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spirits to his great hindrance, Cum afflictione animalium et servorum suorum. Many such instances are to be read in Niderius Formicar. lib. 5. cap. 12. 3. etc. Whether I may call these Zim and Ophim, which Isaiah cap. 13. 21. speaks of, I make a doubt. See more of these in the said Scheretz. lib. I. de spect. cap. 4. he is full of examples. These kind of devils many times appear to men, and affright them out of their wits, sometimes walking at noon day, sometimes at nights, counterfeiting dead men's ghosts, as that of Caligula, which, saith Suetonius, was seen to walk in Lavinia's garden, where his body was buried, spirits haunted, and the house where he died, Nulla nox sine terrore transacta, donec incendio consumpta; every night this happened, there was no quietness, till the house was burned. About Hecla in Iceland ghosts commonly walk, animas mortuorum simulantes, saith Joh. Anan. lib. 3. de nat dæm. Olaus. lib. 2. cap. 2. Natal. Tallopid. lib. de apparit. spir. Kornmannus de mirac. mort. part 1. cap. 44 : such sights are frequently seen circa Sepulchra et Monasteria, saith Lavat. lib. I. cap. 19, in Monasteries and about Churchyards, loca paludinosa, ampla ædificia, solitaria, et cæde hominum notata, etc. Thyreus adds, ubi gravius peccatum est commissum, impii, pauperum oppressores et nequiter insignes habitant. These spirits often foretell men's deaths, by several signs, as knocking, groanings, etc. though Rich. Argentine c. 18. de prestigiis dæmonum, will ascribe these predictions to good angels, out of the authority of Ficinus and others; prodigia in obitu principum sæpius contingunt, etc. as in the Lateran Church in Rome, the Popes' deaths are foretold by Sylvester's tomb. Near Rupes Nova in Finland, in the Kingdom of Sweden, there is a lake, in which, before the Governor of the Castle dies, a spectrum, in the habit of Arion with his harp appears, and makes excellent music, like those blocks in Cheshire, which, they say, presage death to the master of the family ; or that oak in Lanthadran Park in Cornwall, which foreshows as much. Many families in Europe are so put in mind of their last, by such predictions, and many men are forewarned, if we may believe Paracelsus, by familiar spirits in divers shapes, as cocks, crows, owls, which often hover about sick men's chambers, vel quia morientium faditatem sentiunt, as Barcellus conjectures, et ideo super lectum infermorum crocitant, because they smell a corse ;-or for that, as Bernardinus de Bustis thinketh, God permits the devil to appear in the form of crows, and such like creatures, to scare such as live wickedly here on earth. A little before Tully's death, saith Plutarch, the crows made a mighty noise about him, tumultuose perstrepentes, they pulled the pillow from under his head. Rob. Gaguinus hist. Franc. lib. 8. telleth such another wonderful story at the death of Johannes de Monteforti, a French lord, Anno 1345. tanta Corvorum multitudo ædibus morientis insedit, quantam esse in Gallia nemo judicasset. Such prodigies are very frequent in authors. See more of these in the said Lavater, Thyreus de locis infestis, part 3. cap. 58. Pictorius, Delrio, Cicogna, lib. 3. cap. 9. Necromancers take upon them to raise and lay them at their pleasures : And so likewise those which Mizaldus calls Ambulones, that walk about midnight on great heaths and desert places, which, saith Lavater, “ draw men out of the way, and lead them all night a by-way, or quite bar them of their way;" these have several names in several places; we commonly call them Pucks. In the deserts of Lop in Asia, such illusions of walking spirits are often perceived, as you may read in M. Paulus the Venetian his travels ; If one lose his company by chance, these devils will call him by his name, and counterfeit voices of his companions to seduce him. Hieronym Pauli in his book of the hills of Spain, relates of a great mount in Cantabria, where such spectrums are to be seen ; Lavater and Cicogna have variety of examples of spirits and walking devils in this kind. Sometimes they sit by the highway side, to give men falls, and make their horses stumble and start as they ride, if you will believe the relation of that holy man Ketellus in Nubrigensis, that had an especial grace to see devils, Gratiam divinitus collatam, and talk with them, Et impavidus cum spiritibus sermonem miscere, without offence, and if a man curse or spur his horse for stumbling, they do heartily rejoice at it; with many such pretty feats.

The Anatomy of Melancholy.


IF princes would do justice, judges be upright, clergymen truly devout, and so live as they teach, if great men would not be so insolent, if soldiers would quietly defend us, the poor would be patient, rich men would be liberal and humble, citizens honest, magistrates meek, superiors would give good example, subjects peaceable, young men would stand in awe : if parents would be kind to their children, and they again obedient to their parents, brethren agree amongst themselves, enemies be reconciled, servants trusty to their masters, virgins chaste, wives modest, husbands would be loving and less jealous : If we could imitate Christ and his Apostles, live after God's laws, these mischiefs would not so frequently happen amongst us ; but being most part so irreconcileable as we are, perverse, proud, insolent, factious and malicious, prone to contention, anger and revenge, of such fiery spirits, so captious, impious, irreligious, so opposite to virtue, void of grace, how should it otherwise be ? Many men are very testy by nature, apt to mistake, apt to quarrel, apt to provoke and misinterpret to the worst, everything that is said or done, and thereupon heap unto their selves a great deal of trouble, and disquietness to others, smatterers in other men's matters, tale-bearers, whisperers, liars, they cannot speak in season, or hold their tongues when they should, Et suam partem itidem tacere, cum aliena est oratio : they will speak more than comes to their shares, in all companies, and by those bad courses accumulate much evil to their own souls, qui contendit, sibi convicium facit, their life is a perpetual brawl, they snarl like so many dogs, with their wives, children, servants, neighbours, and all the rest of their friends, they can agree with nobody. But to such as are judicious, meek, submiss, and quiet, these matters are easily remedied : they will forbear upon all such occasions, neglect, contemn, or take no notice of them, dissemble, or wisely turn it off. If it be a natural impediment, as a red nose, squint eyes, crooked legs, or any such imperfection, infirmity, disgrace, reproach, the best way is to speak of it first thyself, and so thou shalt surely take away all occasions from others to jest at, or contemn, that they may perceive thee to be careless of it. Vatinius was wont to scoff at his own deformed feet, to prevent his enemies' obloquies and sarcasms in that kind ; or else by prevention, as Cotys king of Thrace, that brake a company of fine glasses presented to him, with his own hands, lest he should be overmuch moved when they were broken by chance. And sometimes again, so that it be discreetly and moderately done, it shall not be amiss to make resistance, to take down such a saucy companion, no better means to vindicate himself to purchase final peace : for he that suffers himself to be ridden, or through pusillanimity or sottishness will let every man baffle him, shall be a common laughing stock to flout at. As a cur that goes through a village, if he clap his tail between his legs, and run away, every cur will insult over him : but if he bristle up himself, and stand to it, give but a counter-snarl, there's not a dog dares meddle with him : much is in a man's courage and discreet carriage of himself.

The Anatomy of Melancholy.


P. 34, l. 2. Foliots, stated below to be Italian, but connected apparently with Fr. follets, pucks, will-o'-the wisps : Trulli, the Scandinavian trolls.

P. 35, 1. 19. Telchines, of Rhodes and other places, a tribe or family of half divine or superhuman attributes, to whom Greek mythology assigns attributes not unlike those of trolls and brownies.

P. 37, 1. 20. Lop, i.e. Lob Nor, north of Thibet.
P. 37, 1. 22. M. Paulus, better recognized, perhaps, as Marco Polo.

P. 38, 1. 3. The poor would be. This must not be mistaken for a consequence. It and the other clauses in the same case are part of the hypothesis, if" being alternately dropped and inserted at the writer's pleasure.

P. 39, l. 3. Vatinius. Both the later or Neronian Vatinius and Casar's friend, of whom it was said, per consulatum pejerat, were ill favoured in person. I am not certain to which this story refers. Cotys again was the name of at least four kings of Thrace.


Edward Herbert, elder brother of the poet George, was

born at Montgomery Castle in 1581. He was educated at Oxford, travelled much abroad with some romantic adventures, and was raised to the peerage for diplomatic services. He died at London in 1648. His theological writings have caused him to be rather loosely styled the first English deist: his autobiography is curious and characteristic of the time.



Formatrix which formed my eyes, ears, and other senses, did not intend them for that dark and noisome place, but as being conscious of a better life, made them as fitting organs to apprehend and perceive those things which should occur in this world : so I believe since my coming into this world my soul hath formed or produced certain faculties which are almost as useless for this life, as the above-named senses were for the mother's womb; and these faculties are Hope, Faith, Love, and Joy, since they never rest or fix upon any transitory or perishing object in this world, as extending themselves to something further than can be here given, and indeed acquiesce only in the perfect, eternal, and infinite. I confess they are of some use here, yet I appeal to every body whether any worldly felicity did so satisfy their hope here, that they did not wish and hope for something more excellent, or whether they had ever that faith in their own wisdom, or in the help of man, that they were not constrained to have recourse to some diviner and superior power, than they could find on earth, to relieve them in their

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