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the school itself is called a play, or game ; and all letters are so best taught to scholars. They should not be affrighted, or deterred in their entry, but drawn on with exercise and emulation. A youth should not be made to hate study, before he know the causes to love it ; or taste the bitterness before the sweet ; but called on, and allured, entreated, and praised : yea, when he deserves it not. For which cause I wish them sent to the best school, and a public; which I think the best. Your Lordship I fear hardly hears of that, as willing to breed them in your eye, and at home ; and doubting their manners may be corrupted abroad. They are in more danger in your own family, among ill servants, allowing they be safe in their schoolmaster, than amongst a thousand boys, however immodest : would we did not spoil our own children, and overthrow their manners ourselves by too much indulgence ! To breed them at home is to breed them in a shade, where in a school they have the light and heat of the sun. They are used and accustomed to things and men.
When they come forth into the common wealth, they find nothing new, or to seek. They have made their friendships and aids, some to last till their age. They hear what is commanded to others, as well as themselves; much approved, much corrected ; all which they
1 bring to their own store and use ; and learn as much as they hear. Eloquence would be but a poor thing, if we should only converse with singulars; speak but man and man together. Therefore I like no private breeding. I would send them where their industry should be daily increased by praise, and that kindled by emulation. It is a good thing to inflame the mind. And though ambition itself be a vice, it is often the cause of great virtue. Give me that wit, whom praise excites, glory puts on, or disgrace grieves : be is to be nourished with ambition, pricked forward with honour, checked with reprehension, and never to be suspected of sloth. Though he be given to play, it is a sign of spirit and liveliness ; so there be a mean had of their sports and relaxations. And from the rod or ferule I would have them free, as from the menace of them ; for it is both deformed and servile.
For a man to write well, there are required three necessaries. To read the best authors, observe the best speakers : and much exercise of his own style. In style to consider, what ought to be written; and after what manner. He must first think and excogitate his matter; then choose his words, and examine the weight of either. Then take care in placing, and ranking both matter, and words, that the composition be comely ; and to do this with diligence, and often. No matter how slow the style be at first, so it be laboured, and accurate ; seek the best, and be not glad of the forward conceits, or first words that offer themselves to us, but judge of what we invent, and order what we approve. Repeat often what we have formerly written ; which beside that it helps the consequence, and makes the juncture better, it quickens the heat of imagination, that often cools in the time of setting down, and gives it new strength, as if it grew lustier by the going back. As we see in the contention of leaping, they jump farthest that fetch their race largest : or, as in throwing a dart or javelin, we force back our arms to make our loose the stronger. Yet, if we have a fair gale of wind, I forbid not the steering out of our sail, so the favour of the gale deceive us not. For all that we invent doth please us in the conception or birth ; else we would never set it down. But the safest is to return to our judgment, and handle over again those things, the easiness of which might make them justly suspected. So did the best writers in their beginnings; they imposed upon themselves care, and industry. They did nothing rashly. They obtained first to write well, and then custom made it easy and a habit. By little and little, their matter showed itself to them more plentifully; their words answered, their composition fol. lowed ; and all, as in a well ordered family, presented itself in the place. So that the sum of all is : ready writing makes not good writing; but good writing brings on ready writing. Yet when we think we have got the faculty, it is even then good to resist it ; as to give a horse a check sometimes with bit, which doth not so much stop his course, as stir his mettle. Again, whether a man's genius is best able to reach thither, it should more and more contend, lift and dilate itself, as men of low stature raise themselves on their toes, and so oft times get even, if not eminent. Besides, as it is fit for grown and able writers to stand of themselves, and work with their own strength, to trust and endeavour by their own faculties ; so it is fit for the beginner, and learner, to study others, and the best. For the mind and memory are more sharply exercised in comprehending another man's things than our own; and such as accustom themselves, and are familiar with the best authors, shall ever and anon find somewhat of them in themselves, and in the expression of their minds, even when they feel it not, be able to utter something like theirs, which hath an authority above their own. Nay, sometimes it is the reward of a man's study, the praise of quoting another man fitly : and though a man be more prone and able for one kind of writing than another, yet he must exercise all. For as in an instrument, so in style, there must be a harmony and consent of parts.
Timber, or Discoveries, made upon
Men and Matter.
P. 30, l. 2. To —"as to,” to be construed with "opinion,” not“ touching: "
P. 30, l. 5. Resolution, explanation or answer, a sense neglected in modern English, though " resolve" retains it as a verb. P.
30, 1 11. Compositions “constitutions." P. 31, 1. 9. "Hardly hears of.” To translate this sense of audio we now chiefly use " listen to," though oddly enough" hear of " maintains its use with the auxiliary “will not" and "would not."
P. 32, l. 4. To do. Notice the way in which Jonson varies between imperative and infinitive, according to his classical models. P.
32, 1. 10. Consequence. Sequence” is now more exact to the sense. P. 32,
1. 17. Steering out of our sails, shaking the reefs out, setting full sail.
Robert Burton was born at Lindley in Leicestershire
in 1576, and died at Oxford in 1640. The Anatomy of Melancholy by Democritus Junior appeared in 1621. It has been constantly pillaged, sometimes imitated, never equalled. Burton held preferment in the Church, and lived all his days at Oxford. That his melancholy or his conceit as an astrologer induced him to shorten his life is a mere legend
Satyrs, Wood nymphs, Foliots, Fairies, Robin Goodfellows, Trulli, etc. which as they are most conversant with men, so they do them most harm. Some think it was they alone that kept the heathen people in awe of old, and had so many idols and temples erected to them. Of this range was Dagon amongst the Philistines, Bel amongst the Babylonians, Astarte amongst the Sidonians, Baal amongst the Samaritans, Isis and Osiris amongst the Egyptians, etc. Some put our fairies into this rank, which have been in former times adored with much superstition, with sweeping their houses, and setting of a pail of clean water, good victuals, and the like, and then they should not be pinched, but find money in their shoes, and be fortunate in their enterprizes. These are they that dance on heaths and greens, as Lavater thinks with Tritemius, and as Olaus Magnus adds, leave that green circle, which we commonly find in plain fields, which others hold to proceed from a meteor falling, or some accidental rankness of the ground, so Nature sports herself; they are sometimes seen by old women and children. Hierom. Pauli. in
his description of the city of Bercino in Spain, relates how they have been familiarly seen near that town, about fountains and hills ; Nonnunquam, saith Tritemius, in sua latibula montium simpliciores homines ducant, stupenda mirantibus ostentes miracula, nolarum sonitus, spectacula, etc. Giraldus Cambrensis, gives instance in a monk of Wales that was so deluded. Paracelsus reckons up many places in Germany, where they do usually walk in little coats some two foot long. A bigger kind there is of them, called with us Hobgoblins, and Robin Goodfellows, that would in those superstitious times grind corn for a mess of milk, cut wood, or do any manner of drudgery work. They would mend old irons in those Æolian Isles of Lipara, in former ages, and have been often seen and heard. Tholosanus calls them Trullos and Getulos, and saith, that in his days they were common in many places of France. Dithmarus Bleshenius in his description of Iceland, reports for a certainty, that almost in every family they have yet some such familiar spirits; and Felix Malleolus in his book De Crudel. Dæmon. affirms as much, that these Trolli, or Telchines, are very common in Norway, “and seen to do drudgery work ;” to draw water, saith Wierus lib. 1. cap. 22., dress meat, or any such thing. Another sort of these there are, which frequent forlorn houses, which the Italians call Foliots, most part innoxious, Cardan holds ; “They will make strange noises in the night, howl sometimes pitifully, and then laugh again, cause great flame and sudden lights, fling stones, rattle chains, shave men, open doors, and shut them, Aling down platters, stools, chests, sometime appear in the likeness of hares, crows, black dogs, etc.” of which read Pet. Thyræus the Jesuit in his Tract, de locis infestis, part i et cap. 4. who will have them to be devils, or the souls of damned men that seek revenge, or else souls out of Purgatory that seek ease ; for such examples peruse Sigismundus Scheretzius lib. de spectris, part 1. C. 1. which he saith he took out of Luther most part; there be many instances. Plinius Secundus remembers such a house at Athens, which Athenodorus the Philosopher hired, which no man durst inhabit for fear of devils. Austin de Civ. Dei. lib. 22. cap. 1. relates as much of Hesperius the Tribune's house at Zubeda near their city of Hippo, vexed with evil