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CORRESPONDING DUTCH VERBS.

1. Bied,
bood,

geboden.
2. Buig,
boog,

gebogen.
3. Kies,
koos,

gekozen.
4. Klief,
kloof,

gekloven.
5. Vlie,
7. Vlieg,
vloog,

gevlogen.
6. Vliet,
vloot,

gevloten.
8. Vries,
vroor,

gevroren.
10. Lieg,
loog,

gelogen.
11. Zied,
zood,

gezoden.
12. Schouw,
13. Stroij,
14. Zuip,
zoop,

gezopen.
15.
tog,

getogen. CONJUGATION VII. This conjugation includes verbs which have, or rather originally had, a reduplication in the past tense, and whose root terminates with a vowel.

The English verbs belonging to this conjugation are 1. blow, 2. crow, 3. know, 4. mow,

6.

sow, 7. throw, 8. For the verification of this statement, we must go back to the older Teutonic dialects.

5. snow,

CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERBS.

past indic.

Pres. indic

past partic. 5.

whence deriv. snaivs. 6. Saia,

saiso,

saians. 8. Vaia, vaivo, vaians, whence deriv. vinds. This type or model of the seventh conjugation in Gothic is perfectly regular. The reduplication of the past tense is in full vigor, and the root ends with the vowel i.

CORRESPONDING ANGLO-SAXON VERB8.

crawen.

cnawen.

mawen.

1. Blawe, bleow, blawen.
2. Crawe, creow,
3. Cnawe, cneow,
4. Mawe, meow,
5, Spawe,

(besnieved,) whence deriv. snaw. 6. Sawe,

seow,

sawen, whence deriv, sæd.
7. Thrawe, threow, thrawen.
8.

whence deriv, wind. These verbs are entirely regular. The root ends with w, and the reduplication has disappeared.

ENGLISH VERBS.

crew, obs.

1. Blow, blew,

blown. 2. Crow,

(crowed.) 3. Know, knew,

known. 4. Mow, mew, in north of Eng. mown. 5. Snow, snew, in north of Eng. (snowed,) whence deriv. snow. 6. Sow,

sew, in north of Eng. sown, whence deriv, seed. 7. Throw, threw,

thrown. 8.

-whence deriv. wind. Some obsolete and provincial forms are here given, because they aid our purpose.

A beautiful analogy is here seen in English. The Anglo-Saxon aw passes into ow; and Anglo-Saxon cow into ew.

CORRESPONDING GERMAN VERBS.

1. Blähe, 2. krähe, 4. mähe, 5. schneie, whence deriv. schnee, 6. säe, whence deriv. saat, 7. drehe, 8. wehe.

The roots for the most part in German end in h, instead of i or w; but the strong inflection is entirely lost.

CORRESPONDING DUTCHI VERBS,

1. Bloey, (to blossom,) 2. kraay, 4. maay, 5. sneeuw, whence deriv. sneeuw, 6. zaay, whence deriv, zaad, 7. draay, 8. waay, whence deriv. wind, all with weak inflection.

CORRESPONDING LATIN VERBS.
1. Flo, flare, flavi.
2. Crocio, comp. Gr. xpugu.
3. Nosco, noscere, novi; comp. Gr. yıyvúorw, yváow.
4. Meto, comp. Gr. duco.
5. Nivo, whence deriv. nix, nivis; comp. Gr. vipw.
6. Sero, serere, sevi, whence deriv. semen.

7. Veho, vehere, vexi ; whence deriv, ventus. The analogy of these verbs with the Teutonic is quite remarkable.

CONJUGATION VIII. This conjugation includes verbs which have, or rather originally had, a reduplication in the past tense, and whose root terminates in a before two consonants.

The English rerbs belonging to this conjugation are 1. fall, 2. 3. fold, 4. hang, 5. hold.

CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERBS,

past indic.

Pres. indic. b 2. Faha, a 3. Faltha, b 4. Haha, a 5. Ilalda,

faifah, faifalth, haihah, haihald,

past partic. fabans. falthans. hahans. haldans.

The verbs marked a are perfectly regular. Those marked i have lost the double consonant in the present tense. The reduplication of the past tense is complete in all the verbs.

CORRESPONDING ANGLO-SAXON VERBS.

a 1. Fealle,

feoll,

gefeallen. b 2. Fo,

feng,

fangen. a 3. Fealde,

feold,

gefealden. 6 4. Ho,

heng,

hangen. a 5. Healde,

heold,

healden. The reduplication has disappeared. The verbs marked a are reg. ular, and those marked b are slightly irregular, as in the Gothic.

[blocks in formation]

1. Fall,
fell,

fallen.
2. whence deriv. fang and finger.
3. Fold,
(folded,)

(folded.)
4. Hang,
hung,

hung.
5. Hold,
held,

holden. The English verbs follow no uniform analogy. The verb hold appears to be the regular form.

CORRESPONDING GERMAN VERBS.

1. Falle,
fiel,

gefallen.
2. Fange,
fieng,

gefangen.
3. Falte,
fielt,

gefalten.
4. Hange,
hieng,

gehangen.
5. Halte,
hielt,

gehalten. The reduplication of the past tense has disappeared ; but in other respects this model is much more complete than even the Gothic.

CORRESPONDING DUTCH VERBS.

1. Val,
viel,

gevallen.
2. Vang,
ving,

gevangen.
4. Hang,
hing,

gehangen.
5. Houd,
hield,

gehouden. These verbs are less regular than the German.

CONJUGATION IX. This conjugation exhibits in Gothic a reduplication in the past tense, and in German a long â before a single consonant in the present.

The English verbs with which we are bere concerned are 1. dread, 2. let, 3. sleep.

[blocks in formation]

1. Dread,
(dreaded)

(dreaded.)
2. Let,
(let)

(let.)
3. Sleep,
(slept)

(slept.) This conjugation has entirely disappeared in English.

[blocks in formation]

3. Slepa,
(slept,)

slepen. CONJUGATION X. This conjugation exhibits in Gothic a reduplication in the past tense, and in German ú=aa, (a strengthened by guna,) in the present and participle.

The English verbs with which we are here concerned are, 1. greet, 2. 3. 4. touch.

CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERBS

past indic.

Pres. indic.

past partic.
1. Greta,
gaigrot,

gretans.
2. Fleka,
faiflok,

flekans.
3. Hropja,
(hropida,)

(hropiths.)
4. Teka,
taitok,

tekans. This Gothic conjugation is regular, except that hropja has adopted the weak inflection.

CORRESPONDING ANGLO-SAXON VERBS,

1. Grete,
3. Hrepe,

(grette) hreop,

gretten. hrepen.

ENGLISH VERBS.

1. Greet,
(greeted)

(greeted.)
2.
3.
4. Touch,
(touched)

(touched) This conjugation has entirely disappeared in English.

CORRESPONDING GERMAN VERB8.

1. Grüsse,
3. Rufe,

rief,

gerufen.

CORRESPONDING DUTCH VERBS.

1. Groet,
3. Roep,
riep,

geroepen. Compare in Latin 2. plango, 4. tango, perf. tetigi, with reduplication.

CONJUGATION XI. This conjugation includes verbs which have, or rather originally had, ai (i strengthened by guna,) in all the forms, and a reduplication also in the past tense.

The only verbs in English with which we are here concerned are 1. hight, (in behight) 2. laugh, 3. ---

CORRESPONDING GOTHIC VERBS.

past indic.

Pres. indic.

past partic.
1. Haita,
haihait,

haitans.
2. Laika,
lailaik,

laikans.
3. Skaida,
skaiskaid,

skaidans. The type or model of this conjugation in Gothic is perfect; and the reduplication appears in full vigor.

CORRESPONDING ANGLO-BAXON VERBS.
1. Hate,
het, heton,

haten.
2. Lace,
lec, lecon,

lacen.
3. Sceade,

sceod, sceodon, sceаden. This conjugation is nearly regular in Anglo-Saxon, but the reduplication has disappeared.

ENGLISH VERBS.

1. Behight, obs. behot, obs. hoten, obs. 2. Laugh,

(laughed) (laughed.) 3.

whence deriv. sheathe and shide. Nothing remains of this conjugation in English but the obsolete forms behot and behoten.

CORRESPONDING GERMAN VERBB,

1. Heisse,
2. Lache,
3. Scheide,

schied,

geschieden, whence deriv, scheide.

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