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This was the foundation of the dynasty of the, the outward word: on which subject, however, Fatemite Caliphs of Egypt, who deduced their he most steadily refused any satisfaction, until Ene from Ismail the son of Jaafer, and through he had taken the oath to receive the secret him from Fatimna the daughter of the Prophet. doctrine with implicit faith and unconditional

The secret doctrine had now, in a great obedience. When he had done this, he was measure, attained its object; it had placed its admitted to the second degree, which incul. creature upon a throne, and had become the cated the acknowledgment of Imaums, apestablished system in Africa. But it contem- pointed of God as those from whom all knowplated farther triumphs, and its Dais still over. ledge was derived. In the third was taught Howed Asia, making proselytes to the claims of the number of the Imaums, which was seven. Ismail, in the hope of yet overturning the The fourth informed the pupil that since the throne of the Caliphs at Bagdad. M. Von creation of the world there had been seven Hammer (if his authority, Macrisi, may be de- divine lawgivers or speaking prophets, each of pended opon“) gives, in this place, a most curi- whom had seven assistants, who succeeded ous and interesting account of the structure each other during the epoch of the speaking and organization of what he terms the Lodge prophet, and, as they did not appear publicly, 21. Cairo, in which the members were, after a they were named the dumb (zainit). The last gradual progress through nine degrees, fully speaking prophet was Isınail, and the first of instructed in the doctrines of iniquity and im- his dumb ministers was Mohammed the son of piety. Immediately, he says, after the esta- Ismail : as, therefore, this last was not dead blishment of the throne of the Fatemites, his- more than a century, the teacher had it in his tory mentions the meetings, which were held power to declare whom he would, to those who every Monday and Wednesday in presence had not passed this degree, to be the dumb of the Dzi-el-doat or Chief Missionary, and prophet of the present age. In the fifth degree were attended by great numbers of both the pupil learned that each of the danb promen and women, who had separato lodges. | phets had twelve apostles to assist him in spreadThese assemblies were named Mejalis-al-bic- ing the doctrine.' The sixth taught that all met, or the Societies of Wisdom, and the mem- positive religion was subordinate to philosophy. bers attended attired in white. On these days This degree was tedious, and not till the pupil the Dai-el-doat always waited on the Caliph, had been well imbued with the wisdom of the and, wben it was possible, read something to philosophers was he admitted to the seventh, him, bat, at all events, got his signature on the in which he passed from philosophy to myssatude of the Lecture. When the lecture was ticism, which was the doctrine of All is One, finished, the scholars kissed his hand, and re- now held by the Soofees. In the eighth the spectfully touched, with their foreheads the doctrines of positive religion were once inore signature of the Caliph.

brought forward; after what had preceded, they In the reign of the sixth Fatemite Caliph, could not make any long stand, and the pupil the wtorious Hakem-biemr-illah, the assem- was now fully instructed in the superfluousness Mies and their place of meeting were placed of all prophets and divine teachers, the non-exupon a most extensive footing. A large lodge, istence of heaven and hell, the indifference of named Dar-al-hicmet or the House of Wisdom, actions, and thus prepared for the ninth and was erected, and abundantly provided with last degree, and to become the ready instrubooks, mathematical instruments, and profes- ment of every project of ambition. To believe sors of every description. Disputations were nothing and to dare every thing, was the sum frequently held in presence of the caliph, in and substance of this wisdom. which the professors, divided according to the The claims of the Fatemite Caliph, and the four faculties, Logic, Mathematics, Law, and secret doctrine of the Lodge at Cairo, were acMedicine, appeared in their robes of ceremony, tively disseminated through Asia by the zeal of which rabes, it is curious to observe, were ex- the Dais, and of their Refeek or Companions, sety the same in form as those now worn by persons initiated in one or more degrees of the tbe doctors in Oxford and Cambridge. A secret doctrine, and attached to the Dais as yearly sum of 275,000 ducats was appropriated assistants, which their name denotes. Among to the support of this institution, in which the converts and members of the Lodge then vere taught all branches of human science, gained, was one who founded, some years after, and, in nine ascending degrees, the secret doc. the society which, during more than a century trines of the Ismailites. The first of these de. and a half, filled Asia with terror and dismay. grees--the longest and most difficult-instilled This was the celebrated Hassan Ben Sabah, into the mind of the pupil the most unlimited the founder of the Assassins or Eastern Isconfidence in the wisdom of his instructor; it mailites, as writers name them, to distinguish perplexed him by pointing out the absurdity them from their Egyptian or Western brethren. and contradiction to reason of the text of the Hassan was one of those characters that apKoran, and excited his curiosity by hinting at pear from time to time in the world, as if sent the secret text which lay beneath the shell of io operate some mighty change in the destinies

of mankind. Endued with mental powers of * In the opinion of De Sacy M. Von Ham- the first order, conscious of his own superiority, azer bas completely succeeded in developing filled with ambition the most immoderate,

and e organization and principles of the Ismailites. possessed of the courage, patience, and foreDe Sacy is, however, of opinion that the origi- sight requisite for the accomplishment of his ma tersus do not fully justify M. Von Hammer deep-laid plans, Hassan must, at any period of in scribing to them, to the extent he does, the the world, have been a distinguished actor in doctries of atheism and the indifference of its scenes'; but no period more calculated for

the display of his transcendant talents could

moral actions.

with the empire of the Assassins, beneath the vinced of the pernicious influence of the sect, victorious arms of Hulagoo, the Tartar Khan. endeavoured totally to eradicate it with fire and From this work we shall endeavour to convey sword. In this he did not completely succeed; to our readers some idea of the organization of the opinions continued to exist in secret, and the sect, and display the mighty ills which may again broke out, in the time of the Caliphs of be brought on the human race by the agency the house of Abbas, when the followers of Moof secret associations, in the history of the most kannah* and Babek filled Persia with blood and powerful and most destructive one which ever devastation. existed. We must, however, previously, with In this stormy period there lived at Ahras, Mr. Von Hammer, give some account of the in the south of Persia, a man named Abdallah, state of Islam, in the times that succeeded the the son of Maimoon al Kaddah. He had been death of the Prophet.

educated in the maxims of the ancient religion Mohammed appointed no Caliph to succeed and policy of Persia; and national animosity him. The murder of Othman transferred the inspired him with the idea of overthrowing the Caliphat and Imamat, i. e. the supremacy in faith and the empire of the victorious Arabs. empire and in religion, to Ali, the son-in-law The bloody experience of his own times taught of the Prophet, and his deposition and death Abdallah the folly of attempting to overturn again transferred them to Moawiah. From the prevailing religion and the reigning dythis period dates the great schism of the Monasty, so long as the conscience and the swords hammedan church. The Soonites, with their of the military were under their direction; and numerous subdivisions, acknowledged the first he saw clearly that secretly to undermine them three Imaums and Caliphs; the Shea-ites was the only path to ultimate success. Knowmaintain that Ali and his posterity were the ing, also, how hazardous it is to attempt all at only rightful successors of the Prophet. The once to eradicate those prejudices in favour of principal sects of the latter were four, dissent- the throne and altar, which are so deeply rooted ing from each other on the grounds of Ali's in the minds of men, he resolved that the veil claims to the Imamat, and the order in which of mystery should envelope his design, and it descended to his posterity. Of these we shall that his doctrines, which, in imitation of the only notice the Imamee, as being the one most schools of India and of Pythagoras, he divided iminediately connected with the Assassins. into seven degrees, should only be gradually

The Imamee were divided into Imamites communicated to his disciples. The last and and Ismailites, who both held that after the highest of these degrees taught the vanity of twelfth Imaum according to the former, or the all religions, and the indifference of all actions, seventh according to the latter, the Imaum as neither here nor hereafter would they be rehad ranished, and that the dignity was con- warded or punished. With the greatest zeal, tinued in a succession of invisible Imaums. by means of missionaries, he disseminated his The latter derived their appellation from Is- opinions and augmented the number of his dismail, the son of Jaafer Zadik, the seventh, and, ciples, and to gain them the more ready acaccording to them, the last visible Imaum; the ceptance among the followers of Islam, he foriner continued the series through Ismail's masqued his projects beneath a pretended zeal younger brother, Musa Kasim, to Askereé, and for the claims of the descendants of Mohammed his son, Mohammed Mehdee. The claims of the son of Ismail, to the Imamat. these Luvaums to the Caliphat were, in the time During the life-time of Abdallah and his sons, of the first Abbassides, so strong and so gene- these principles spread, in secret, far and wide, rally acknowledged, that Maimoon publicly by the activity of their missionaries or Dais, as declared Ali Reeza, the eighth of them, his they were called. The plan of Abdallah was successor, to the great discontent of the whole to extend his system gradually, and never to family of Abbas, who would probably have con proclaim it openly until the throne should be tested the point, had not Ali Reeza fortunately in the possession of one of its disciples; but died before Maimoon, and with him died the this deep-laid scheme was broken by the impehopes and prospects of the Imamee: But the tuosity of Ahmed of Cufa, surnamed Carmath, other branch, the Ismailites, was more fortu-who, fully initiated in all the degrees of the senate, and at length succeeded in placing one cret system, boldly proclaimed the doctrine of of their members, named Obeid-allah, on the IndIFFERENCE, and erected the banner of inthrone of Egypt.

surrection against the Caliphs, who were still To understand fully how this was accom- in the height of their power. The contest was plished, we must cast a glance on the state of long and bloody, the holy city of Mecca was opinion in the East at that period. The an. conquered, 30,000 Moslems fell in its defence, cient religion of Persia, pure as it was in its and the sacred black stone was carried off in cominencemnent, had been in the course of triumph to Hajar. The struggle continued time greatly corrupted. Macrisi enumerates during a whole century, till the conflagration seven sects, one of which, named Mazdekee, was at length quenched in the blood of the folfrom Mazdek its founder, advanced principles lowers of Čarmath. Notwithstanding this sedestructive of all religion and morality. It vere check, the doctrines of Abdallah still professed universal freedom and equality, the spread in secret, and at length, in the year indifference of human actions, and the commu- 297 of the Hejira, an able missionary, a second nity of goods; and strange as it would appear, Abdallah, succeeded in delivering from prison did not history furnish instances of similar a pretended descendant of Mohammed the son folly, it nunbered among its adherents the of Ismail, and in placing him on the throne in king of Persia, Cobad, the father of Noosbeer. Africa, under the name of Obeid-Allah Mehdee. wan. The imprudence of this monarch cost him his crown; and his son, Noosheerwan, con- * The eelebrated veiled Prophet.

This was the foundation of the dynasty of the the outward word: on which subject, however, Fatemite Caliphs of Egypt, who deduced their he most steadily refused any satisfaction, until line from Ismail the son of Jaafer, and through he had taken the oath to receive the secret him from Fatima the daughter of the Prophet. doctrine with implicit faith and unconditional

The secret doctrine had now, in a great obedience. When he had done this, he was measure, attained its object; it had placed its admitted to the second degree, which inculcreature upon a throne, and had become the cated the acknowledgment of Imaums, apestablished system in Africa. But it contem- pointed of God as those froin whom all know. plated farther triumphs, and its Dais still over- ledge was derived. In the third was taught flowed Asia, making proselytes to the claims of the number of the Imaums, which was seven. Ismail, in the hope of yet overturning the The fourth informed the pupil that since the throne of the Caliphs at Bagdad. M. Von creation of the world there had been seven Hammer (if his authority, Macrisi, may be de divine lawgivers or speaking prophets, each of pended upon*) gives, in this place, a most curi- whom had seven assistants, who succeeded ous and interesting account of the structure each other during the epoch of the speaking and organization of what he terms the Lodge prophet, and, as they did not appear publicly, at Cairo, in which the members were, after a they were named the dumb (zainit). The last gradual progress through nine degrees, fully speaking prophet was Ismail, and the first of instructed in the doctrines of iniquity and im- his dumb ministers was Mohammed the son of piety. Immediately, he says, after the esta- Ismail : as, therefore, this last was not dead blishment of the throne of the Fatemites, his- more than a century, the teacher had it in his tory mentions the meetings, which were held power to declare whom he would, to those who every Monday and Wednesday in presence had not passed this degree, to be the dusnb of the Dai-el-coat or Chief Missionary, and prophet of the present age. In the fifth degree were attended by great numbers of both the pupil learned that each of the dunb promen and women, who had separate lodges. phets had twelve apostles to assist himn in spreadThese assemblies were named Mejalis-al-hic. ing the doctrine. The sixth taught that all met, or the Societies of Wisdom, and the mem- positive religion was subordinate to philosophy. bers attended attired in white. On these days This degree was tedious, and not till the pupil the Dai-el-doat always waited on the Caliph, had been well imbued with the wisdom of the and, when it was possible, read something to philosophers was he admitted to the seventh, him, but, at all events, got his signature on the in which he passed from philosophy to mysoutside of the Lecture. When the lecture was ticism, which was the doctrine of All is One, finished, the scholars kissed his hand, and re- now held by the Soofees. In the eighth the spectfully touched, with their foreheads the doctrines of positive religion were once inore signature of the Caliph.

brought forward; after what had preceded, they In the reign of the sixth Fatemite Caliph, could not make any long stand, and the pupil the notorious Hakem-biemr-illah, the assem- was now fully instructed in the superfluousness blies and their place of meeting were placed of all prophets and divine teachers, the non-exopon a most extensive footing. A large lodge, istence of heaven and hell, the indifference of påmed Dar-al-hicmet or the House of Wisdom, actions, and thus prepared for the ninth and was erected, and abundantly provided with last degree, and to become the ready instrubooks, mathematical instruments, and profes-ment of every project of ambition. To believe sors of every description. Disputations were nothing and to dare every thing, was the sum frequently held in presence of the caliph, in and substance of this wisdom. which the professors, divided according to the The claims of the Fatemite Caliph, and the four faculties, Logic, Mathematics, Law, and secret doctrine of the Lodge at Cairo, were acMedicine, appeared in their robes of ceremony, tively disseminated through Asia by the zeal of which robes, it is curious to observe, were ex- the Dais, and of their Refeek or Companions, setly the same in form as those now worn by persons initiated in one or more degrees of the the doctors in Oxford and Cambridge. A secret doctrine, and attached to the Dais as yearly sum of\275,000 ducats was appropriated assistants, which their name denotes. Among to the support of this institution, in which the converts and members of the Lodge then were taught all branches of human science, gained, was one who founded, some years after, and, in nine ascending degrees, the secret doc the society which, during more than a century trines of the Ismailites. The first of these de. and a half, filled Asia with terror and dismay. grees—the longest and most difficult-instilled This was the celebrated Hassan Ben Sabah, into the mind of the pupil the most unlimited the founder of the Assassins or Eastern Isconfidence in the wisdom of his instructor; it mailites, as writers name them, to distinguish perplexed him by pointing out the absurdity them from their Egyptian or Western brethren. and contradiction to reason of the text of the Hassan was one of those characters that ap. Koran, and excited his curiosity by hinting at pear from time to time in the world, as if sent the secret text which lay beneath the shell of to operate some mighty change in the destinies

of mankind. Endued with mental powers of * In the opinion of De Sacy M. Von Ham- the first order, conscious of his own superiority, mer has completely succeeded in developing filled with ambition the most immoderate, and the organization and principles of the Ismailites. possessed of the courage, patience, and foreDe Sacy is, however, of opinion that the origi- sight requisite for the accomplishment of his ml terras do not fully justify M. Von Hammer deep-laid plans, Hassan must, at any period of in ascribing to them, to the extent he does, the the world, have been a distinguished actor in doctrines of atheism and the indifference of its scenes; but no period more calculated for moral actions.

the display of his transcendant talents could

have occurred than the one in which his lot giving in the account, covered with disgrace had been cast. He was the son of Ali, a stren- and obliged to quit the Court, for which Nizam uous Shea-ite, who resided at Rei. Ali was assigns no cause, we are obliged to find an strongly suspected of entertaining heretical and explanation of it in the narrative of other wriimpious opinions, and could hardly, by the most ters. According to them, Nizam himself, solemn oaths and protestations, obtain credit tre.nbling for his place, contrived secretly to for his orthodoxy. He retired at length into a abstract some of the leaves of his rival's acconvent, and to clear himself as much as pos- counts, and when Hassan presented himself be. sible from the suspicions entertained against fore the Sultan in full assurance of a complete him, he sent his son to Nishaboor, to be edu- | triumph, to his extreme mortification, the mucated by the Imaum Mowafek Nishabooree, tilated state of his papers, for which he could the most illustrious Doctor of the Soonnah, in in no way account, drew down on him tho the East; of whom it was said, that every one highest displeasure of the Sultan. Nizam, inwho studied the Koran and the Soonnah under deed, confesses, with great naiveté, that had him was certain to be fortunate in after-life. not this occurred, he himself would have been Here the young Hassan had for his fellow stu- obliged to follow the same course as Hassan. dents Omar Khiam and Nizam-ul-Mulk, the The latter, inwardly meditating vengeance former of whom became celebrated for poetry against the Sultan and the Vizier, retired to and philosophy, and the latter, under three suc- Rei, and from thence went to Isfahan, where cessive monarchs of the house of Seljuk, filled he remained concealed in the house of the Reis the first posts of the empire.

Aboo'l Fazl, to escape the perquisitions of Ni. Even at this early period the ambitious mind zam-ul-Mulk. While there he made the reof Hassan, and his long-sighted views of futuremarkable declaration, that if he had but two deadvancement and dignity, displayed themselves. voted friends, he would soon overthrow the He one day, as Nizam-ul-Mulk himself informs | Turk and the peasant, as he called Melek Shah us, addressed his two companions, reminded and Nizam-ul-Mulk. The simple-hearted Reis them of the general opinion of the success of the believed him to be out of his mind, and be. Imaum's pupils, and proposed that they should gan secretly to administer to him aromatic enter into an agreement that in whichever of draughts to strengthen his brain. Hassan was the three this opinion should be verified, he soon aware of the opinion of his host, and reshould share his fortune with the other two. solved to leave him

and proceed to Egypt, to Oinar and Nizam readily assented, and the lat. the grand lodge of the Ismailites, of whose ter devoting himself to politics, soon attained society he had long been a member. The acthe Viziership under Togrul, and Alp Arslan, count of his first connexion with that sect is the great Seljucides. During the reigns of given by Mirkhond in Hassan's own words, Togrul and of Alp Arslan, Hassan remained in and as they enable us to form a clear idea of privacy and obscurity; but no sooner had Melek the character of the man, and show that like Shah, the successor of the latter, ascended the Mohammed, Cromwell, and almost every throne, than the descendant of Sabah appeared fanatic, he was sincere at first, whatever he at court, and, in the severe terms which the might have become afterwards, we will lay Koran uses of breakers of their word, reminded them before our readers. the Vizier of the promise of his youth, and “ From my childhood, even from the age of called upon him to perform it. Nizam received

seven years, my only object was to attain him with honour, gave him rank and revenue, to knowledge and capacity. I was, like my and introduced him to the intimacy of the Sul- father, brought up in the doctrine of the twelve tan. Hassan's object in waiting for the acces- Imaums (Imamee), and I formed an acquaintsion of Melek Shah had evidently been to sup. ance with the Ismailite Refeek, named Éinire. plant his friend Nizram, an object more easily ed-Dharab, with whom I knit the bond of attainable with a youthful prince than with an friendship. My opinion was, that the doctrine experienced monarch. He accordingly sought of the Ismailites was like that of the philosoby every means, under the mask of bluntness phers, and that the sovereign of Egypt was a and honesty, to gain an ascendency over the man who was initiated in it. As often as Emiro mind of the Sultan, and succeeded so far, that spoke in support of his doctrine, I fell into a Melek Shah consulted him upon every affair controversy with him, and many an argument of moment, and acted according to his advice. on points of faith arose between us. I never Nizam's credit and influence were visibly in gave way to the charges which Emire brought the wane, for his rival sedulously conveyed to against my sect, though secretly they made a the ears of the sultan even the slightest errors strong impression on my mind. Meanwhile of the Divan, and, by his artful insinuations, Emire departed from me, and I fell into a sethrew the entire blame on the prime Vizier. vere sickness, during which time I frequently But, according to Nizam-ul-Mulk's account, reproached myself that although I knew the the worst trick he played him was his under- doctrine of the Ismailites to be the true one, taking to lay before the Sultan, within forty out of mere stiff-neckedness I hesitated to ac, days, a statement of the revenue and expendi- | knowledge it; and that if, which God avert, ture of the Sovereign; a task, to accomplish death should surprise me, I should die without which the Vizier had required ten times the having attained to the truth. At length I respace. The clerks of the treasury were all | covered from that sickness, and met with anoplaced under Hassan, and Nizam-ul-Mulk ac- ther Ismailite, named Aboo Nejm Zaraj, of knowledges that he performed what he had whom I inquired concerning the truth of his undertaken within the given time; but, as he doctrine. Aboo Nejm explained it to me in the adds, that Hassan derived no advantage from most circumstantial manner, until I saw fully it, but was, on the contrary, at the instant of l into the depths of it. At last I met a Dai call. ed Moomeem, whom the Sheikh Abd-al-melek | Asia. Experience and reflection had shown him Ben Attash, the director of the missions of that the many could never be governed by the Irak, had authorized to execute this office. I few, without the salutary curb of religion and besougbt him to accept my homage in the morality; that a system of impiety, though it name of the Fatemite Caliph; he at first re might serve to overturn, was not calculated to fused, because I had been in a higher rank than maintain and support a throne; and his object himself; but when I pressed him thereto out was now to establish a fixed and lasting domiof all measure, he at length consented. When nion. Though as an adept, initiated in the now the Sheikh Abd-al-melek came to Rei, and highest degree of the lodge at Cairo, he had by his intercourse with me came to know me, been long satisfied of the nothingness of all remy deportment was pleasing to him, and he ligion, he determined to maintain among his inmediately conferred on me the office of a followers the religion of Islam in all its rigour. Dai. He said to me, thou must go into Egypt, The most exact and minute observance of even and become a partaker of the happiness of its most trivial ordinances was to be exacted serving the lınaum Moustansar, the then reign- from those who, generally unknown to theming Caliph. When the Sheikh Abd-al-melek selves, were banded for its destruction; and vent from Rei to Isfahan I departed for the veil of mystery, within which few were perEgypt."

mitted to enter, shrouded the secret doctrine Hassan, whose fame had preceded him, was from the eyes of the major part of the society. received in Egypt with the highest honours; The claims of Ismail, the purity of religion, the Dai-al-doat and other distinguished per- were ostensibly advanced; but the rise of Hassonages were sent to the frontiers to meet him, san Sabah, and the downfall of all religion, and the Caliph assigned him a residence, and were the real objects of those who directed the loaded him with favours. But happening to machinery. take an active part in the dispute concerning The Ismailite doctrine had hitherto been disthe succession, his enemies prevailed against seminated by missionaries and companions him; he was thrown into prison, and afterwards alone. Heads without hands were of no avail forced on board a ship bound for the coast of in the eyes of Hassan; it was necessary to Africa. A storm drove the vessel to the coast have a third class, which, ignorant of the seof Syria, where Hassan disembarked; he then cret doctrine, would be the blind and willing passed some years in travelling through differ- instruments of the designs of their superiors. ent countries of the East, zealously spreading This class were named the Fedavee or Devohis doctrines, and acquiring proselytes. He had ted; were clothed in white, with red bonnets or observed that during the space of two hundred girdles, and armed with daggers; these were years that had elapsed since Abdallah first in- the men who, reckless of their lives, executed troduced the secret doctrine into Islam, though the bloody mandates of the Sheikh-el-Jebel, the missionaries had been indefatigable, and the the title assumed by Hassan. As a proof of the disciples numerous, except in the instance of the fanaticism that Hassan contrived to instil into establishment of the Fatemite dynasty in Egypt, his followers, we give the following instance no temporal dominion, the attainment of which in the year 1126, Kasim-ed-devlet Absoncor, was the leading object of the society, had been ac- the brave prince of Mosul, was, as he entered quired. He saw moreover that the Seljucides, as the mosque, attacked by eight assassins disprotectors of the phantom of a Caliph who sat guised as dervises; he killed three, and the at Bagdad, had risen to the highest power; and rest, with the exception of one young man, he conceived that as he was now strengthened were massacred by the people ; but the prince by numerous disciples, he might, as the cham had received his death wound. When the pion of the rights of the descendants of Ismail, news spread that Kasim-ed-devlet had fallen take his rank with princes, when possessed of by the daggers of the assassins, the mother of dominion and power. To attain this object, all the young man who had escaped painted and he required was some strong position, from adorned herself, rejoicing that her son had been which as a centre he might gradually extend found worthy to offer up his life in support of his possessions; and he fixed his eye upon the the good cause; but when he came back the hill-fort of Alamoot, (that is—the Vulture's only survivor, she cut off her hair and blackNest, so named from its lofty and impregnable ened her face, through grief that he had not site,) situated in the district of Roodbar, to the shared the death of glory. “ Such," observes north of Kasveen. Alamoot was gained partly M. Hammer," was the Spartanism of the Asby force and partly by stratagem; he first sent sassins." thither one of his most trusty Dais, who con. A display of the means by which the chief verted a great number of the inhabitants, and of the Assassins succeeded in infusing this spiwith their aid expelled the governor. Histo- rit of strong faith and devotion into his followrians say, that he employed the same stratagem ers forms an interesting chapter in the history that Dido had used to gain the soil on which of man. It might seem incredible, did not exshe built Carthage, but stories of that kind are perience abundantly prove it, that the human common in the East; and Sir John Malcolm mind could ever be brought to believe, or act informs us, that the person with whom he read on the most unfounded and irrational opinions; this piece of history told him, that it was in but those who reflect on the follies of the disthis manner the English obtained Calcutta of ciples of the various fanatics and impostors the poor Emperor of Delhi.

who have deluded mankind, will cease to be la possession of a strong fortress, Hassan surprised at the blind devotion of the Fedavec. turned his mind to the organization of that band Even in our own days the chief of the Wahaof followers whose daggers were to spread the bees contrived to instil into his followers the dread and the terror of his power throughout persuasion that he could dispose of the man

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