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his plough going, there away with books and up with candles ; away with bibles and up with beads; away with the light of the gospel, and up with the light of candles, yea, at noon days. Where the devil is resident, that he may prevail, up with all superstition and idolatry ; censing, painting of images, candles, palms, ashes, holy water, and new service of men's inventing ; as though man could invent a better way to honour God with, than God himself hath appointed. Down with Christ's cross, up with purgatory pickpurse, up with him, the popish purgatory, I mean. Away with clothing the naked, the poor and impotent, up with decking of images, and gay garnishing of stocks and stones : up with man's traditions and his laws, down with God's traditions and his most holy word. Down with the old honour due to God, and up with the new god's honour. Let all things be done in Latin : there must be nothing but Latin, not so much as Memento homo quod cinis es, et in cinerem reverteris. “Remember man that thou art ashes, and into ashes shalt thou return,” which be the words that the minister speaketh unto the ignorant people, when he giveth them ashes upon AshWednesday, but it must be spoken in Latin. God's word may in no wise be translated into English.

Oh that our prelates would be as diligent to sow the corn of good doctrine, as Satan is to sow cockle and darnel ! And this is the devilish ploughing, the which worketh to have things in Latin, and letteth the fruitful edification. But here some man will say to me, What, Sir, are ye so privy of the devil's counsel that

ye know all this to be true ?-Truly I know him too well, and have obeyed him a little too much in condescending to some follies ; and I know him as other men do, yea that he is ever occupied, and ever busy in following his plough. I know by Saint Peter, which saith of him, Sicut leo rugiens circuit quærens quem devoret. “He goeth about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.” I would have this text well viewed and examined, every word of it: “Circuit,he goeth about in every corner of his diocese; he goeth on visitation daily, he leaveth no place of his cure unvisited : he walketh round about from place to place, and ceaseth not. “ Sicut leo,as a lion, that is, strongly, boldly, and proudly, stately and fiercely with haughty looks, with his proud countenances, with his stately braggings. Rugiens," roaring; for he letteth not slip any occasion to speak or to roar out when he seeth his time. Quærens,” he goeth about seeking, and not sleeping, as our bishops do; but he seeketh diligently, he searcheth diligently all corners, whereas he may have his prey. He roveth abroad in every place of his diocese ; he standeth not still, he is never at rest, but ever in hand with his plough, that it may go forward. But there was never such a preacher in England as he is. Who is able to tell his diligent preaching, which every day, and every hour, laboureth to sow cockle and darnel, that he may bring out of form, and out of estimation and renown, the institution of the Lord's supper and Christ's cross? For there he lost his right ; for Christ said, Nunc judicium est mundi, princeps seculi hujus ejicietur foras. Et sicut exaltavit Moses serpentem in deserto, ita exaltavi oportet filium hominis. Et cum exaltatus fuero, a terra, omnia traham ad meipsum. “Now is the judgment of this world, and the prince of this world shall be cast out. And as Moses did lift up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the son of man be lift up. And when I shall be lift up from the earth, I will draw all things unto myself." For the devil was disappointed of his pur. pose; for he thought all to be his own : and when he had once brought Christ to the cross, he thought all cocksure.

The Sermon of the Plough,

P. 5, 1. 13. Lording nor loitering. It must be remembered that alliteration, though English had grown out of it to some extent, still exercised considerable influence. It is therefore perhaps unnecessary to attempt to give any very precise sense to " lording," thoughswaggering about" will give a good enough meaning.

P. 5, l. 14. Applying his business, i.g. "plying."

P. 6, L. 16. Note that Latimer himself, despite his indignation at Latin, cites the Latin as well as the English of his texts, and cites it first. Whether this was due to mere habit, or was a precaution against the charge of garbling, or was, as Kingsley has it, because" a preacher was nothing thought of in those days who could not prove himself a good Latiner," may be left in doubt.

P. 7, l. 23. Cocksure. This word perhaps deserves a note because of the absurd derivation given in some dictionaries, as is from the superiority of firelocks to matchlocks. The idea probably came from the confident gait and voice of Chanticleer.


Sir Thomas Elyot was born towards the end of the fif

teenth century, took his degree at Cambridge in 1507, was a protégé of Wolsey, but survived the Cardinal's fall, was more than once employed on embassies, and died at Carlton in Cambridgeshire in 1546. The Governour (a book conceived after the example af Plato and intended to sketch the character and duties of an active citizen) was published in 1531.



THIS "HIS blessed company of virtues in this wise assembled,

followeth Temperance, as a sad and discreet matron and reverent governess, awaiting diligently that in any wise volupty or concupiscence have no preeminence in the soul of man. Aristotle defineth this virtue to be a mediocrity in the pleasures of the body, specially in taste and touching. Therefore he that is temperate fleeth pleasures voluptuous, and with the absence of them is not discontented, and from the presence of them he willingly abstaineth. But in mine opinion, Plotinus, the wonderful philosopher, maketh an excellent definition of temperance, saying, that the property or office thereof is to covet nothing which may be repented, also not to exceed the bounds of mediocrity, and to keep desire under the yoke of reason. He that practiseth this virtue is called a temperate man, and he that doeth contrary thereto is named intemperate. Between wh and a person incontinent Aristotle maketh this diversity ; that he is intemperate which by his own election is led, supposing that the pleasure that is present, or, as I might say, in ure should alway be followed. But the person incontinent supposeth

not so, and yet he notwithstanding doth follow it. The same author also maketh a diversity between him that is temperate and him that is continent; saying, that the continent man is such, one that nothing will do for bodily pleasure which shall stand against reason. The same is he which is temperate, saving that the other hath corrupt desires, which this man lacketh. Also the temperate man delighteth in nothing contrary to reason. But he that is continent delighteth, yet will he not be led against reason. Finally, to declare it in few words, we may well call him a temperate man that desireth the thing which he ought to desire, and as he ought to desire, and when be ought to desire. Notwithstanding there be divers other virtues which do seem to be as it were companions with temperance. Of whom, for the eschewing of tediousness, I will speak now only of two, moderation and soberness, which no man, I suppose, doubteth to be of such efficacy that without them no man may attain unto wisdom, and by them wisdom is soonest espied.

The Book named The Governour.

P. 8, 1. 5. Mediocrity. The reader will excuse a reminder that the bad sense of mediocrity is, as an exclusive sense, purely modern.


Roger Ascham was born at Kirby Wiske in Yorkshire

and died at London in 1568. He was a moniber of St. John's College, Cambridge, an advocate of classical learning and education, txtor to Queen Elizabeth, and secretary to Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth herself. His English works are the Toxophilus, 1544, and the Schoolmaster, published after his death


N the whole year, Spring-time, Summer, Fall of the Leaf, and

Winter : and in one day, Morning, Noontime, Afternoon, and Eventide, altereth the course of the weather, the pith of the bow, the strength of the man. And in every one of these times, the weather altereth, as sometime windy, sometime calm, sometime cloudy, sometime clear, sometime hot, sometime cold, the wind sometime moisty and thick, sometime dry and smooth. A little wind in a moisty day stoppeth a shaft more than a good whisking wind in a clear day. Yea, and I have seen when there hath been no wind at all, the air so misty and thick, that both the marks have been wonderful great. And once, when the plague was in Cambridge, the down wind twelve score mark for the space of three weeks was thirteen score and a half, and into the wind, being not very great, a great deal above fourteen score.

The wind is sometime plain up and down, which is commonly most certain, and requireth least knowledge, wherein a mean shooter with mean gear, if he can shoot home, may make best shift. A side wind trieth an archer and good gear very much, Sometime it bloweth aloft, sometime hard by the ground; some

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