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NEW YORK:
BLAKEMAN & MASON, 21 MURRAY STREET.

BUFFALO : BREED, BUTLER, & CO.

MARVARO COLLEGE LIBRARY

GIFT BA
QEORGE ARTHUR PLIMPTON

K ER L’S JANUARY 25, 1924

SERIES OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS.

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Kerl's Elementary English Grammar.-This little book is designed for beginners, and as an introduction to the Comprehensive Gram

Since variety in his text-books on the same subject, always causes a loss of time and labor to the learner, this little work, excepting the last few pages, is made identical, page for page, with the first part of the larger Grammar. It is also made in accordance with what seem to be the latest and best opinions on the science of grammar and the art of teaching. 120 pp., 12mo, well bound. Price 35 cents.

Kerl's Comprehensive English Grammar.—This book is designed to be a thorough Practical Grammar, for the use of Common Schools. Nearly all that it contains beyond what the generality of grammars have, will be new and useful. To its sections on VERBS, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, PARSING, ANALYSIS, VERSIFICATION, PUNCTUATION, CAPITAL LETTERS, RHETORICAL FIGURES, and FALSE SYNTAX, particular attention is directed ; and also to the arrangement of matter, and to the copious ILLUSTRATIONS and EXERCISES. 375 pp., 12mo. Price 75 cents.

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Kerl's Treatise on the English Language.-This book is designed for the use of High-Schools, Colleges, and Private Students. It will embrace, so far as practicable, the HISTORY, ETYMOLOGY, GRAMMAR, and STRUCTURE of the LANGUAGE, with copious ILLUSTRATIONS and CRITICAL REMARKS, an Essay on COMPOSITION, an Essay on DELIVERY, and a COLLECTION of SYNONYMS. Large 8vo. (In Preparation.)

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861,

BY SIMON KERL,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York

Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1862,

BY SIMON KERL,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.

Electrotyped by SMITH & MoDOUGAL, 82 & 84 Beekman-street.

PREFACE.

It is generally admitted, at least by those persons who frequently have occasion to write the English language, that the knowledge of this subject, obtained in our schools, is not sufficient for the various requirements of life. In the fol. lowing pages I therefore offer to the public an English Grammar that is designed to be, for practical purposes, more thorough than any other I have seen, the very largest not excepted.

In its matter, it does not differ much from other grammars, except that it has more, and that much of it is fresh from the original sources of the science. Whatever has been written on the subject by other grammarians, I have endeavored to ascertain; though I trust I have treated them less piratically and censoriously than most of them have treated their predecessors. The incidental remarks on grammar, made by reviewers, philologists, and other writers, have been diligently sought and considered. The best grammars of foreign languages have also been consulted; especially those of Becker, Vivier, Andrews, Crosby, and Kühner. Of the exercises to be corrected, about one half are the best of those wbich form the common inheritance of the science; and for the others I have read some work or works from every State in the Union, in order that the book may show all the various kinds of errors which are now current, like undetected counterfeit

money, in the various parts of our country. If children imbibed no errors at home, it were well to exclude such exercises from grammars; but when a person has already caught a disease, I suppose it is best to convince him of his condition, and show him how to get rid of it. Errors in spelling, and errors manufactured by grammarians, are of course objectionable; but errors that are gathered from the usage of good writers, aro a very different thing. Besides, parsing and analysis, when used alone, become too monotonous and wearisome, and hardly suffice to teach the correct use of the language.

In regard to the arrangement of matter,-an important item,-I venture io claim for the book a superiority over every other of its kind. It is well known that science and literature languished, until Bacon and

Shakespeare emancipated them from the thralldom of ancient opinions; and, as Latin Grammars were first made, and English Grammars modeled after them, the latter have probably suffered from a similar dominion. A language that has many inflections, may well have its etymology taught as a separate branch; but a language, like ours, whose actual inflections might all be printed on two or three pages, needs no such treatment. Besides, words have etymology because they have syntax-the very existence of the one implying the other; and to stop with etymology, is to leave the work half finished. The greatest stickler for separating them in our language, has failed draw the dividing line; and much of the etymology taught in our grammarsmas in the cases of nounsmis sheer syntax. Every teacher of experience, too, must have observed how wearisome to pupils is the long desert of etymology, before they see its application in syntax; and then they often do not get the full benefit of this, because they have but a faint and confused recollection of the other. Moreover, by the usual system, almost the whole grammar must be learned before any practical benefit is derived from it; and, as children in many parts of the country can attend school only a part of each year, the consequence is, that they begin their grammar anew from year to year, get tired of its technical jargon, and derive, at last, but little benefit from the study. By the arrangement in this treatise, each section bears its own fruit, and will be, if learned, of permanent value, whether any further progress is made or not. The book, too, can be more conveniently resumed at the beginning of any section.

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