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with drawing, tho other parts with giving, being also pleasant for the pastime, which exercise by the judgment of the best physicians is most allowable."
"By shooting also is the mind honestly exercised, where a man always desireth to be best, and that by the same way, that virtue itself doth, coveting to come nighest a most perfect end, or mean standing betwixt two extremes, eschewing sport, or gone [too far) on either side, for which causes Aristotle him. self saith, that shooting and virtue be very like. Moreover that shooting of all others, is the most honest pastime, and that least occasion to naughtiness is joined with it, two things do very plainly prove, which be, as a man would say, the tutors and overseers to shooting; daylight and open place where every man doth come, the maintainers and keepers of shooting from all unhonest doing."
Philologus urges, that if scholars must have pastime and recreation for their minds, "let them use music and playing on instruments, as more seemly for scholars, and most regarded always of Apollo and the Muses.” Toxophilus adds, eren as I can not deny but some music is for learning, so I trust you can not choose but grant that shooting is fit also, as Callemarchas does signify in this verse.
“Bath merry song and good shootiny delighteth Apollo." He then proceeds to criticise the effect of music on the those who devote much time to it, as being much more suitable to women than men. Philologus. however, dwells on the humanizing influence on the manners which would fol. low, if the whole people were taught to sing and enjoy good music, and also on the uses which lawyers and preachers would find in a proper culture of the voice. He therefore concludes that as singing is an aid to good speaking, and to making men better, “as daily experience doth teach, the example of wise men doth allow, authority of learned men doth approve," it should be part of the education and pastime of every youth. But as for shooting, he can not think that a man can be in earnest in it, and earnest at his book to."
In defending his favorite pastime, Toxophilus grants that shooting should be "a waiter upon learning, not a mistress over it.” “A pastime must be wholesome, and equal for every part of the body, pleasant, and full of courage for the mind, not vile and dishonest to give ill example to other men, not kept in gardens and corners, not lurking into the night and in holes, but evermore in the face of men."
In the above views expressed by Toxophilus, Ascham is sustained by the Rer. Dr. Thomas Fuller, who in his Holy State expresses himself in this quaint way. “Recreation is a second creation, when weariness hath almost annihilated one's spirits. It is the breathing of the soul, which otherwise would be stifled with continual business.
"Take heed of boisterous and over-violent exercises. Ringing has often. times made good music on the bells, and put men's bodies out of tune, so that by over-heating themselves, they have rung their own passing bells.
" Refresh that part of thyself which is most wearied. If thy life be sedentary, exercise thy body; if stirring and active, recreate thy mind. But take heed of cozening thy mind, in setting to a double task, under pretense of giving it a play.day, as in the labyrinth of chess and other tedious and studious games.
" Yet recreations distasteful to some dispositions, relish best to others. Fishing with an angle is to some rather a torture than a pleasure, to stand an hour as mute as a fish they mean to take. Yet herewithal Dr. Whitaker was much delighted. When some noblemen had gotten William Cecil. Lord Burleigh and
the Treasurer of England, to ride with them a hunting, and the sport began to be cold, ' what call you this ?' said the Treasurer. "O, now,' said they, 'the dogs are at fault.' 'Yea,' quoth the Treasurer, 'take me again in such a fault, and I'll give you leave to punish me.' Thus as soon may the same meat please all palates, as the same sports suit all dispositions.
* Running, leaping, and dancing, the descants on the plain song of walking, are all excellent exercises. And yet those are best recreations, which beside refreshing, enable, at least dispose men to some other good ends. Bowling teaches men's hands and eyes mathematics, and the rules of proportion; swimming hath saved many a man's life, when himself hath been both the waves and the ship; tilting and fencing is war without anger; and manly sports are the grammar of military performance.
“But above all, shooting is a noble recreation, and a half liberal art. A rich man told a poor man that he walked to get a stomach for his meat.
· And I,' said the poor man, 'walk to get meat for my stomach.' Now shooting would have fitted both their turns; it provides food when men are hungry, and helps digestion when they are full.
Recreation, rightly taken, shall both strengthen labor, and sweeten rest, and we may expect God's blessing and protection on us in following them, as well as in doing our work; for he that saith grace for his meat, in it also prays God to bless the sauce unto him. As for those that will not take lawful pleasure, I am afraid they will take unlawful pleasure, and by lacing themselves too hard, grow awry on one side."
We have confined our notice of Toxophilus to the description of archery as a recreation. The book is full of maxims of profound practical wisdom, of exquisitely touched pictures of manners, and of delightful tributes to learning. The discourse concludes in this manner:
Tox.—This communication handled of me, Philogue, as I know well not perfectly, yet as I suppose truly, you must take in good worth, wherein, if divers things do not altogether please you, thank yourself, which would rather have me faulte in mere folly, to take that thing in hand, which I was not able to per. form, than by any honest shamefacedness with-saye your request and mind, which I know well I have not satisfied. But yet I will think this labor of mine better bestowed, if to-morrow, or some other day when you have leisure, you will spend as much time with me here in this same place, in entreating the question, de origine animæ, and the joining of it with the body that I may know how far Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoicans, have waded in it.
Phil.-How you have handled this matter, Toxophile, I may not tell you myself now, but for your gentleness and good will toward learning and shooting, I will be content to show you any pleasure whensoever you will; now the sun is down, therefore if it please you, we will go home and drink in my chamber, and then I will tell you plainly what I think of this communication, and also what day we will appoint, at your request, for the other matter to meet here again.
V. EDUCATION.-THE CULTIVATION OF THE EXPRESSIVE FACULTIES.
Lectures addressed to Young Teachers.
BY WILLIAM RUSSELL, OF LANCASTER, MASS.
Ed. American Journal of Education, (Boston,) 1826—29.
INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS.—The classification of the mental faculties under the designations of "perceptive," " expressive," and "reflective," was adopted in the preceding lecture of this series, as a convenient one for a survey of the human mind, with reference to the purposes of education. This classification, it was mentioned, could not be regarded as founded on lines of distinction which could be assumed as rigorously or literally exact ; since its terms are properly but so many names for various states, acts, or operations of the mind, itself one and the same in all.
Imperfect as such a classification must necessarily be, however, it enables us, by its distinctions, to trace more clearly and definitely the forms of mental action, and the power which the mind possesses of exerting itself in different modes; and it affords to the educator, when contemplating the intellectual capabilities of man with reference to the processes and effects of culture, the advantages of analysis and systematic examination, as aids to the prosecution of his inquiries.
Following the order of nature and of fact, when we trace the succession of action in the exercise of man's intellectual powers, as these are designated in the classification which we have adopted, we observe that, in the mature and deliberate use of the mental faculties, the habitual and normal succession is, (1.) Observation, (2.) Reflection, (3.) Erpression. In the immature and susceptible condition of childhood and youth, however, the spontaneous activity and development of the communicative tendencies of the mind cause the action of the expressive faculties to precede that of the reflective; and to this law the order of education will properly correspond.
The perfect action and discipline of the power of expression, require, no doubt, all the aid derived from the maturity of reason and reflection, and, consequently, an advanced stage of intellectual culture. But, in the history of man's mental progress, under the guidance of Datural laws, the educator perceives and recognizes in the young mind, an early necessity of utterance, or of expression in some form, as one of the divinely implanted instincts by which it is actuated, and which therefore becomes an indication to be obeyed in the plan and progress of culture.
The phenomena of the external world irresistibly impel the child to utter the emotions which they excite; and the judicious educator will always encourage the young observer to record them, long before the era of experience in which they become subjects of reflective thought or profound cogitation. To give consistency and effect, however, to the forms of expression, whether for purposes of record or of discipline,-a certain degree of progress must have been attained in the exercise and development not only of the perceptive, but also of the reflective faculties;-a result inseparable, indeed, -as was mentioned in the preceding lecture--from the right direction of the perceptive powers themselves. In this and in every other attempt to trace the order of mental development, we are always brought back to the grand primal truth that the mind is properly one, in all its action ; we are reminded that this great fact is the basis of all true culture, and that the different intellectual faculties, as we term them, are but the varied phases or modes of action of the same subtle power.
As an introduction, accordingly, to the discussion of the principles which regulate the cultivation of the expressive faculties, as a departinent of intellectual education, our last lecture followed, to some extent, the necessary connection existing between the discipline of the perceptive faculties and the primary action of the reflective. With this preliminary preparation, we will now proceed, on the plan indicated in the first lecture of this series, to the study of the various forms of mental action which, in the figurative language unavoidable in all intellectual analysis and classification, may be termed the erpressive faculties.
The plan proposed embraced, it will be recollected, the following prominent features :-(1.) an enumeration of each group of faculties, by its modes, or forms, of action ; (2.) the actuating principle, or impelling force, of each group; (3.) the tendency, or habit, of action in each; (4.) the result, or issue, of such action; (5.) the educational processes, forms of exercise, or modes of culture, suggested by the four preceding considerations. Following the order here mentioned, we commence with the
(I.) ENUMERATION OF THE EXPRESSIVE FACULTIES. These may be grouped under the following designations : -Emotion, Imagination, Fancy, Imitation, Personation, Representation, Lan
Erplanatory Remark.-To ascertain, with precision, what powers
or attributes of the human being should be regarded as properly comprehended under the above denomination, the educator would do well, here as elsewhere, to advert to the primitive signification of the term which is employed to designate the class of faculties to which it is applied. At every step of his progress in the study of man as a being capable of systematic development, the teacher finds a guiding light perpetually emanating from the primary sense of the terms which constitute the nomenclature of intellectual philosophy, in its
nalysis of the human faculties. These terms are often highly figurative, and hence peculiarly suggestive with reference whether to distinctness of classification, or to purposes of culture and development. In no case does this remark apply more forcibly than in the present. The term “expression,” (pressing out,) implies, in the first instance, the existence of something within, which, under the action of a force, working whether from within or from without, is pressed out, and thus rendered external, palpable, or perceptible.
Referring this term to the phenomena of human experience, we derive, from its primary and figurative sense, the inference, or implication, that man is endued with the power of giving an external manifestation to his internal conditions of thought or feeling. The form of this manifestation may be that of attitudes and actions of the body, changes in the aspect of the countenance, effects on the tones of the voice, or efforts in the organs of articulation, and modifications of the accents of speech; it may appear in imitative acts, in suggestive graphic delineations, or in intelligible written characters. But in all cases, it is the representative expression (pressing out,) of what has been impressed, or is present, within.—The inward working may be that of a feeling, an affection, an emotion, or a passion : it may be that of an impressive idea, or of a thought, an opinion, or a sentiment. But the result is invariably an outward effect, audible or visible.
Whatever power or faculty, therefore, has an agency in the process of thus giving an external manifestation to an internal mental condition, will be appropriately comprehended under the designation "expressive;" and the classification will be exhaustive and complete, if it include all those mental states, acts, or operations which give form to thought or feeling. The preceding enumeration of the expressive faculties, however, is intended to present only those which are prominently active in the ordinary conditions of humanity, and which are the principal subjects of disciplinary training, in the processes of education.
1. EMOTION: its Offices in Expression.--Emotion is the natural language of that sensibility which tends to render man conscious of
No. 8.-(VOL. III. No. 1.1-4.