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at least, was lor use on a common road. In 1805 they made the adhesion of plain wheels was insufficient for any prac. some interesting experiments with a machine similar to that tical purpose, and consequently much ingenuity was exrepresented by the annexed cuts, on a tramway near pended in contrivances for securing progressive motion by Merthyr Tydvil, and thereby proved the practicability of other means. One of the most successful of these experitheir plan. It is remarkable that notwithstanding the ex- mentalists was Mr. Blenkinsop, who, in 1811, patented a treme simplicity of this machine, it possessed almost ail the locomotive engine in which the power was applied to a large essential arrangements of the modern engines; and the ideas cogged wheel, the teeth of which entered a rack laid down of its inventors were so complete, that subsequent engineers beside the ordinary rails. Blenkinsop's engine was in other have had little to do beyond improving and carrying into respects very similar to that of Trevithick, but two cylinders effect the suggestions of their specification.

and pistons were employed, working separate cranks at an angle of 90°, so that one was exerting its full force while the

other passed its dead points. Engines on Mr. Blenkinsop's Fig. 10.

plan were worked for some years on a colliery line near Leeds, and drew very heavy loads at a slow rate; but the friction of the machinery was excessive, and they are consequently now disused. In 1812 Messrs. Chapman constructed engines on eight wheels, all of which were turned

by the machinery in order to increase the adhesion. They 9 also proposed to stretch a chain or rope along the railway,

which should pass round a grooved wheel turned by the engine, and thereby aid the progressive motion. Shortly afterwards Mr. Brunton invented a locomotive machine, which was caused to advance by the alternate motion of two legs, thrust out from the hinder end of the engine. This singular contrivance was carried into effect, and the machine was found to have considerable power, but an accident caused the inventor to abandon it. Similar propellers have

since been tried by Gordon and Gurney upon common Fig. 10 is a side and end elevation of this machine, the roads. same letters in each referring to the same parts: a is the In 1814 and 1815 engines were again tried with plaiboiler, which is of a cylindrical form with flat ends. The wheels, and, being found efficient, were used upon railways fire is contained in a large tube within, and on one side of, in the north of England. Several attempts have however the boiler. One end of this is seen at b, and the form is been made since that time to introduce contrivances for inindicaied by dotted lines in the side view. This tube ex- creasing adhesion, to enable locomotive engines to ascend tends nearly to the opposite end of the boiler, and then, planes of greater inclination than they will do with smooth being diminished in size, it is turned round and brought out wheels alone. to the chimney at c. The fire-tube is completely surrounded Patents were taken out in 1816 and 1817, by George by the water, by which arrangement steam is generated Stephenson, in connection with Messrs. Dodd and Losh with great rapidity and of a high degree of elasticity. The under which several locomotives were constructed and steam.cylinder is placed vertically at d, being immersed brought into operation upon colliery railways near Newnearly to the bottom of the boiler, as shown by the dotted castle-upor-Tyne. The boiler in these machines resembled lines. The steam is admitted alternately above and below that of Trevithick, but the fire-tube passed completely the piston by means of a fourway-cock in a valve-box at the through, instead of being turned and brought out at the top of the cylinder, and the waste steam, after propelling the back. Two vertical cylinders were used, each working a piston, passes by the eduction-pipe e into the chimney, distinct axle and pair of wheels, the cranks of which were where its emission causes a strong draft. The upper end of kept at the requisite angle of 90° by means of an endless the piston-rod is attached to a crossbead s, which slides up chain stretched over grooved or toothed pulleys fixed on the and down on vertical guides, and from the ends of which axles; or, in the more recent engines, by connecting rods outconnecting rods g g descend to cranks fixed on the axles of side the wheels. “A curious contrivance was introduced in the fore-wheels, which are thus caused to revolve like the them to protect the machinery from the effect of jolts caused fly-wheel of a stationary engine: h is a safety-valve on the by irregularities in the road. Four cylinders, open at the upper part of the boiler. The immersion of the working bottom to the atmosphere, and communicating at the top cylinder in the boiler is happily contrived for compactness with the boiler, were attached to its under side, and pistons, and economy of heat, and has been frequently imitated in working steam-tight in these cylinders, were fastened to the subsequent engines; and the admirable arrangement of axle-bearings. By this means the pressure of the steam throwing the waste steam into the chimney has been almost and water on the pistons caused the boiler and machinery to invariably followed, as it affords a blast always proportionate rise above the axles, and relieved them from concussions to the speed of the engine, and the consequent demand for affecting the wheels. This plan ensured an equal weight the evolution of steam. This machine, when tried on the bearing on each wheel, although the rails might not be Merthyr tramway in 1805, drew a train of waggons contain- level, but it has been abandoned, and steel springs employed ing ten tons of iron and a considerable number of persons instead. Engines of this kind seldom exceeded a speed of at the rate of five miles per hour. Some inconvenience about five miles per hour, unless unloaded, when they occa arose from the use of a single cylinder, because, although sionally ran at the rate of ten or twelve. the impetus caused the wheels to revolve past the dead When the projectors of the Liverpool and Manchester points of the crank, the motion was not regular throughout railway were engaged in the design and execution of that the whole revolution. A supplementary carriage followed great work in 1825 and the following years, the advantages the engine to carry a supply of fuel and water, and a small of locomotive steam-engines were so imperfectly developed, force-pump, worked by the machine itself, maintained the that it was uncertain whether or not they should be adopted. requisite quantity of water in the boiler.

The experiment of forming a railway for passengers as well Trevithick was aware that, although the adhesion between as general merchandise traffic, had scarcely been tried, the engine wheels and the rails was sufficient to ensure the although the Stockton and Darlington railway, which was progressive motion of his machine on a level or nearly level opened in 1825, had done more than any of its predecessors road, the wheels would slip round without advancing if the in showing the capabilities of a railway for such a use. As inclination were considerable or the load attached too great. the Liverpool line approached completion, the directors took He therefore in his patent proposed to remedy this by great pains to ascertain the best method of working it. They making the propelling wheels uneven by the projecting were soon convinced that horse-power was ineligible, as it heads of bolts, cross-grooves, or fittings to railroads, where was intended to aim at considerable velocity, and the expense the adhesion of the plain wheels should prove insufficient. of animal power when applied at a speed of eight or ten Being otherwise occupied himself, he did not proceed with miles per hour, is very great. It was not so easy to decide on nis locomotive experiments, but many others entered the the comparative merits of stationary and locomotive engines. field, though they produced few useful contrivances that Various suggestions were made for the application of fixed were not either used or suggested by him. An erro- engines at intervals.of a mne or two along the line to draw neous idea was for many years generally entertained, that trains by ropes from station to station ; but it was eventuall.


determined to use locomotives, and to offer a premium of placed vertically, but their situation had the disadvantage of 3001. for the best to be produced which would fulfil certain exposing them to the cold air, by which the power of the conditions, of which some were that it should not emit steam is diminished, an inconvenience avoided in most subsmoke, should draw three times its own weight at the rate sequent engines by placing them horizontally in a casing of ten miles per hour, should be supported on springs, not under the chimney. The nuisance of smoke was prevented exceed six tons weight, or four tons and a half if on only by the employment of coke as fuel. iour whools, and should not cost more than 5501. The trial The Rocket, with a gross load of seventeen tons, avewas fixed for October, 1829, when four steam locomotives raged a speed of fourteen miles per hour ; but under some were produced, one of which was withdrawn at the com- circumstances it attained double that velocity. Subsequent mencement of the experiment. Of the other three, the engines built by Mr. Stephenson were of much greater Novelty, by Messrs. Braithwaite and Ericson, was materially power, but, imperfect as the early attempts were, they different from any previously used, being very light, and proved, notwithstanding the incredulity of many, and even having the requisite draft produced by a blowing machine. of some scientific men, the possibility of obtaining, by locoIts performance was very promising, until an accident with motive engines upon improved railways, a speed of travelling the boiler put an end to the experiment. More recent far beyond anything that can be effected by horses. Of the attempts have been made to introduce engines of similar importance of this improvement in the means of intercourse, construction, but they have not proved successful. The Sans it is impossible, after the lapse of only ten years, to form an Pareil, by Mr. Hackworth, was very similar to Trevithick's adequate idea; but the fact that since it was brought into engine, but had two cylinders, both working the same axle. op on a sum exceeding 60,000,0001. has been devoted The two pair of wheels were coupled together by connecting to the construction of railways in this kingdom alone, may rods, so as to make use of the adhesion of them all. This indicate in some degree the extent of the changes which it engine attained a velocity of fifteen miles per hour with a has been the means of introducing. gross load of nineteen tons, but at length gave way owing Having noticed the most inportant inventions and exio a trifling accident. The remaining engine, the Rocket, periments connected with railways and locomotive machinery was constructed by Robert Stephenson and Mr. Booth, of down to the time of their application on an extended scale the Liverpool and Manchester railway, and succeeded in upon the Liverpool and Manchester railway, it may be well performing more than was stipulated for.

to treat of subsequent improvements as they will come The following engraving represents a side view of the under notice in a sketch of the various operations of de

signing, constructing, and working a railway for general

traffic. Wor

Designing a Line of Railway.- It is not intended here to

enter into a disquisition on the important economical Fig. 11

questions which should be considered in marking out the main lines of communication in a country, and which, with some variations, are applicable alike to railways, ordinary roads, and canals. It is the opinion of many persons that a system of railroads should be laid out by the government of a country, whether they are actually formed by the state or by private individuals. Arguments in support of such a view have been drawn from the want of unity of plan which is evident in the railways of England, they having in most cases been designed in short lines from one important town to another, without due regard to combination of plan. The commissioners appointed to report on a system of railways for Ireland have consi

dered this subject very ably, and endeavoured, in their 6

proposed lines, to avoid the errors consequent on the limited views of private speculators. Most of the continental railways have been laid out more under government control than those of England, but there are not at present sufficient data from experience to allow of a fair comparison between the working of the two systems. In considering this point it should not be forgotten that, however desirable a com

prehensive plan may be in a country yet to be supplied with machine, with a cross section of a portion of the furnace: a railways, experience in cases most analogous leaves but is a cylindrical boiler with flat ends; 6 the fire-box, which is little reason for supposing that the railway system would double, as indicated by the cross section, the fire being con- have made the sudden advances that it has, unless under tained in the inner part, and the space of about three inches the stimulating though by no means unexceptionable agency between the inner and outer casing being filled with water. of private speculation and commercial enterprise. Twenty-five copper tubes of three inches diameter extend When the termini and general course of a line of raillongitudinally through the boiler, opening at one end into way are determined on, there remain many points to be tile fire-box, and at the other into the bottom of the chimney considered in selecting the precise direction which it shall at c: d is one of the steam-cylinders, of which there were take. It is necessary carefully to examine the country to two, placed diagonally on the sides of the boiler. The piston. be passed over,-its elevations and depressions, its rivers, rods worked in guides, and by means of connecting rods canals, roads, and all other streams of water or means of transferred the motion of the pistons in a very simple and communication that have to be crossed, or in any way intereffective manner to the large wheels. It was arranged as fered with - and its geological structure; any of which may usual that one piston was in the middle of its stroke while occasionally render a deviation from the direct course adthe other was at the end of the cylinder and consequently viseable. powerless. The waste steam passed from the cylınders It is evident that, as a general rule, a perfectly straight along the pipe e to the chimney, in order to produce draft

. and level line is to be preferred, when the termini are of ff are pipes connecting the water in the casing of the fire- equal elevation; or a uniform slope when one is higher than box with that in the boiler.

the other. An attempt has indeed been made to prove that The nse of several tubes of small diameter instead of one a railway formed in a series of undulations would be preferalarge flue through the boiler, is the most important pecu- ble to one perfectly level, because the power of gravity might liarity of this machine, as, owing to the great extent of sur- be used to aid in the descents, and that of acquired momenface of heated metal thus placed in contact with the water, tum in the ascents, thereby reducing the amount of artificial steam was produced with extraordinary rapidity. This plan, power required for moving carriages upon the road. This which was suggested by Mr. Booth, has since been carried iheory excited much discussion a few years since, but the to a great extent, by reducing the diameter and increasing general opinion of engineers was not favourable to it. There the number of the tubes. The inclined position of the are however some circumstances under which advantage steam-cylinders caused the motion of the machinery to in- may be taken of the powers of gravity and momentuni, terfere less with the play of the springs than if they were without the serious inconveniences which would attend the P. C., No. 1198,



use of an undulatıng railway like that suggested by the than the horizontal distances, in order that, by being made author of this theory. But, desirable as a perfect level or disproportionately steep, they may be more readily recognised uniform slope may be, it rarely happens that either can be by the eye. Pig. 12 is a section of an imaginary line, reattained for any great distance without involving such a devia- sembling, except in its small size, those prepared for partion from the natural surface of the ground as would be very liamentary inspection. The horizontal line at the botiom inconvenient. The engineer therefore so adjusts his incli- is given as a datum for measuring the elevations from, and nations or gradients as to make the nearest practicable ap- is made to have reference to some fixed point near one of proach to a level, avoiding if possible any loss of power from the termini. This section may be supposed to repreundulations of surface, by making all the inclinations on sent the line of a railway between a seaport town at A, one side of the summit

, or highest point to be passed over, and an inland town at F: the undulating line representing rise towards it, and all on the opposite side descend from it. the natural surface of the ground; the straight lines from In order to the due adjustment of the gradients, a section point to point, the intended surface of the railroad ; and the or profile of the line of country is prepared, in which the vertical lines marking the changes of inclination. Owing elerations and depressions are drawn to a much larger scale' to the intervening high ground, a uniform slope from A to

fig. 18


F is impracticable, but a line with very moderate inclina- | Great Western railway also, in a length of 117 miles, has tions is obtained by tunnelling through the ridge at i, exca no steeper gradient than six feet six inches per mile, or vating the minor elevations, and filling up the hollows. If about 1 in 812; but has two inclined planes of 1 in 100 for a road were made on the natural surface of the ground, a a length of one and a half and two and a half miles respeccarriage passing along it would, after mounting to the tively. The London and Birmingham railway is an exelevation g, have to descend to h, and immediately remount ample of the former system, its ordinary gradient being lin to the top of i, thereby having twice to ascend an elevation 330, or sixteen feet per mile, which is nowhere exceeded exequal to ihe difference between g and h, involving a con- cept on the extension from Camden Town to Euston Square siderable waste of power, which would be caused more or which was intended for working by stationary engines. The less by every undulation passed. But in a roar constructed characteristic or ordinary gradient on the Sonthampton, on the level of the proposed railway, not only would part of Brighton, South-Eastern, and many other lines, is 1 in 264, the elevation of i be avoided by the tunnel, but that which

or twenty feet per mile. remains would have to be ascended but once, as every part A ceriain degree of similarity in the gradients is essentia between A and d, the summit of the road, rises towards it, to the economical working of a railway by inanimate power though in different degrees; and in like manner the whole which cannot be so conveniently urged as that of horses distance between d and e inclines downward, while the re to a temporary exertion to overcome a short but steep maining part, from e to F, is perfectly level.

ascent. If therefore any inclination occur so steep that the Owing to the short interval which has elapsed since the ordinary power cannot ascend it by a reduction of speed, it commencement of railway operations on a large scale, many must either be surmounted by the aid of auxiliary power, or theoretical points respecting them yet remain unsettled. the engine must run over other parts of the road with less Even the amount of reiarding effect caused by passing over than a maximum load, and consequently at unnecessary a given elevation is calculated variously by different en expense. So long as this inconvenience is avoided, it is the gineers. On an ordinary road the resistance arising from opinion of some scientific men that the degree of inclination friction and irregularity of surface is so great that the effect is of little consequence on a railway with an equal traffic in of gravity is scarcely perceptible on a moderate inclination; both directions, because the assistance of gravity in the but on a railway the friction and road-resistance are reduced descent being set against the additional resistance in ascendto so small an amount, that gravity, which remains the same, ing, brings the total amount of power required in traversing becomes a material part of the total resistance, even where the line in both directions to nearly the same as would be the inclination of the road is so slight as to be almost im- needed were the road a perfect level. perceptible to the eye. A theory held by many engineers Some highly interesting experiments have been recently is, that an elevation of twenty feet requires an exertion of made on this and other points of railway economy, under power equal to that on a mile of level railway; so that the the superintendence of Dr. Lardner, of which the following same power which would move a given load over one mile seems to indicate that this compensating effect takes place of railway rising 1 in 264, or twenty feet in the whole, would on inclinations of much greater steepness than has been move the same load over two miles of level road. The prac- generally supposed. Great caution is necessary in forming tical importance of this question is very great, because a calculations on such a subject from single experiments, correct understanding of it is essential to show how far it however carefully conducted, but the results are certainly may be advisable to deviate from a direct course in order to such as to justify serious inquiry. In July, 1839, the avoid a given elevation. Supposing, for instance, that a Hecla engine, with twelve carriages, making a gross weight, railway is required between two points twenty miles apart, including the engine, of eighty tons, was run from Liand that a straight course may be obtained by passing over verpool to Birmingham and back in the same day; by an elevation of 100 feet, it may be preferable to increase which means the same train, under as nearly as possible the length to twenty-four miles, if by so doing a level can the same circumstances, had to ascend and descend every be obtained; because the elevation of 100 feet will require plane on the line, a length of about ninety-five miles. The as great an expenditure of power as five miles of horizontal time of passing each quarter-mile was carefully observed, so railway.

as to obtain the speed on every portion of the road. The Another question on which there exists much difference following table, extracted from the seventh edition of of opinion, is the degree of steepness that may be allowed Lardner on the Steam Engine, gives the result of obin any of the inclined planes.without injuriously affecting servations on gradients varying from level io l in 177, or the working expenses. It is often necessary to conduct nearly thirty feet per mile:a railway over a considerable elevation, but engineers differ

Speed in Speed in as to the best arrangement of the unavoidable inclinations. Gradient. ascending. descending.

Miean speed. Some prefer distributing the rise and fall as equally as pos

Miles per hour. Miles per hour. Miles per hour. 177 22:25 +1:32

sible throughout the whole line, while others consider it best
to concentrate them in a few steep planes, in ascending which



31:16 additional power is used, and making the rest of the line


31.81 comparatively level. The Liverpool and Manchester railway


30.82 may be cited as an instance of the latter mode, the main line


30-21 having no gradient exceeding 1 in 849, with the exception of

32 58

30.80 two inclined planes of about a mile and a half each, inclining


30.93 1 in 89 and 1 in 96, near Rainhill; at which it is usual to assist the trains by an additional locomotive engine. The From this table it appears that although the plane of 1

One in

in 177 diminished the speed from near thirty-one miles per trict the whole of its length, is entirely on a viaduct, and hour, the velocity on a level

, to little more than twenty-two that from London to Blackwall, a similar line, principally so. miles, in the ascent, the deficiency was fully compensated Railways, being usually constructed on as low a level as by the increased rapidity in the descent. The tritling dif- possible, frequently intersect the course of rivers and canals, ference in the mean speed on the different gradients may pro- rendering numerous and expensive bridges necessary. bably be attributed to accidental circumstances, but, small Where the course of the streams thus crossed is sinuous, as it is, it is rather in favour of the steepest inclinations than expense may sometimes be reduced by making a new channel otherwise. The result fairly indicates a most remarkable for the river, such a cut often being the means of avoiding and valuable fact, namely, that a line of railway with gra- the erection of two bridges, as in the instance of the Mardients of from twenty to thirty feet per mile may be worked chester and Leeds railway in the valley of the Calder. in both directions by the same expenditure of power as a Obtaining an Act of Parliament.- Railways being in this dead level; and this fact, if substantiated by more extended country constructed by associations of private individuals, experiment, proves that many millions may be saved in the with a view to their own pecuniary advantage, as well as to execution of fature railways by being content with steeper public convenience, it is necessary that, on the one hand, inclinations than have hithertó been admitted by most en- legislative restrictions should be imposed, to protect the gineers to be adviseable. The whole of the compensating interests of those who may, directly or indirectly, be affected effect here produced is not to be attributed to the agency of by the formation of the railway; and, on the other, that the gravity and momentum; a part, and perhaps a very con promoters of the scheme should be invested with considerable siderable part of it, being due to the diminished resistance of powers, to enable them to carry it into effect. Lands, the air to the passing of the train on ascents, owing to its buildings, rivers, canals, roads, &c. have to be intersected reduced velocity. The nature and extent of atmospheric and otherwise interfered with; and while justice requires resistance to railway trains is a point on which so little is that no unnecessary injury should be inflicted on their known, and opinions are so conflicting, that the extent of its owners, or the parties using them, and that every unavoidinfluence in the experiment alluded to cannot be stated able interference should be amply paid for, it is also neceswith certainty, but it is probably considerable, as the result sary to prevent a plan likely to be of great public benefit is very different from that which might by calculation have from being defeated by objections arising from prejudice or been expected from the mere effect of gravity and friction. private interest. The resistance of the air being almost imperceptible in the Owing to the number of crude and ill-judged speculations case of common roads, owing to the great friction and mo of 1835, 6, and 7, which proved the necessity of imposing derate velocity, has frequently been considered too tritling various restrictions on the facility of obraining parliamentary to become an element in calculations on railway transit, and powers, new standing orders were introduced with a hope of hence arises much of the error that has hitherto prevailed more effectually insuring the public against being misled respecting inclined planes. For further information on this by over-sanguine projectors. An opinion is entertained by subject see ResisTANCE.

many, that these regulations are now too stringent; and Dr. Lardner thinks that his experiments indicate the gra- the very limited number of new undertakings sanctioned dient by which the gross resistance is doubled to be nearer 1 by parliament since they came into operation, though partly in 95 than 1 in 300, which he, in common with many others, to be accounted for by other circumstances, leaves some had formerly considered the limit, though 1 in 264 has been reason to question whether, in the attempt to restraiu immentioned above as being a more moderate and perhaps proper speculation, legitimate enterprise has not been inmore usual calculation.

juriously shackled. Curves on a main line of railway being, in consequence of Under the existing standing orders of parliament respecting the peculiar construction of the carriages and the speed at railway bills, it is required that plans and sections of a prowhich they travel, very objectionable, a judicious engineer posed line, on a scale of four inches to a mile, shall be deso adjusts his line as to avoid them when possible, and to posited with the clerks of the peace for the several counties make those which are inevitable of as large a radius as cir- ihrough which it is proposed to carry the railway, on or becumstances will admit. Curves of less than a mile radius fore the first day of March, and in ine Private Bill Office, are considered unadviseable for places where great velocity &c., on or before the first day of April in the year preceding is required, although many of only half a mile radius are in that in which an application is made to parliament for an use, the rails being so laid as to counteract the danger that Act. The plans are accompanied by a book of reference, might arise from the centrifugal force of trains passing over showing the owner, lessee, and occupier of every bouse or them, as explained hereafter. At stations and depois, piece of land liable to be passed through or otherwise where the trains always move slowly, the radii may be interfered with. The sections indicate not only the much shorter without inconvenience.

length and inclination of each gradient, but also the It is essential to the public safety that a railway should actual elevation of numerous points above the base not be allowed to cross any much frequented road on the line used as a datum, and the elevation and proposed same level. When the Liverpool and Manchester line was mode of crossing every stream or road intersected by the projected, as the rate of travelling was not expected to ex. railway. Portions of these plans and books are also deposited for ceed ten miles per hour, no danger was anticipated from reference with the clerks of parishes through which the line such intersections, which are called surface-crossings; and runs, if in England, or if in Scotland or Ireland, with other accordingly several were allowed; but their inconvenience specified officers; and notice is giren of the intention and danger have caused some of them to be altered, the road to apply for an act of parliament, both publicly by Lonbeing conducted under or over the railway by means of a don and county newspapers, and privately by notices to bridge. In recent railway Acts it is enacted that no turnpike-owners and occupiers of property affected. The former of road or highway shall be crossed on the same level ; a rule these notices being given in February and March, a to wbich exceptions are very rarely allowed ; and if they are, whole year is allowed for interested parties to congates must be erected to enclose the railway, and attendants sider the scheme and make preparations for advocating stationed to open them when necessary for the passage of ve or opposing it in parliament. Before 1837, notices given hicles across it. These gates should be so hung as to com and plans deposited in the month of November before pletely close the railway when the road is open, and vice versa. the meeting of parliament, were considered sufficient In a few instances two railways have been allowed to inter. The shorter period was far more favourable to railway sect each other on the same level, but this highly dangerous companies than the present, because the surveys are frearrangement is now very rarely permitted. Where a single quently made in the autumn, immediately after the road is crossed, it may not be necessary to regard it much in removal of the crops, and the plans might then be preselecting the level for the railway, as such road may be made pared in time for obtaining an Act in the ensuing year; to slope gradually to the requisite level for passing under or or, if a company were defeated in parliament one session, over it; but in approaching towns, where many communi- they might amend their line to obviate the objections brought cations are interfered with, it is essential that the railway against it, and be prepared for the next session. Now, a line level be made higher or lower than the ordinary surface, in surveyed in the autumn of 1840, must have the plans deorder to avoid them. At Liverpool this is effected by tun- posited in 1841, and the application must be made to parlianels under the town; at the London end of the Birmingham ment in 1842, so that it could scarcely be commenced till 1843: railway by an open cutting ; and at Manchester, Birming- and a company failing in one session, must wait till the next ham, and many other places, by an embankment or viaduct. but one, or proceed with plans deposited before a parliamenThe Greenwich railway, extending over a metropolitan dis- tary opposition had shown what objections would be brought

forward, or how they might be obviated. Owing to the carry passengers and goods, and for many other purposes. long time between the plans being deposited and the Act To provide for the possible abandonment of the scheme, it is being applied for, it frequently happens that they are de- stipulated that the compulsory powers for taking land shall posited before a company is formed, with the intention of cease after the lapse of two or ihree years, and that, if the using them, if circumstances are favourable as the time ap- works are not completed within a period of, in most proaches. The number thus provisionally deposited may be stances, seven years, or, having been completed, are not supposed from the fact that plans of thirty-six new lines were used for three years, the land shall revert to the owners of deposited for the session of 1840, none of which were brought adjoining property. forward. If the company intend to proceed with their Owing to the numerous subjects embraced, a railway project, the shareholders are required by the standing orders Act frequently fills from one to two hundred folio to subscribe to a contract, binding themselves, their heirs, pages. It has been suggested that much expense and executors, &c. to pay up the whole amount of the shares trouble might be saved by the passing of a General Railway they take, when called upon to do so. This subscription Act, embracing those points common to all, so that an contract must be signed between the time of making an ordinary Act need contain only what is peculiar to the indiapplication for an Act and the close of the session next vidual line. In many cases Amendment Acts are required preceding. They must also, according to the orders of the by a railway company to enable them to raise additional Commons, deposit a sum of ten per cent. on the proposed money, or to execute extensions or alterations of the origicapital, in government securities. If the preliminaries have nal line; but these do not require any detailed notice. As been duly attended to, a bill is brought in for incorporat- instances of the expense attendant on the present mode of ing the company and investing it with the necessary powers. obtaining railway Acts, when opposed, it may be stated that After being read a second time, it is examined in a commit- the London and Birmingham Railway Company spent more tee, which, if the bill be opposed, is composed of those mem than 72,0001. in procuring theirs, and the Greai Western bers who represent the districts affected by the measure, and upwards of 88,0001. The London and Brighton is perof a quorum, generally not less than three, of selected | haps the most expensive contest of the kind that has taken members having no interest in the question either per- place, four or five companies having engaged in it for two sonally or for their constituents. The committee report successive sessions. When in commitiee, the expense of on the length, gradients, curves, and other peculiarities counsel and witnesses in the latter case is stated to bave of the line; on the estimated outlay, and its apparent suffi- amounted to 10001. daily, for about fifty days. ciency; the traffic expected; the sufficiency or insufficiency The act of parliament being obtained, the land required of the existing means of communication for agricultural, for the railway is definitely set out and purchased. Power commercial, manufacturing, or other purposes; and the pro- is usually given to take a width of twenty-two yards, ex bability of remuneration to the shareholders. They also clusive of what is necessary for the sloping sides of cuttings receive lists of the owners, lessees, and occupiers of the land, and embankments, but ihis width is seldom required &c. i hat may be required, showing whether they are assent When moderate compensation is demanded for the land ing, dissenting, or neutral parties to the bill; and examine taken and the injury caused by the severance of estates, the the list of shareholders, to guard against the introduction removal of buildings, and other circumstances, the company of irresponsible persons. Petitions presented respecting have no need to put then compulsory powers in force. But the bill are referred to the committee, who frequently in- where, as too often has been the case, exorbitant claims aje sert clauses for the special protection of the petitioners. If made, recourse is had to a jury. In most cases where this there be any competing line of railway existing, in progress, alternative has been resorted to, the sum awarded has been or in contemplation; or if any parties oppose the bill on the much under that claimed, -frequently less than a quarter, ground of the line being unnecessary or injurious; a very and in one recent case only about a fftieth part of it. The expensive and tedious examination of witnesses is the result. item of land is one of the causes of that excess of cost over Counsel are engaged on both sides, and evidence is heard estimates which has been so severely animadverted on, sometimes on almost every point to be embraced in the report. and another is the expense of extra bridges claimed by The expense attending these contests is a strong argument landowners as communications between severed lands, the against the existing system, which is considered defective trifling utility of which is indicated by the circumstance also in many other points. After leaving the committee, that, after extorting an agreement to build them, persons the progress of a railway bill seldom excites much interest have often accepted one-balf of their cost, in lieu of having or attention. Unopposed bills are for the future to be re them erected. referred only to the chairman of ways and means, and the Formation of the Road. Under this head is included the two members in charge of the bill.

execution of those works necessary for the construction of a The preamble of a railway Act recites that it is expedient road (independent of the rails and finishing works), of the to construct the railway therein described, and that certain required level and width. These works consist of tunnelpersons, whose names are given, are willing and desirous to ing, excavation, embankment, and masonry for bridges, make it at their own costs and charges. The Act forms them viaducts, and other erections. They are commonly divided into a corporate body, invested with powers to take and into convenient portions, and let to contractors under agreemake compensation for the necessary property, and to eon ment to complete them at a stipulated price and within a struct the railway. As the surveys are often made hastily specified time. It is usual to commence those works which and under great disadvantages, a deviation from the line take the longest time first, that the capital expended on laid down in the plan to the extent of a hundred yards is others may not lie idle till they are completed. allowed for the sake of improving the line, such deviation Tunnels are, in general, the most formidable works, being limited to ten yards in towns, and not being allowed and the time and expense of forming them can be leasi to extend into any lands not included in the plan and book accurately calculated, because unforeseen circumstances often of reference. Powers are also given for altering, to a very arise to retard their progress. Trials of the nature of the limited extent, the levels and gradients defined on the par- ground are made by boring, but these may indicate favourliamentary section. The company is allowed to raise a able strata, while, as in the well-known instance of the Kilsby certain sum, sufficient to cover the estimated expense, in tunnel, difficulties may exist requiring great energy and shares among themselves; and also, if necessary, to borrow skill, and an enormous outlay to overcome. ' Being objeca further sum, not exceeding one-third of their capital, as tionable also on other accounts, tunnels are avoided as much soon as one-half of it is paid up. Such additional sums as possible in the more recently designed railways. For may be raised in new shares, at the option of the company. the mode of constructing them, see TUNNEL. Clauses are inserted to protect the rights of individuals, io Cuttings or excavations of great depth and extent are of specify the dimensions of road, canal, and river bridges, and frequent occurrence where the railway passes through high the slope to be given to roads where they are altered. A ground, but not at such a depth from the surface as to reboard of directors, selected from the principal shareholders, quire a tunnel. The depth of cuttings is frequently írom and generally from twelve to twenty-four in number, is ap- fifty to seventy feet and occasionally even greater. Une pointed to conduct the affairs of the company, to make calls very extensive excavation through the Cowran Hills, on for the capital as required, &c.; and provisions are inserted the Newcastle and Carlisle railway, is as much as a hundred for a change in this body by a certain number being bal- feet deep. The degree of slope necessary in the sides of loted out periodically, and ihe vacancies filled up by the cuttings varies greatly in different soils. Rock will stand proprietors at their annual or half-yearly meetings. Powers | when nearly vertical ; chalk varies from nearly vertical io are given to the company to take certain specified tolls, to a slope of one horizontal to one vertical, or an angle of 45°;

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