 41.8t in.

5. Bishop's Auck- Black Boy Branch of No. 87,

land and Wear to Witton Park Colliery, all dale.

in Durham.

For the conveyance of coal,

passengers, &c.

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6. Blaydon, Gates- No. 68 at Blaydon, by Gates

head, and Heb head, to Hebburn Quay, on buru.

the Tyne.

Part of the line was bought

by No. 68 company.

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(a) An Act was obtained in 1834 for raising additional capital, to con’ert the line into an edge-railway for locom, engines, but it has not been carried into effet

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