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pain nor pleasure affected him. Notwithstanding this ap- name of Aspetus. Aeacides, who had come to the throne parently inactive and indolent mode of life, he was highly after the death of Alexander the Molossian, excited dis. honoured by his countrymen, who not only made him their content among his subjects by his constant wars against the high-priest, but, for his sake, decreed that all philosophers Macedonians, and was in the end driven out of his kingshould be exenipt from the payment of taxes. (Diog. dom. (Justin, xvii. 3.) His only son Pyrrhus, then two Laert., ix. 11, 5.) Pausanias (vi. 24, 4) saw his statue in years old, would have been put to death but for the care of a a portico at Elis, and a monument erected in honour of him few friends, who, with the greatest difficulty, saved the child's at a little distance from the town. The Athenians honoured life. Pyrrhus was carried to Glaucias, king of the Illyrians, him with the franchise of their city, though the motive whose wife belonged to the family of the Aeacidæ, and who which Diogenes Laertius gives for it is a mere fable. He received the infant prince, and had him educated with his died at the advanced age of ninety.

own children. Great offers were made to Glaucias to inAn undisturbed peace of mind (anadia) appeared to him duce him to surrender the child, but in vain. In his house the highest object of philosophy; and thinking that this Pyrrhus remained until his twelfth year. Aeacides, who peace of mind was disturbed by the dogmatic systems and had in the meanwhile returned to his country, fell in a the disputes of all other philosophic schools, he was led to battle against Cassander; and Glaucias now, with an armed scepticism, which he carried to such a degree, that he con- force, led Pyrrhus back to Epirus, and the Epirotæ gladly sidered a real knowledge of things to be altogether impos- received the young prince as iheir king. (Plut., Pyrrh., 3; sible, and virtue to be the only thing worth striving after. Justin, xvii. 3.) A regency was appointed, who governed (Cic., De Fin., iv. 16.) On all occasions therefore he an the kingilom in his name. When Demetrius, the chief adswered his opponents. “What you say may be true, but I versary of Cassander, was obliged to withdraw his forces rannot decide.' This and other similar expressions drew from Europe to Asia, Cassander contrived to induce the upon him the ridicule of his adversaries; and most of the Molossians to expel their king again. Pyrrhus, now sevenabsurd anecdotes respecting his conduct in the common teen years of age, joined Demetrius, who had married his occurrences of life, which Diogenes repeats with all the sister Deidamia. In the battle of Ipsus (301 B.C.), which credulity of a gossip, are probably the fabrications of his terminated so unhappily for Demetrius and his father, opponents, made for the purpose of ridiculing Pyrrho. He Pyrrhus gave the first proofs of his impetuous courage. After had many distinguished followers and disciples, who are the battle he went over from Asia to Greece, and exerted himcalled Pyrrhonii, or simply Sceptics: some of them are self to save the remains of the forces of Demetrius; and when mentioned and characterised by Diogenes Laertius (ix., Ptolemæus, king of Egypt, made peace with him, Pyrrhus c. 7, &c., and c. 12; comp. Gellius, xi. 5: and Cic., De Orat., went as a hostage to Alexandria. Here he soon won the affeciii. 17). Their doctrines and mode of reasoning are seen tions and the esteem of Berenice, the king's favourite wife, clearest in the works of Sextus Empiricus: their object was who gave him her daughter Antigone, by her first husband rather to overthrow all other systems than to establish a new Philip, in marriage, and seems to have prevailed upon Ptoleone ; hence we can scarcely speak of a school of Pyrrhonists, mæus to provide her new son-in-law wiih a flect and money, inasmuch as they opposed every school. The whole phi- and to send him back to his kingdom. Pyrrhus, on his losophy of Pyrrho and his followers is called Pyrrhonism, a arrival, reconciled himself with Neoptolemus, whom the name which, in subsequent times, has been applied to any Molossians, during his absence, had raised to the throne, kind of scepticism, though the Pyrrhonian philosophy in and agreed to share the government with him. Neopreality is only one particular and an elementary form of iolemus was of a savage and cruel temper; and he soon scepticism. Cicero, in several passages, speaks of the phi-conceived such a jealousy und hatred of his colleague, that losophy of Pyrrho as long exploded and extinct. Pyrrho he even attempted the life of Pyrrhus, who, to secure himself is said by some antient authors to have left no himself, put Neoptolemus to death, 295 BC. (Plut., works behind him; the tropes, or epochs, or fundamental Pyrrh., 5.) From this time Velleius Paterculus (i. 14) principles of his philosophy, being justly ascribed 10 one or dates the commencement of the reign of Pyrrhus. Soon more of his followers. But Sextus Empiricus (Adv. Math., after this event, Alexander, the younger son of Cassander, i. 282) says that he wrote a poem addressed to Alexander the who had been expelled from Macedonia by his broiher AnGreat, for which he was richly rewarded: and Athenæus tipater, sought the aid of Pyrrhus, which was granted on (x., p. 419) quotes a passage from a work of Pyrrho, the condition that Alexander should give up Tymphaea and character of which is entirely unknown. The first writer Parauaea (Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, iii., p. 536), together on the scepticism of Pyrrho is said to have been Timon, his with Ambracia, Acarnania, and Amphilochia. Pyrrhus at friend and disciple, whose life is written by Diogenes the same time formed an alliance with the Ætolians, and Laertius.

was thus enabled to resist Demetrius, who, after having PYRRHOCERAS. (CORVIDÆ, vol. viii., p. 72.] murdered Alexander, had become king of Macedlonia (294 PY'RRHOCORAX. · (CorviDÆ, vol. viii., p. 72.] B.C.). Secret jealousy had long existed between Demetrius

PYRRHO'DES. [PSITTACIDÆ.) Mr. Swainson's ge- and Pyrrhus. After the death of Deidamia, Demetrius neric character is as follows:

carried off Lanassa, the second wife of Pyrrhus, who Bill and general structure as in Lorius. Tail cuneated, brought to her new husband the island of Corcyra, which very long; the feathers narrow and pointed ; the two middle her father, Agathocles of Syracuse, had conquered. Upon pairs greaily exceeding the others.

this open war broke out between the two kings. DeLocality.- Indian Islands.

metrius invaded Ætolia, where he made some conquests; Example, Pyrrhodes Papuensis, Le Vaill., i., pl. 77. but leaving Pantauchus bebind with a considerable force, he PYRRHULA. [BULLFINCH.]

directed his march against Pyrrhus, who at the same time PYRRHULI'NÆ, Mr. Swainson's name for a subfamily was setting out to protect his allies. The two kings, having of Fringillidæ, comprising the genera Pyrrhulauda, Smith; taken different roads, passed each other without being aware Pyrrhula, with subgenera Crithagra and Spermophila ; of it; and Pyrrhus eniered Ætolia, while Demetrius ravaged Psittirostra; Corythus; Humorhous, Sw.; and Loxia, Epirus. Pyrrhus met Pantauchus, and a great baiile Linn.

ensued. Pantauchus, who was by far the ablest general of PYRRHULAUDA. The following is the generic cha- Demetrius, challenged Pyrrhus to single combat, in which racter :

the Macedonian, after receiving two severe wounds, was Bill short; the sides much compressed; the tip entire; conquered, but not killed, being snatched away by bis the culmen arched ; commissure straight. Nostrils con friends. The Epirotæ, encouraged by the news of the cealed by the frontal feathers. Wings moderate; the first victory which their heroic king had gained, slaughtered quill very small and spurious ; the three next equal, and many of the Macedonians, made five ihousand prisoners, longest. Tail moderate, slightly forked. Feet black. Tarsi and chased the rest out of their country. moderate. Toes very small. "Lateral toes equal. Hinder Pyrrhus now invaded Macedonia, where he penetrated as claws lengthened, slightly curved. Smith. (Sw.)

far as Edessa, and was joyfully received by many MaceExample. Pyrrhulauda leucotis, ‘Pl. Col.? 269, f. 2. donians, who joined his army. Lysimachus at the same

PY'RRHUS, king of Epirus, born about the year 318 time made an attack on Macedonia from Thrace. The mild B.C., was the son of Aeacides and Phthia, daughter of Meno conduct of Pyrrhus during this expedition induced nearly the Thessalian, who distinguished himself in the Lamian the whole of the Macedonian army to desert Demetrius, and war. The fabulous genealogies of his family traced his to salute Pyrrhus as king of Macedonia (287 B.C.). Deme origin back to Neoptolemus, whose father Achilles is said trius tied into Asia, where he was defeated by the son of Ly. to have been honoured as a god by the Epirotæ under the simachus, and surrendered himself prisoner to Seleucus

Lysimachus now claimed to share the conquest; and Pyrr- | own soldiers, and proposed to the Roman captives to serve hus, who did not think it safe to enter into a new con- in his army. They all refused; and Pyrrhus honoured their test with the aged general of Alexander, consented to divide fidelity by sending 200 of them back to Rome (Niebuhr, Macedonia between himself and Lysimachus. But this Hist. of Rome, iii., p. 559; Justin., xviii. 1.) Pyrrhus division only gave rise to fresh disputes. Lysimachus soon purchased this success with the flower of his own army, and began to feel that Pyrrhus was an obstacle io his ambition. he said that another such victory would compel him to (Plut., Pyrrh., 12.) The consequence was, that a few years return to Epirus. after the division of Macedonia, when Demetrius was de The field of battle on the river Siris has latterly become feated in Syria, Lysimachus, having now no other enemy to a subject of great interest. In the year 1820 two bronzes of fear, attacked Pyrrhus in his portion of Macedonia. The the most exquisite workmanship were found not far from the Macedonians, perhaps bearing a grudge against Pyrrhus for river, and near the site of the old town of Grumentum (now having consented to the division of their country, were Saponara in the province of Basilicata), and within the eneasily persuaded to abandon the king of Epirus, who, with closure of a ruin which has perhaps been a small temple. out offering any resistance, withdrew his forces from the These bronzes, called the Bronzes of Siris, which were orikingdom of Macedonia about 283 B.C. (Niebuhr, Hist. of ginally gilt, are each a little more than seven English inches Rome, iii., note, 813.)

in length. On each of them is represented in very high Pyrrhus now enjoyed a few years of peace and happiness; relief a hero fighting with an Amazon. They are now in but in 281 B.C. he was requestert by the Tareptines io give the British Museum, and may at first sight be recognised them his assistance against the Romans. The Tarentines as fragments of a magnificent cuirass. The character and declared that they merely wanted a skilful general, that a the beautiful style of the work render it certain that they sufficient number of soldiers would be raised in Italian belonged to the school, or at least to the period, of Lysippus. Greece, as the Lucanians, Messapians, the Samnites, and They were in all probability brought over to the spot where they themselves, would furnish an army of 20,000 horse and they were found, by some one in the army of Pyrrhus, and 350,000 foot. These promises, and the hope of adding Italy may perhaps have formed part of the armour of the king and Sicily to his dominions, excited among the Epirotæ, no himself or of one of his generals, though there is no eviless than in Pyrrhus himself, so great a desire to enter this dence to prove this supposition. (Bröndsted, The Bronzes new field of action, that neither the wise remarks of the of Siris, an archæological essay, London, 1836.) eloquent Cineas, nor the unfarourable season of the year, After the battle on the Siris, Pyrrhus advanced to within could prevent him from immediately setting out. Cineas 300 stadia of Rome, and was joined by the Lucanians and was sent first with 3000 soldiers, and the king followed in Samnites. The Romans, undaunted by their defeat, and Tarentine vessels of transport with an army of 3000 horse, deserted by many of their allies, raised new troops and de2000 foot, 2000 bowmen, 500 slingers, and 20 elephants. termined to try their strength again. It was not the inten(Plut., Pyrrh., 15.) His son Ptolemæus, by Antigone, then tion of Pyrrhus to conquer or destroy Rome, but to confifteen years of age, was left behind as gvardian of the clude an honourable peace, and accordingly lie sent his kingdom. (Justin., xviii. 1.) When the transports had friend Cineas to Rome to negotiate while he assembled his reached the open sea, a tremendous storm arose. The Italian allies. The conditions which he proposed were, king himself reached the Italian coast; but many of the according to the most probable account of Appian (iii. 10, ships were wrecked, and others effected their 'landing 1), that peace should be concluded with himself and the with great difficulty. Only a few horsemen escaped, Tarentines, that all Italian Greeks should be free, and that and 2000 foot and two elephants were lost. With the all conquests which the Romans had made in Lucania, Samremnant of his army Pyrrhus ertered Tarentum. He nium, Daunia, and Bruttium, should be given up. At the soon discovered that the objects of these frivolous Greeks same time he offered to deliver all the Roman captives withcould not be attained, unless he assumed dictatorial power. out ransom. The senate of Rome hesitated, until Appius He therefore shut up all their places of amusement, com- Claudius, the blind, threw all his influence into the scale, and pelled all the men capable of bearing arms to serve as persuaded his fellow-citizens to send Cineas out of the city soldiers, and the younger to submit to regular military and to break off all negotiations. Pyrrhus, seeing that training in the gymnasia. The effeminate Greeks, who had there was no hope of peace with the Romans, advanced not expected this, left their city in great numbers. The with his army as far as Anagnia, and seems even to havo troops which had been promised by their allies did not taken possession of Præneste. (Flor., i. 18, 24; Eutrop., arrive: the Lucanians and Samnites however were prevented ii. 7.) He had ravaged all the country through which he from joining Pyrrhus by the Roman consuls. When the had passed, and his soldiers, laden with booty, began to show consul Lævinus entered Lucania with a numerous army, great want of discipline. The Romans had now concluded Pyrrhus provided for the security of Tarentum, and went out a peace with the Etruscans; and the season of the year was to meet the enemy. As he however wished to defer a de- too advanced to begin a new campaign: these circumstances cisive battle until the arrival of his Greek allies, he offered combined to induce Pyrrbus to lead his troops back to Camto act as mediator between the Greeks and Romans; but pania, where he found Lævinus with a numerous army. the baughty answer of Lævinus put a stop to all negotiation, But neither of the two parties was anxious for battle, and and Pyrrhus pitched his camp on the north bank of the Pyrrhus took up his winter-quarters at Tarentum. During small river Siris, in the plain between Pandosia and He- the winter the Romans sent an embassy headed by C. Faraclea. The Romans, who were encamped on the south bricius to negotiate for an exchange of prisoners. Pyrrhus bank, were anxious to offer battle. The consul sent his refused the proposal, unless peace was concluded on the horse across the river to attack the enemy's rear; but terms proposed by Cineas; but in order to show his esteem Pyrrhus discovered the movement, and, leading his own for the enemy, he allowed the prisoners to go to Rome for cavalry against them, the battle commenced. The king the purpose of celebrating the Saturnalia, on condition that displayed the greatest activity, and was always in the midst if their fellow-citizens should not be willing to conclude of danger. His brilliant armour rendering him too con- peace, they should return after the festival. The senate spicuous, he exchanged it for that of his friend Megacles, would not hear of peace, and, after the festival was over, who, being taken for the king, was slain by a Roman. His they sent the captives back to Pyrrhus. (Appian, iii. 10, 3; armour was carried to Lævinus, who thought that the comp. Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, iii., p. 586, &c.) king himself had fallen. The battle lasted the whole day, In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus began his new campaign, and in the and the Romans advanced and retreated seven times. The neighbourhood of Asculum in Apulia he met the Roman elephants were of great advantage to the Greeks; for as consuls P. Sulpicius and P. Decius. The king compelled soon as the Roman cavalry perceived the huge animals the Romans to come forward into the open field by sending advancing and opening the way for the Thessalian horse his elephants with a division of light-armed troops to attack that formed part of the army of Pyrrhus, they fled back their tank. The Romans endeavoured in vain to break across the river. The infantry was involved in their flight, through the phalanx ; Pyrrhus was irresistible, and the and the whole of the Roman army would perhaps have been elephants dispersed and routed the Roman horse. The destroyed, had not one elephant, growing faint from his Romans, after having lost 6000 men, took refuge in their wounds, stopped the pursuit. The remnants of the Roman camp; Pyrrhus lost 3500 of his soldiers, and among army thus escaped in the darkness of the night, and the them the flower of his army (Plut., Pyrrh., 21; comp vietors took possession of their camp. Pyrrhus, on the Niebubr's Hist. of Rome, iii., p. 589, &c.), and although he next day, visited the field of battle, buried the bodies of the had gained the day, he retreated to Tarentum. He is said slain enemies, amounting to 7000, as well as those of his to have exclaimed, One more such battle, and we are lost. P.C., No. 1188.

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cuse.

He had discovered how little he could rely on the discipline After having spent two years and four months in Italy of his Italian allies; to draw reinforcements from Epirus (Diodor., Fragm., lib. xxii. 11), Pyrrhus landed with his was impracticable, as an insurrection had broken out among army in Sicily. The Carthaginians withdrew their forces the Molossians (Appian, iii. 11, 1), while the northern part from Syracu Almost all the towns of Sicily threw open of Epirus was threatened with an invasion of the Gauls. their gates to him; Eryx was besieged and soon reduced. The Romans, on the other hand, who seemed to gain new The Mamertines, who held several towns in subjugation strength after every defeat, had formed a close defensive and exacted heavy tributes, were likewise subdued. The alliance with Carthage (Polyb.

, iii. 25), which immediately Carthaginians were at last driven from Sicily, with the exsent out a fleet to co-operate with the Romans against ception of Lilybæum, where they fortified themselves, and Pyrrhus. The Romans however declined this aid, and Mago, were besieged by Pyrrhus. They were willing to give up the Carthaginian admiral, sailed to Pyrrhus, who had already the whole island, with the exception of this last stronghold, directed his attention to Sicily, to sound his intentions. In and even offered money if Pyrrhus would conclude peace on the meanwhile however an occurrence is said to have taken these terms. But Pyrrhus, urged by the chief Sicilians, place which afforded to the Romans as well as to Pyrrhus whom nothing short of an entire evacuation of their island a favourable opportunity to put a stop to hostilities. In by the Carthaginians would satisfy, declared that he could the year 278 B.C.

, when the consuis C Fabricius and Q. enter into no negotiation unless they would withdraw all Papus bad taken the field against Pyrrhus, a traitor belong their forces from Sicily. (Diodor., Fragm., lib. xxii., 14.) ing to the retinue of the king prosed to the consuls to After a long and useless siege of Lilybæum, the king deterdestroy his master by poison. The Romans are said to have mined to man his fleet and make a landing on the coast or apprised the king of his danger (Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, Africa. But his severity in compelling the Sicilian Greeks iii., p. 594, &c.), who, as a reward for their honesty, ordered to man his vessels, and his mistrust of them, roused their Cineas to lead all the Roman prisoners back, without ran- discontent. The two leading men among them, Thynion som, and laden with rich presents. Cineas was also au- and Sosistratus, incurred his suspicions, and one of them thorised to make peace. The generosity of the king ren was put to death. This act suddenly called forth the dered the Roman senate more flexible than before, and al- hatred of the Sicilians, and some of them threw themselves though peace was refused unless the king would consent again under the protection of the Carthaginians, while others to quit Italy, yet the Tarentine prisoners and other allies of called the Mamertines to their assistance. While this danPyrrhus were sent back, and a truce was concluded (Ap- gerous spirit was spreading in Sieily, Pyrrhus received inforpian, iii. 12, 1), which enabled the king to cross over to mation that the Tarentines and Samnites were no longer Sicily with his army. The garrison in Tarentum and other able to hold out against the Romans, and be gladly seized places remained, and Alexander, son of Pyrrhus by Lanassa, this opportunity of quitting the island, and hastened to was entrusted with the command at Locri. (Justin, xviii. Italy. 2.) Pyrrhus had been invited by the inhabitants of Agri In his passage through the straits he was attacked by gentum, Syracuse, and Leontini to lend his aid against some the Carthaginian fleet, and lost seventy of his ships, and he Sicilian tyrants and the Carthaginians, who had already reached the coast of Italy with only twelve which were in taken possession of many towns in the island and were sailing condition (276 B.c.). On arriving at Locri, he found besieging Syracuse by land and by sea. Pyrrhus willingly himself in great difficulties, not being able to pay his solcomplied with their wish, hoping ihat it would not be ditli- diers. To satisfy their wants

, he took the sacred treasures cult to make himself master of the island, and thus more from the temple of Proserpine. When the treasures wers effectually to support his Italian allies.

embarked, a storm arose, in which some of the ships were

lost; the others, laden with the treasures, were cast back on immediately marched towards Argos. On his road he was the coast of Locri.

attacked by Areus, who lay in ambush and cut off the rear Pyrrhus, whose mind seems to have lost its former energy of his army. Pyrrhus left Ptolemæus behind to oppose and self-possession, fancied that he had incurred the anger Areus, and proceeded on his road. His son fell in a fierce of the goddess, and not only restored all the treasures to the battle, and Pyrrhus, turning back to avenge his death, slew temple, but endeavoured to atone for his crime by offering with his own hand Eualcus, who had killed his son. rich sacrifices; and as the signs appeared to be inauspicious, In the meanwhile Antigonus had occupied the bills near he put to death all those who had advised or consented to the Nauplia, and Pyrrhus pitched his camp in the plain. The sacrilegious act. (Appian, iii. 12.) On his march towards Argives, dreading the issue of a battle, promised that the Tarentum, his army was attacked and harassed from the city should not be hostile to either party, if they would not mountainous districts by numbers of Mamertines, who had attack it. Antigonus consented, and gave his son as a come over from Sicily before him. Pyrrhus here again hostage. Pyrrhus likewise promised to keep peace, but evinced his usual courage. A huge barbarian challenged gave no pledge of his intentions. In the ensuing night the king to single combat, and Pyrrhus, though already Aristeas opened one of the gates to him, through which wounded, hurried forward, and cut the man in two with his Pyrrhus with his Galatians entered, and took possession of sword. This proof of his undaunted spirit put an end to the the market-place. The Argives, roused from their sleep by attacks of the barbarians, and he reached Tarentum in the noise, sent to Antigonus, who immediately advanced safety.

with his forces. Areus at the same time arrived with a Having here reinforced himself, he set out against the select body of Cretans and Spartans. The darkness of the Romans, and pitched his camp in Samnium. The Romans night and the narrowness of the streets produced the greatsent out two consular armies, under Manius Curius, who est confusion among the combatants. At daybreak, Pyrrhus. marched into Samnium to meet Pyrrhus, and L. Cornelius discovering that all the fortified parts of the city were occuLentulus, who took up his position in Lucania (275 B.C.). pied by armed troops, wished to get out of Argos. While The Samnites sent a contingent to his army, but it was he was making this attempt, assisted by one of his sons, he small, as they bore some ill-will towards him. Pyrrhus sent a was killed by an old woman, wbo, seeing her son fighting part of his army to Lucania, to prevent Lentulus joining bis with the king, threw a tile upon his head from the roof of colleague. Curius had taken his position, and fortified him- her house. self on the hills near Beneventum, wishing to avoid battle Pyrrhus died in the year 273 B.C. (Niebuhr, Hist. of until the arrival of Lentulus. It was the intention of Rome, iii., note, 928.) All the antients agree that he was Pyrrhus to attack the Roman camp by surprise before day- one of the greatest generals; and Hannibal himself declared break, but in order to reach the summit of the hill above him to be the first. But great as he was in battle, he did the Roman camp, he had to lead his army a long and not know how to make the best use of a victory. His am fatiguing way through the forests, and when he descended bition was rather to acquire than to preserve, and he geneupon the Roman camp it was broad day-light. Curius rally soon lost the advantages which he had gained. He turned round to attack ihe enemy, who after some resistance was grateful towards his subjects, and owned ihat he was took to flight. This success emboldened Cuius to direct indebted to them for all that he possessed. As a man, he bis attack against the main army of the king in the plain. stands pre-eminent among the kings of his time; for while The elepbants, frightened and infuriated by burning arrows, they were surrounded by worthless flatterers, Pyrrhus which the Romans showered on them, put the king's army had friends such as few kings have ever possessed. In his into disorder, and were thus the cause of a complete defeat. family he was an affectionate father and husband. A change The king's camp fell into the hands of the Romans. Two seems to have taken place in his character from the time elephants were killed and eight taken ; Pyrrhus himself, when he embarked for Sicily, and no blame can be attached with only a few horsemen, escaped to Tarentum. He never to his conduct previous to that event. The death of Neoptheless did not despair, but sent letters to several kings, tolemus was a mere act of self-defence, but his conduct requesting them to supply him with men and money towards Sparta has left a stain upon his character. Pyrrhus (Paus., i. 13.) Antiochus promised to comply with his also attempted to distinguish himself as an author (Cic., wish, but Antigonus refused. A report of advancing aux- Ad Famil., ix. 25; Plut, Pyrrh., 21); but we have no means iliaries for the king kept the Romans at a distance, and of judging of his merits in this respect, as no part of his enabled Pyrrhns to set sail for Epirus with the greater part work remains. The Life of Pyrrhus by Plutarch is one of the of bis troops. Milo however was left behind, with the most exquisite specimens of biography. command of the garrison at Tarentum, and his son Helenus.

On arriving in his kingdom, Pyrrhus found himself unable to provide for the wants of his small band, and after some Galatians had joined him, he invaded Macedonia in order to gain by plunder the means of maintaining his troops. Fortune once more favoured him, and he soon made himself master of nearly the whole of Macedonia. Thinking that a more glorious field was now opening to him, he gave up all intention of returning to Italy, and recalled Milo and bis son Helenus. Antigonus, who had assembled an army of Galatian mercenaries, was defeated by a son of Pyrrhus,

А and fled from his kingdom. Before Pyrrhus had firmly established himself in Mace

Coin of Pyrrhus. donia, he was invited by Cleonymus, a worthless Spartan, to British Museum. Actual size. Silver. The head is probably that of Jupitet. assist him against the king Areus. Pyrrhus advanced to Sparta with a numerous army, ravaging and plundering

PY'RULA. (SIPHONOSTOMATA.] the neighbourhood. Though king Areus was absent, PYRUS, the Latin word for ' pear-tree,' is a name now Pyrrhus met with a most determined resistance from the given by botanists to a considerable number of Rosaceous women as well as the men of Sparta, and his son Ptolemæus, plants, whose collective character is to b-sar a fruit resembling who had made his way into the city, was nearly killed in all essential circumstances that of the apple or pear; that Pyrrhus himself had a severe contest at the gates of the is to say, inferior, fleshy, with a carulaginous lining to the city, which was interrupted by night, and recommenced the cells, which are simple, and contain from 1 to 2 seeds in e: ch. next morning. He succeeded in forcing his way into the But the similarity in the fruit is by no means accompanied city, but the united exertions of the Spartan men and by an equal degree of resemblance in the foliage and nianner women drove him from it. At the same time king Areus of growth of the species, some of them being trees with the arrived from Crete, and auxiliaries from Corinth were on aspect of the apple and pear, while others have pinnated their march to Sparta, and Pyrrhus therefore gave up the leaves which have caused them to be vulgarly regarded as contest, and contented himself with ravaging the country. species of ash, and many are dwarfish shrubs, with quite a He intended to take up his winter-quarters in Laconia, but peculiar appearance. another opportunity for action offered itself. Argos was In consequence of such differences the genus is divided distracted by two factions; one was headed by Aristeas, who into several sections, the most important of which are,-1, alled Pyrrhus to his assistance, while Aristippus, his ad- the Apples and Pears, with oval simple leaves, and the staversary, sought the protection of Antigonus. The king ture o trees; 2, the Beam-trees, with coarsely toothed leaves

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easures.

white with down beneath ; 3, the Mountain Ashes, with pin- | made upon him, and which may in some measure have nated or pinuatifid leaves ; and 4, the Dwarf Crabs, with decided the natural bias of his mind. His whole philosophy oval simple leaves, and the stature of bushes. Upon each bears the impress of genuine Greek growth, and there is of these it is necessary to state something.

scarcely anything in it which may not be traced to some To the secticn of apples and pears belong not only the native source. On his return from his travels, he seems to well-known fruits so called [APPLE; Pear) and all their have conceived the plan which he afterwards endeavoured to many varieties, but also several species whose fruit is less realize; but finding that the tyranny which Polycrates had valuable. On Mount Sinai grows a species called P. Sinaica, established in his native island would be an insurmountable whose fruit is hard, gritty, and austere, and whose leaves obstacle to his views, he set out in search of a new home. are grey with down; in Germany a similar kind, the P. After having travelled through several parts of Greece, nivalis, is by no means uncommon, with a considerable partly to strengthen himself in his opinions, for which purresemblance to the last ; Siberia and Persia produce another, pose he perhaps visited Crete and Sparta; partly to form called P. salicifolia, with very narrow hoary leaves; and in useful connections, as at Olympia and Delphi; partly also the former country are found the Siberian crab, P.prunifolia, to sound the minds of the people, and to discover how far and the berry-fruited crab, P. baccata, whose fruit is too small they might be disposed to carry his designs into effect, he for ordinary consumption, but is often seen in the form of a finally settled at Croton in Southern Italy. The aristocratisweetmeat. Besides these, the Chinese crab, P. spectabilis, cal government and the state of parties in this city seem to and also P. coronaria, are cultivated for their flowers. have been particularly favourable to the realization of his

The Beam-trees derive their name from the use that has political and philosophical schemes, and the place was therebeen made of their tough wood for beams, axletrees, and fore certainly not chosen by the philosopher without due similar purposes, where great strength is required. It is consideration. The fame of his wisdom and of his travels especially for the cogs in the wheels of machinery that it had probably gone before him to the Italian Greeks. The was used, till superseded by iron. The common Beam-tree aristocratical party at Croton, who were in possession of all is Pyrus Aria, and inhabits the rocks of the west and north the political power, had excited discontent among the people; of England, where it forms an ornamental object with its and though still strong enough to maintain their position dark-green foliage shifting to silvery-white when disturbed against the commonalty, they must have hailed the arrival of by the wind. To this section may be referred without incon a stranger, who, being supposed to be endowed with supervenience the true Service, Pyrus domesticu, a tree now not natural powers, commanded the veneration of the multitude, uncommon in England, but originally from the south of and was wiliing to serve the oligarchs on condition that they Europe, with a large pyramidal head, coarsely serrated would allow him some degree of intluence in their political

ts, and a green austere fruit, which however blets like the mediar, when it becomes tolerably eatable, though From the moment of his favourable reception by the very indigestible. Its wood is very compact, and is said to senate of Croton, whose object seems to have been io use be the hardest and heaviest of any indigenous in Europe. him as an instrument for iheir own ends, a new æra in the

The mountain ash, P. aucuparia, is a well-known orna- | life of Pythagoras commences; but before we proceed to mental tree, with a graceful habit, fragrant clusters of white consider the manner in which he endeavoured to put his flowers, and loose bunches of scarlet berries. It is found theory into practice, we shall attempt to give a brief outline wild all over Europe and in the north of Asia, a variety of his philosophical principles, which will serve to throw occurs with yellow berries. In North America it is repre- some ligat upon his institution, which we shall describe sented by a nearly allied species, P. Americana, with large hereafter. The philosophic school of which Pythagoras was copper-coloured berries, and a third kiud, P. microcarpu, the founder, is sometimes called the Italian or the Doric with very small scarlet fruit. The mountain ash is ihe school. The latter name seems to have been given to it, rowen-tree of the Scotch, whose boughs were supposed to be not so much because it was peculiar to the Doric race, or a protection against witchcraft. It forms a hardy and good | because its object was to establish the ideal of a Dorian stock « 11 which to graft the pear-tree, when it is desired in state (Müller, Dor., iii. 9, § 15), but because it was neither dwars that species.

connected with the Ionian nor the Attic school; though, on The dwarf crabs are small bushes with deuse clusters of the other hand, it must be admitted that the institutions white Howers succeeded by black or red fruit very like that which Pythagoras established at Croton, in many respects of the mountain ash. All are North American, except a bore great analogy to the Doric institutions which he had Swiss species, P. cham@mespilus, and are scarcely cultivated seen in Crete and Sparta. It is the more difficult to give a except as objects of curiosity.

clear idea of the philosophy of Pythagoras, as it is almost (See Loudon's Arboretum Britannicum, vol. ii., p. 917, certain that he himself never committed it to writing, and &c., for very copious information concerning this genus.) that it has been disfigured by the fantastic dreams and

PYTHA'GORAS, the son of Mnesarchus, was born about chimæras of later Pythagoreans. In modern times great the year 570 B.C., in the island of Samos. By his mother's light has been thrown upon the subject by the careful exside he was connected with the most distinguished families amination and analysis of the fragments of Philolaus hy of the island his father, according to most accounts, was Boeckh (Philolaus des Pythagoreers Lehren nebst den not of pure Greek blood, but either a Phænician or a Tyr- Bruchstücken seines Werkes, Berlin, 1819). Philolaus of rhenian of Lemnos or Imbros. The history of Pythagoras is Tarentum, a disciple of Pythagoras himself, was in all proobscured and disfigured by a cloud of fables, through which bability the first Pythagorean who wrote an exposition of we are unable to discover anything beyond the most general the system of his master, and his fragmenis must therefore outline of the chief events of his life and his character. He be considered as the most genuine source of information. is said to have been a disciple of Pherecydes of Syros; and The results at which Boeckh arrived, are on the whole ike if we could give credit to the various other traditions re same as those which Ritter, in his · Geschichte der Pyıbaspecting his masters, he would appear to have been connected gorischen Philosophie (Hamb., 1826) subsequently reached, with almost all the philosophers of the age, from Thales and though by a different mole of inquiry. Pythagoras conAnaximander down to the obscure Creophilus and Hermo- sidered numbers as the essence and the principle of all damas. (Porphyr., De Vit. Pythag., 2; Diog. Laert., viii. things, and attributed to them a real and distinct existence, 2.) But the information which he derived from his country- so that in his view they were the elements out of which the men did not satisfy his inquisitive mind, and, like many universe was constructed. How he conceived this process, other illustrious Greeks, he travelled into various countries. has never yet been satisfactorily explained; but he was proHe first visited Egypt, where he was introduced to King bably led to the supposition by observing that the periodical Amasis by letters from Polycrates. From Egypt he went occurrences in nature, and almost all institutions and religious to Asia, where he is said to have made himself acquainted regulations and observances in Greece, were founded on nu. with the science of the Chaldæans and the Magi: some tra- merical relations. Pythagoras thus traced the various forms ditions even state that he visited India and the Gymnoso and phenomena of the world to numbers as their basis and phists. But though these traditions may have some historical essence. But he did not stop here: he ascended still foundation, thus much is certain, that his philosophical sys- further to the principles of numbers themselves: these tem was not derived from ariy foreign source, or even ma- principles he conceived in the form of contrasting pairs, terially influenced by anything that he saw and learned in such as straight and curve, limited and unlimited, one and the countries which he visited. All that he derived from many, odd and even, and others. (Aristot., Metaph., i. 3.) foreign countries cannot have been more than general im. Further, he traced these contrasts to one first principle and pressions which their political and religious institutions element, the unit (uovás), which included both the eren and

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