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97. PRESENT OR FUTURE. Que je sois, that I may be.
Que nous soyons, that we may be. Que tu sois, that thou mayst be. Que vous soyez,
that you' may be. Qu'il soit, that he may be.
Q'ils soient, that they may be.
Que je fusse, that I might be. Que nous fussions, that we might be.
NEGATION WITH VERBS.
101. A negation is generally expressed in French by two words : pas,
ne... nullement, in no manner. } not. .. point,
aucunement, 5 by no means, ne... personne, nobody, .
ne... nulle part, nowhere. rien, nothing.
que, only, but nothing but. jamais, never.
ni, neither, no more. ne... nul,
plus, no longer, no more. ne... aucun, no, none,
· guère, but little.
ne... goutte, not a jot. 102. The negative ne always precedes the verb ; the other words, explanatory of the negation, generally follow the verb, but most of them may also be placed at the beginning of the sentence : as, Il n'est
he is not happy.
ne.. ne... ne... ne...
CONJUGATION OF VERBS.
French verbs are divided into four conjugations, distinguished by the termination of the infinitive mood: The first conjugation ends in ER, as donner, to give. second...
finir, to finish. third..
..OIR, recevoir, to receive. fourth..
vendre, to sell. The first conjugation has one model verb, the second has four, the third one, and the fourth four. A verb is said to be regular, when it is conjugated like one of those ten verbs.
103. MODEL VERB OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION.
(The first conjugation includes about 5,000 verbs conjugated like donner.)
Ayant donné, having given.
PRESENT. Je donne, I give.
Nous donnions, we give. Tu donnes, thou givest.
Vous donnez, you give. Il donne, he gives.
Ils donnent, they give.
IMPERFECT. Je donnais, I was giving.
Nous donnons, we were giving. Tu donnais, thou wast giving. Vous donniez, you were giving. Il donnait, he was giving.
Ils donnaient, they were giving. COMPOUND TENSES.
105. PLUSPERFECT. J'ai donné, I have given.
J'avais donné, I have given. *106. The simple tenses are formed in French with one word only. JE DONNE, is either I give, I do give, or I am giving. JE DONNAIS, I was giving or I used to give.
107. PAST DEFINITI. Je donnai, I gave.
Nous don nâmes,
we gave. Tu donnas, thou gavest.
Vous donnâtes, you gave. Il donna, he gave.
Ils donnèrent, they gave.
FUTURE, Je donnerai, I shall give.
Nous donnerons, we shall give. Tu donneras, thou wilt give.
Vous donnerez, you will give.
Ils donneront, they will give.
J'aurai donné, I shall have given. CONDITIONAL.
Je donnerais, I should give.
Nous donnerions, we should give.
J'aurais donné, I should have given Nous aurions donné, we should
have given. Tu aurais donné, thou wouldst have
Vous auriez donné, you would given.
have given. Il aurait donné, he would have Ils auraient donné, they would given.
Donne, give (thou).
Donnons, let us give.
PRESENT OR FUTURE.
Que je donn
that I may give. Que nous donn ions, that we may Que tu donn es, that thou mayst give. give Qu'il donne, that he may give.
Que vous donn iez, that you may give
Que je donn asse, that I might give. Que nous donn assions, that we might Que tu donn asses, that thou mighst give. give.
Que vous donn assiez, that you might Qu'il donn ât, that he might give. give.
Qu'ils donn assent, that they might
Que j'aie donné, that I may have given.
ORTHOGRAPHICAL REMARKS. 108. In verbs ending in GER, the E is retained after g before a, o, to preserve the articulation of G soft; as, CHANGER, to change; NOUS CHANGEONS, we change.
109. When c is pronounced like s, in the infinitive, it takes a CEDILLA before A, o, or u, to preserve its articulation; as, COMMENCER, to begin; COMMENÇANT, beginning.
110. Verbs which have y before the termination of the infinitive or participle present, generally change it into i before E, Es, and Ent; as, EMPLOYER, to employ; J'EMPLOIE, I employ.
111. Verbs which have É (with an acute accent) or E mute in the infinitive or participle present require a grave accent on it (€) before a consonant followed by an E mute; as, ESPÉRER, to hope; il ESPÈRE, he hopes; MENEE, to lead; IL MÅNE; he leads.
112. Verbs having E mute before the termination of the infinitive LER and ter, generally double L and T, when followed by E, ES, and ENT; as, APPELER, to call; JETER, to throw; J'APPELLE, I call; JE JETTE, I throw. Some take the grave accent on the E; ACHETER, to buy; IL ACHÈTE, he buys.
MODEL VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION.
The second conjugation is divided into four classes. Their model verbs
1. Finir, to finish. 2. SERVIR, to serve. 3. OUVRIR, to open.
FINIR 4. TENIR, to hold. The first class consists of about 300 verbs. · The second consists of the verbs SERVIR, to serve; SENTIR, to feel; SORtir, to go out; MENTIR, to lie; DORMIR, to sleep; PARTIR, to set out; SE REPENTIR, to repent; and their derivatives, such as DESSERVIR, etc.
The third consists of the verbs OUVRIR, to open; COUVRIR, to cover; oFFRIR, to offer; SOUFFRIR, to suffer; and their derivatives, The fourth consists of the verbs TENIR, to hold; VENIR, to come;
and their derivatives.
113. - FINIR.