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Rhizostoma Cuvieri,
Fossil IMPRESSIONS OF MEDUSA?
Mr. Babbage, in his paper 'On Impressions in Sandstone
resembling those of Horses' Feet,' December, 1836, in which
he noticed those in the channel of a stream on the extensive
moor called Pwll-y-Duon, about seven miles from Merthyr
Tydvil, to which his attention was drawn by Mr. Guest of
Dowlais, and the analogous casts in the old red-sandstone
of Forfarsbire, there called Kelpies' feet, described some ob-
servations recently made by Mr. Lyell, on impressions left
by Meduse on the rippled sand near Dundee. On remov-
ing the gelatinous body of the animal, a circular space was
exposed, not rippled, but having around half the border a
depression of a horse-shoe form. These marks however
were not considered by Mr. Lyell as identical with those
called Kelpies' feet, but merely so far analogous as to invite
further observations, and to make it desirable to possess
drawings of the impressions which different species of Me-
dusæ leave when thrown by the tide upon a beach of soft
mud or sand. (Geol. Proc., vol. ii.)

PULMONELLA. [SYNOicum.]
PULMONELLUM.” [ZOOPHYTARIA.]

PULP is a name given in vegetable physiology and botany to such parts of plants as are semitiuid. This substance appears to the naked eye as a mucilaginous unorganised mass of the nature of a secretion; but it is in reality composed of very thin-sided cells which have little power of cohesion, and secrete in their interior a greater abundance

of fluid than is usual. Pulp may therefore be regarded as Chrysaora lutea.

young and imperfectly formed tissue filled with the secrea, fourth of the disk or umbrella seen from below; b, disk without its ap- tions peculiar to the species. It is also in some cases, pervondages.

haps in all cases, mixed with an abundance of cinenchyma, Rhizostoma.

or laticiferous tissue, which passes through it in all directions

in the form of the most delicate ramifications. The puip of Generic Character. - Body circular, hemispherical, pro- the grape affords a good example of this. To the naked vided on its circumference with lobes or festoons intermin- eye it appears to be nothing more than a fleshy homogenegled with auricles, largely excavated below, with four semi- ous mass that may be compared to half-consolidated gum; Junar orifices, produced by four roots of insertion of a con but under the microscope it is found to be a congeries of siderable pedunculated mass, afterwards divided into eight oval transparent bags turgid with fluid and very easily rupvery complex brachideous appendages furnished with fibril- tured; treated with iodine, they lose their transparency in lary suckers, without a median prolongation. Four ovaries, some measure, and acquire a brown colour, when their in the shape of a cross. Stomachal cavity very large and limits become very distinct. The same re-agent stains still vascular at its circumference.

browner the vessels of the latex, whose course and position Example, Rhizosioma Cuvieri.

are thus bronght clearly into view. In a few minutes howHabitat.-European Seas.

ever the colouring fades away in the latter, till they become M. de Blainville separates the genus into two divisions.

as indistinct as they were before the iodine was applied : it

is therefore necessary that the observation should be made A Species having a peduncle of insertion for the root, with as soon as the iodine has seized upon the latex or its

tubes. radical appendages, besides those of the arms.

PULPIT. This term affords a striking instance of the B.

great change of meaning and application which words freSpecies having a very short peduncle of insertion, without quently undergo, for, exclusively of the Latin termination, it radical appendages, besides the four bifid arms. (Evagora, is identical with Pulpitum, which signified that part of the Pér.)

Roman stage (distinguished from the orchestra) on which We have given an illustration of the first. The species the actors recited and performed their parts. The French grows to a very large size.

Pupitre and the English Pulpit both come from the same

source, but are dissimilar in signification; the former mean- pulpits, one for the reader, the other for the preacheing merely a reading-desk, and Chaire (Cathedra) being the placed on opposite sides of the chancel; whereby architecterm that corresponds with our English one. The Ambo of tural symmetry at least is kept up; yet this has been the early Christians appears to have been different both in objected to as a reprehensible departure from strict usage, form and purpose from pulpits afterwards used for preach- and likewise an absurdity, though if there be absurdity in ing, it being rather a low platform on which parts of the having two pulpits when only one is required at a time, the service were sung or recited. The most antient pulpits absurdity is the same whether they be united together, one now existing are supposed to be those in S. Lorenzo fuor above the other, or placed singly. The two might very prodelle Mura and S. Clemente at Rome; and these and perly be combined, were the pulpit to be made a central other early pulpits of the same kind are of marble, with object in a church, by being so placed at the altar-end of inlaid or mosaic compartments. In the church of S. the chancel; but though it has occasionally been adopted, Lorenzo at Florence, and several other modern basilicas, such mode is still more strongly objected to as being offenthere are two pulpits, one on each side of the nave. Great sively indecorous, because in such case the pulpit must be cost both of material and workmanship was frequently be- before the altar. It might however be at such distance stowed on pulpits; and some of them rank among the most from it as not to obtrude upon it; and as to indecorum, celebrated monuments of art of their period. Niccola and when no irreverence is intended, but merely convenience is Giovanni Pisano (Pisano), Donatello, Benedetto da Ma- consulted, the impropriety becomes excusable, such situation jano, and other eminent sculptors, employed their talents being certainly the most advantageous of any, because the upon such works. The pulpit in the baptistery of Pisa, by preacher is then both heard and seen more distinctly by the Niccola, is hexagonal, and supported on seven columns, one whole congregation than when he is stationed on one side of at each angle and a central one. Giovanni Pisano executed the church. that in the nave of the Duomo at Pisa, besides which there PULSE. [HEART.] are two others in the same church, on the opposite sides of PULTAWĀ. [Poltawa.] the choir. The Pergamo of Santa Croce at Florence, by B. da PULTENEY, WILLIAM, Earl of Bath, was born in Majano, is greatly extolled by Vasari for the beauty of its 1682. He was the eldest son of a father of the same names, reliefs and sculptures. The two pergami in S. Lorenzo at whose father, Sir William, had represented the city of Florence, similarly placed opposite each other, are the work Westminster in parliament with some distinction. The of Donatello; and of the mastery of composition displayed in surname is supposed to have been taken from Pulteney in their reliefs some idea may be formed from the specimen Leicestershire, where the fanıily had been antiently estagiven of them in Cicognara's · Storia della Scultura. Not- blished. withstanding the richness of such pulpits, and their elabo Young Pulteney, having been sent first to Westminster rate execution, their general forms are not always the school and then to Christ Church, Oxford, afterwards tramost pleasing or appropriate.

velled on the Continent, and on his return home was brought For a long time the pulpit appears to have been treated into parliament for the borough of Hedon in Yorkshire. as an architectural feature of the interior, being constructed, This appears to have been in 1705. He was indebted for if not of marble, of the same material as the rest. Among his seal to his guardian, Henry Guy, Esq., formerly secrenumerous other examples of Gothic stone-pulpits may be tary to the treasury, who afterwards left him a legacy of mentioned that in the nave of Strasburg cathedral, which is 40,0001. and landed property to the value of 5001. a year. spoken of by Dr. Dibdin in terms of unqualified admira- Pulteney besides derived a considerable estate from his tion, yet it is too much of a jumbled mass of ornament, | father, and he also received a large portion with his wife, and ihe whole of the canopy is in exceedingly bad taste, Anna Maria, daughter of John Gumley, Esq., of Isleworth. though not quite so vicious as that afterwards displayed in All this wealth he increased by the practice throughout many Roman Catholic pulpits whose canopies are made in his life of a very rigid economy, 'which,' says Coxe, in his the form of clouds, curtains, palm-branches, and similar Memoirs of Walpole, ‘his enemies called avarice, but extravagancies. One of the most celebrated as a perform- which did not prevent him from performing many acts of ance of art is the magnificent oak pulpit in the nave of St. charity and beneficence.' Gudule, at Brussels; the whole is elaborately carved, and From his entry into the House of Commons, Pulteney the pulpit itself is supported by figures representing Adam attached himself to the Whig party, which was that of his and Eve expelled from Paradise by the Angel.

family. He continued to sit for Hedon throughout the Of stone-pulpits we have few remaining in this country; reign of Anne; but his name does not appear in the reported but there is one in Bristol cathedral, and another in Wor- parliamentary debates during that reign. Coxe however cester, drawings and details of which latter are given in states that he spoke for the first time on the Place Bill, Pugin's Gothic Specimens. It was originally erected in the which he warmly supported. Place Bills, or proposals for nave, near the west end, but has been remover to the excluding placemen from parliament, were brought forward north side of the choir, and has been greatly disfigured by in the House of Commons almost every session in this reign. modern beautifying,' a flat sounding-board having been Coxe also tells us that he distinguished himself on the quesadded to it in the shape of a bed-tester 'with paltry little tion of the prosecution of Sacheverell; that he had made himscalloped festoons. Even the pulpit itself is not remarkable self so obnoxious to the Tories, that when they came into for the elegance of its details, although its general form is power, in 1710, they revenged themselves upon the young good. This and another subject represented in the same orator by removing his uncle, John Pulteney, Esq., from the work are instances of what may be termed oriel pulpits, board of trade; that during the last four years of Queen being made to project after the fashion of an oriel [ORIEL] Anne he not only took a principal share in the debates, but from a pier or wall, and similarly corbelled below, instead of was admitted to the most important secrets of his party; and being supported from the ground. The second of the that on the prosecution of Walpole, in 1712, Pulteney deabove-mentioned examples is in fact a small oriel in an fended his friend in a very elegant speech. He certainly angle of the outer court of Magdalen College, Oxford; and was looked upon by this time as one of the leading men of another, still more antient and curious—and we may add, his party. more beautiful-is that at Beaulieu, Hants, which projects On the accession of George I. Pulteney was appointed from an elegant open Gothic arch, and is supported, not on secretary-at-war; but when Walpole resigned in 1717, Pula corbelled and moulded oriel-stool, but on a short reversed teney also gave up his office. Soon after this however a spire, whose angles are decorated with small pillar-shafts, coolness took place between the two friends, which was not and the sides between them with foliage: a representation removed by the appointment of Pulteney to the valuable is given in the plates to the Glossary of Architecture.' sinecure of cofferer of the household on Walpole's resumpBesides pulpits of this kind in the courts and cloisters of tion of office in 1720; but it was not till 1725 that Pulteney religious houses, there were others called Preaching- openly threw himself into the ranks of opposition, and began Crosses, from which sermons were delivered in the open that course of bitter and incessant attack upon the minister, air: Paul's Cross is a celebrated and well-known instance. which did not cease till he had driven Walpole from power

At the present day very few of the pulpits in our in 1742. Nor did he confine his exertions to his place in English churches have any beauty of form or character, parliament; out of doors he entered into a close union with but are frequently tasteless excrescences, encumbered the party of which Bolingbroke was the head, and became with steps, reader's-desk, &c., and with respect to design, the principal assistant of chat writer in his paper called the they are mere carpenter and joiner's work. Of late years Craftsman.' By his shining powers as a debater also, and the practire has been introduced of having two distinct the tiaming patriotism with which he filled his harangues

as leader of the opposition, ne raised himself to the height moreover to be complete ought to have explained in what of public favour, and was for some years the most popular the effect of the conceit consists. It appears to be, as we man in the kingdom. When the administration of Wal- have just hinted, in the novelty and unexpectedness of the pole was at last overthrown, all the authority of the state signification or application presented by the pun-a novelty seemed for a moment to lie at the feet of Pulteney; and which always at least produces surprise, and often the he actually named the new ministry, taking to himself a livelier titillation of a grotesque or otherwise ludicrous seat in the cabinet without any office. But the arrange- image. Sometimes, though rarely, a pun has risen into ments that were made had in fact been all, it may be said, a far higher region than the ludicrous; as for instance dictated by Walpole, who still retained his influence with when Burke (or whoever else it was) exclaimed, 'What is the king, and secretly arranged with his majesty the course (m)ajest(y) when deprived of its externals but a jest?' So, into which Pulteney was to be seduced with the view of in his account of his ramble through London, in the Specdestroying the popularity which was his chief strength. tator,' No. 454, Steele tells us that when he looked down The composition of the new cabinet disappointed the expec- from one of the windows on the first tioor of the Exchange tations both of partisans and of the public; everything wore upon the area below,' where all the several voices lost their the appearance of its apparent maker having in fact made a distinction and rose up in a confused humming,'a reflection compact and a compromise with Walpole; one considerable occurred to him that could not have come into the mind of section of his late supporters (that headed by the Pitts and any but of one a little too studious; 'for,' he adds, ' I said the Grenvilles) was wholly overlooked in the distribution of to myself, with a kind of pun in thought, what nonsense is places; and the suspicion and sense of injury awakened all the hurry of this world to those who are above it?' It by all this burst into a universal storm of indignation when, may be observed that both these last-mentioned puns arise after the lapse of a few months, Pulteney walked into the not out of the similar sound of two words, but out of the House of Lords as earl of Bath. From this moment the double application of one-externals in the former, above in late popular idol became quite insignificant. However he the latter. lived till 1764, chiefly occupied in nursing his private for A sketch of the history of puns has been given by tune, but still sometimes taking part in the debates and in Addison in a well known paper in the ‘Spectator' No.61), public affairs. In the year 1760 he published A Letter to in which he traces the existence of the practice from the Two Great Men' (Mr. Pitt and the Duke of Newcastle), in time of Aristotle downward. The figures of speech or turns which Horace Walpole, perhaps from no better authority of expression known among the Greeks by the names of the than his own suspicion and spite, says he was assisted by / paragramma (napáypapua), and the paronomasia (Hapwvohis chaplain Douglas (the same who afterwards became suc- uacia), the antanaclasis (ávravarhaois), and the plóke cessively bishop of Carlisle and of Salisbury). Walpole (Thorn), were often merely what we should now call adds, ' It contained a plan of the terms which his lordship puns. Addison observes that Aristotle, in the eleventh thought we ought to demand if we concluded a peace; it chapter of his ‘Rhetoric,' describes different kinds of was as little regarded by the persons it addressed as a work puns or paragrams, among the beauties of good writing, of Mr. Pitt's would have been, if, outliving his patriotism, and produces instances of them out of some of the power, and character, he should twenty years after have greatest authors in the Greek tongue. 'Cicero,' he adds, emerged in a pamphlet.' (“Mems. of George II.,' ii. 412.) has sprinkled several of his works with puns, and in However the caustic annalist allows that it pleased in cof his book, where he lays down the rules of oratory, quotes fee-houses more than it deserved.' Pulteney left no family, abundance of sayings as pieces of wit, which also and his peerage became extinct on his death; but the title of upon examination prove arrant puns.' 'I do not find,' baroness Bath was conferred in 1792, and afterwards that of he afterwards says, that there was a proper separation countess of Bath in 1803, on Henrietta Laura Pulteney, made between puns and true wit by any of the antient daughter of Frances Pulteney, and Sir William Johnson, authors except Quintilian and Longinus. We may also Bart. (who took the name of Pulteney), and great-grand- refer to another very clever paper in the Guardian' (No. daughter through her mother of a younger brother of the 36), attributed to a writer of the name of Birch, which confirst earl's father, according to Coxe (who had his informa- tains what is called A Modest Apology for Punning. In the tion from Bishop Douglas), or (according to other autho- introduction to this paper the distinction is happily enough rities) daughter of the earl's own younger brother Henry. drawn between the extemporaneous puns of conversation This lady, who inherited the earl's fortune, died also without and the punning in deliberate and grave compositions, issue in 1808, and the title is now again extinct.

which in this country, in the early part of the seventeenili PULVINITES. [MALLEACEA, vol. xiv., p. 836; MAR-century, used to be reckoned eloquence and fine writing. GARITACEA.]

• I look,' says the author, - upon premeditated quibbles and PUMICE. [LAVA; VOLCANO.]

puns committed to the press, as unpardonable crimes. There PUMP. [AIR-Pump; HYDRAULICS.)

is as much difference betwixt these and the starts in comPUMPKIN is the vulgar name of the fruit of the Cu- mon discourse, as betwixt casual rencontres and murder curbita maxima, a plant whose native country is not cer with malice prepense.' tainly known, but which is probably a variety of C. Pepo, a The philosophy of the pun, and its relation to alliteration, species inhabiting the Levant. It is, as is well known, an rhyme, and other forms of speech, the effect of which is annual plant, sending forth many long succulent angular derived partly from the sound, might afford matter for some rough shoots, bearing leaves and flowers something like speculation. those of the cucumber. Its fruit is often of enormous size, PUNCH, the name of the principal character in a well specimens having been produced in this country weighing known puppet-show which is exhibited about the streets, 220 lbs., and in hotter countries they are still larger. This and which appears to have originated in Italy; the name is kind of fruit is however only furnished by the variety called a corruption of Policinella, the Neapolitan clown, who is gethe yellow Potiron; in other varieties it is much smaller. nerally the leading character in puppet-show performances. The seed of the pumpkin should be raised in a frame, in a But the show itself, or rather the puppets, are styled by the garden pot, after the same manner as the cucumber, and Italians ' fantoccini.' Galiani, in bis Vocabolario del Diaplanted out upon a dunghill, or in any well-manured soil, letto Napoletano,' gives the following account of the origin of as soon as the frosts are gone. Its young tender leaves and Policinella, or rather Polecenella, as it is pronounced by shoots constitute the best of all spinach; and the fruit, the Neapolitans. A company of strolling comedians once when ripe, is used for soup, or is baked with pears as an arrived at the town of Acerra near Naples, in the season of ingredient in tarts; when young, it may also be boiled and the vintage. The vintagers are, by traditional custom, librought to table like vegetable marrow.

censed jesters. The comedians fell in with a band of vintagers, PUN. A pun has been defined by Addison (Spectator, who assailed them with jokes and vociferations, which the No. 61) to be a conceit arising from the use of two words comedians retorted. One of the vintagers, called Puccio that agree in the sound but differ in the sense.' Sometimes d’Aniello, or Puccio the son of Aniello, remarkable for a however the pun is effected by the employment of only one very large nose and grotesque appearance, was the most word, which is susceptible of a double application; as when forward and witty of all his band, and at last the comedians one who had undertaken to pun upon any subject that were fairly beaten out of the field. Reflecting on this ocshould be given him, on being desired to make a pun on the currence, the comedians thought that a character like that king, answered that the king was no subject. Sometimes of their antagonist Puccio d'Aniello might prove rey attou the sound that is thus made to convey two ideas at once tractive on the stage, and they proposed an engagement te is not an entire word, but only a syllable. The definition I him, which he accepted. The engagement proved profit

able to both parties; and the comedians had crowded houses as, so, than, by the adverbs how much, more, oftener, rather wherever they went. After some years, Puccio d'Aniello unless the comparative member at the end be short. died, but his place was filled by a well-taught adept in his II. The semicolon is used when a longer pause is required art, who assumed his name, softened into Polecenella, and than at a comma, but when the sense is imperfect, and also his manner and costume, with a mask which perpe- needs some other member to render it complete. Or it is tuated the features of the facetious vintager. By degrees, used for dividing a compound sentence into two or more personifications of the original Polecenella were multiplied parts, which are not so closely connected as those which are all over the country, and the name and character have thus separated by commas only, nor yet so independent and perbecome immortal. It is remarkable that the district in which fect as those which admit a colon : thusAcerra is situated was remarkable in antient times for that *Life, with a swift though insensible course, glides away; kind of dramatic wit and farcical humour which has made and like a river which undermines its banks, gradually imthe reputation of the modern Polecenella. 'ATELLANA pairs our state.' FABULX.)

* As there is a worldly happiness which God perceives to PUNCTUATION is the art of dividing written or printed be only disguised misery; as there are worldly honours composition into sentences and clauses, by points or stops, which in his estimation are a reproach; so there is a so as to indicate the closer or more remote connection of worldly wisdom which in his sight is foolishness.' the several parts. It serves to elucidate the sense, and thus III. The colon may be inserted also assists the delivery, since the latter must have reference 1. When a member of a sentence is complete in itself, to the grammatical construction.

but is followed by some additional remark or illustration of The elements of a system of punctuation are disco the subject: thusverable in antient times. Aristotle mentions the subject • Do not flatter yourself with the idea of enjoying perfect in his Rhetoric' (iii. 5); Jerome, in the fourth century, at- happiness: there is no such thing in the world. tended to the punctuation of the sacred books which he re Keep close to thy business: it will keep thee from wick. vised ; about the middle of the fifth century Euthalius edness, poverty, and shame.' published an edition of the four Gospels, and afterwards of 2. When several semicolons have preceded, and when a the Acts, and of all the apostolical Epistles, in which he longer pause is necessary in order to mark the connecting divided the New Testament into stichoi (orixou), or lines, or concluding sentiment: thusregulated by the sense, so that each terminated where some * A divine legislator uttering his voice from heaven; an pause was made in the reading; and in the Alexandrine almighty governor stretching forth his arm to punish or manuscript, which may be referred to the fourth or fifth reward ; informing us of perpetual rest prepared hereafter century, we find not only a break at the end of each para- for the righteous, and of indignation and wrath awaiting graph, but stops, similar to the higher part of our colon, the wicked: these are the considerations which overawe the inserted, though sparingly, in the body of the sentences. world, which support integrity, and which check guilt.'

The invention of the modern system of punctuation has 3. A colon is generally placed at the close of the words been attributed to Aristophanes, a grammurian of Alexan- which introduce an example, a quotation, a saying, a dria; but the subject was very imperfectly understood till speech, or a narrative: thusthe close of the fifteenth century, when the learned Vene * The earl of Chatham made an excellent speech, from tian printers, the Manutii, increased the number of the which the following is a brief extract : "I know that the signs, and established some fixed rules, which have been so conquest of British America is an impossibility. generally adopted, that we may regard them as the inven Iỹ. The period or full stop is placed at the end of a sentors of the present system.

tence, i.e. at the end of such an assemblage of words as preThe points used in English composition are

sent a complete and independent sense: thusThe comma, marked thus The period or full stop "Truth is the basis of every virtue.' The semicolon ; The interrogation

?

The Latin tongue is now called a dead language, because The colon

The admiration

! it is not spoken as the mother tongue of any nation.' to which may be added the dash, the apostrophe In some sentences an additional clause is included, which and the parenthesis ( ).

does not modify the preceding: thusIt is considered that the proper length of the pause at a * The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul.' comma is while we may count one; at a semicolon two; These are called loose sentences. at a colon three ; and at a period four. But it will be easy to The note of interrogation, as its name implies, is placed show that there is frequently a much greater separation of at the end of every question. the sense, and that there ought therefore to be a longer The Spaniards place this mark also at the beginning of pause at some commas than at others. Thus in the follow- interrogative sentences; and it must be acknowledged that ing sentence there should evidently be a longer pause after in some cases this is an advantage, as it suggests to the instance, than after candour, fortitude, charity, and gene- reader from the first the tones of voice which are suitable. rosity, though these words are all followed by the same The note of exclamation or admiration is placed at the mark of grammatical punctuation, namely the comma: 'The end of such words or clauses as express any strong passion qualities of candour, fortitude, charity, and generosity, for or emotion of the mind. instance, are not in their own nature virtues; and if ever The dash should be used sparingly: it is introduced with they deserve the title, it is owing only to justice, which im- propriety where a sentence or dialogue breaks off aoruptly; pels and directs them.'

where the sense is suspended, and continued after a short The form and structure of sentences are so various, that interruption; where a significant pause is required; where it would be difficult, if not impossible, to lay down rules for there is an unexpected turn in the sentiment, or a sort of punctuation which shall meet every case which can occur. epigrammatic point; when a sentence consists of several The following may serve as a general guide:

clauses which form the nominative to a verb following, or I. The comma is used,

lead to a conclusion or inference, and it is desirable to assist 1. To throw together such similar parts of speech as are the eye more readily than by semicolons; and in some cases joined in pairs by the conjunction and.

to indicate an ellipsis. 2. To separate the several members of a series, i.e. a suc The apostrophe shows the omission of a letter, as in cession of similar words or members.

form’d, e'en, e'er, used chiefly in poetry; and in the genitive 3. To separate from the rest of the sentence such clauses case, as man's, boys', both in prose and poetry. as are added by way of explication or illustration, or such The parenthesis marks a clause, which should contain as are really parenthetical, though they may not be so some necessary information, or a useful remark, introduced marked.

into the body of a sentence indirectly, but which might be 4. To separate from the rest of the sentence words in the omitted without doing injury to the sense or the convocative case.

struction. 5. In many cases to separate the relative and the antece (For more ample illustrations of this subject, see Steel's dent.

Elements of Punctuation, 12mo., London, 1786 ; Principles of 6. To separate from the rest of the sentence such clauses Punctuation, by the Rev. C. Hartley, 18mo., London, 1818; as are introduced by a connective, conditional, or exceptive and The Principles of English Punctuation, by G. Smallparticle, or by an adverb of time or place; and to separate field, 18mo., London, 1838.) antithetical clauses, and such comparative clauses as are in It has been remarked above, that one use of the pauses is troduced by the adjectives like, better, by the conjunctions as a guide to reading; but it must not be supposed that

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