« PreviousContinue »
101. A negation is generally expressed in French by two words:
102. The negative ne always precedes the verb; the other words, explanatory of the negation, generally follow the verb, but most of them may also be placed at the beginning of the sentence: as,
Il n'est pas heureux.
he is not happy.
CONJUGATION OF VERBS.
French verbs are divided into four conjugations, distinguished by the termination of the infinitive mood:
The first conjugation has one model verb, the second has four, the third one, and the fourth four. A verb is said to be regular, when it is conjugated like one of those ten verbs.
103. MODEL VERB OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION.
(The first conjugation includes about 5,000 verbs conjugated like donner.)
PRESENT.-Donner, to give.
PAST.-Avoir donné, to have given.
PAST.-Donné, given. Ayant donné, having given.
J'avais donné, I have given.
*106. The simple tenses are formed in French with one word only. JE DONNE, is either I give, I do give, or I am giving. JE DONNAIS,I was giving or I used to give.
J'aurais donné, I should have given Nous aurions donné, we should
Tu aurais donné, thou wouldst have
Vous auriez donné, you would
Il aurait donné, he would have Ils auraient donné, they would
Que je donn asse, that I might give. Que nous donn assions, that we might Que tu donn asses, that thou mighst
Qu'il donn ât, that he might give.
Que vous donn assiez, that you might
Qu'ils donn assent, that they might
Que j'aie donn é, that I may have given.
Que j'eusse donn é, that I might have given.
108. In verbs ending in GER, the E is retained after & before ▲, o, to preserve the articulation of G soft; as, CHANGER, to change; NOUS CHANGEONS, we change.
109. When c is pronounced like s, in the infinitive, it takes a CEDILLA before A, o, or u, to preserve its articulation; as, COMMENCER, to begin; COMMENÇANT, beginning.
110. Verbs which have y before the termination of the infinitive or participle present, generally change it into I before E, ES, and ENT; as, EMPLOYER, to employ; J'EMPLOIE, I employ.
[11. Verbs which have É (with an acute accent) or E mute in the infinitive or participle present require a grave accent on it (E) before a consonant followed by an E mute; as, ESPERER, to hope; il ESPÈRE, he hopes; MENER, to lead; IL MANE; he leads.
112. Verbs having E mute before the termination of the infinitive LER and Ter, generally double L and T, when followed by E, ES, and ENT; as, APPELER, to call; JETER, to throw; J'APPELLE, I call; JE JETTE, I throw. Some take the grave accent on the E; ACHETER, to buy; IL ACHÈTE, he buys.
MODEL VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION.
The second conjugation is divided into four classes. Their model verbs
1. FINIR, to finish. 2. SERVIR, to serve. 3. OUVRIR, to open.
4. TENIR, to hold.
The first class consists of about 300 verbs.
The second consists of the verbs SERVIR, to serve; SENTIR, to feel; SOR
tir, to go out; MENTIR, to lie; DORMIR, to sleep; PARTIR, to set out; SE REPENTIR, to repent; and their derivatives, such as DESSERVIR, etc.
The third consists of the verbs OUVRIR, to open; COUVRIR, to cover; OFFRIR, to offer; SOUFFRIR, to suffer; and their derivatives.
The fourth consists of the verbs TENIR, to hold; VENIR, to come; and their derivatives.
PRESENT.-Fin ir, to finish. PAST.-AVOIR fin i, to have finished.
PRESENT.-Fin issant, finishing.
PAST.-Fin i, finished. Ayant fin i, baving finished.