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(m.), meat (f.), or (ni) water (f.)- have never any.-6. I have only (ne 3. I have neither (ni) bread, meat, nor que) bread and water.—7. There water (repeat •nibefore every noun). to have been (y avoir eu): there has -4. Have I had, etc.; had I had, been; there had been (pluperfect); etc. (pluperfect indicative); had I had, there had been (preterit anterior); etc. (preterit anterior); shall I have there will have been; there would had, etc.; should I have had, etc. have been; that there may have been ; [Conjugate the simple tenses of ÊTRE that there might have been. [Learn interrogatively; see Gr. p. 30.]
the verb PUNIR, p. 22.] 9.
12. 1. Du papier, de l'encre et des 1. J'ai BEAUCOUP (much) de* papier, plumes-en avez-vous ? Oui, monsieur, j'en* ai beaucoup, j'en* ai beaucoup DE j'en ai; Non, monsieur, je n'en ai pas.- rayé.—2. J'ai beaucoup (many) de* 2. Des plumes
DE gravures; combien (how many) de * bonnes ? Oui, j'en ai D'excellentes.-3. gravures avez-vous ? J'ai bien des * N'ai-je pas de papier ? N'as-tu pas (many) gravures; que de (how many) d'encre ? N'a-t-il pas de plumes ? gravures ! J'en* ai beaucoup (many); N'avons-nous pas de crayons ? N'avez- j'en ai beaucoup (many) de* coloriées. vous pas tort (avoir tort, to be 9) ? 3. J'ai peu (little) de * papier; j'ai peu Non, monsieur, j'ai raison (avoir raison, ( few) 'de * livres ; j'en* ai peu ; j'ai to be right). N'ont-ils pas tort? Si, quelques (a few) livres ; j'en* ai quelquesmonsieur, ils ont tort. N'avais-je uns (a few).-4. J'ai plus (more) de* pas, etc. ; n'eus-je pas, etc.; n'aurai- papier, plus (more) de* livres ; j'en* ai je pas, etc.; n'aurais-je pas, etc. Mai. plus (more).-5. J'ai moins (less) de* Vendredi. Le printemps. [Conjugate papier ; j'en* ai moins ; j'ai moins the simple tenses of ÊTRE, both nega- (fewer) de* plumes, j'en* ai moins tively and interrogatively, p. 31.]
( fewer).—6 J'ai trop (too much) de*
papier; j'en* ai trop (too much); trop 10.
(too many) de* plumes; j'en* ai trop 1. Some cake, cream, and straw- (too many).-7. J'ai autant (as much) berries have you any? No, sir, I d'*argent que vous ; j'en * ai autant. have none; Yes, sir, I have some.-2. J'ai autant (as many) de* livres que Have you any pears? have you any vous; j'en ai autant (as many).-8. good ones? Yes, sir, I have some very J'ai assez (enough) de* papier, assez good.-3. Y avoir (there to be); il y a (enough) de livres ; j'en* ai assez (there is); il y avait; il y eut; il y (enough).-9. J'ai un, deux, trois, etc. aura; il y aurait ; qu'il y ait (impera- livres; j'en* ai un, deux, trois, etc. tive); qu'il y ait (subjunctive); qu'il (Learn the verb APERCEVOIR, p. 23. ] y eût. Juin. Samedi. L'été. [Learn the verb INVITER, p. 21.]
1. I have much bread; I have much. 11.
2. I have many pears; I have many; 1. I have some money; I have I have many ripe ones.*-3. I have some.-2. I have no money (ne . few oranges, I have few; I have a few pas); I have not any (ne .
pas); I oranges, I have a few, a few more, a have no money at all (ne. point); few good ones,* a few more good ones.* I have none (ne. point). ---3.° I have I have little cake; I have little ; I have a no more (ne plus) money ; I have little cake.-4. He has more good luck some more (encore) money ; I have no (bonheur) than (que de) prudence. You more, I have some more.-4. I have have more horses than I (que moi), but but little (ne . . . guère) money, I (mais) I have more dogs; I have more, have but little more (ne . plus guère) and you have less.-5. He has less money'; I have but little, I have but little
money and fewer friends than you; he more; I have but few (ne . . : guère) has less, he has fewer.-6. Too much pens, I have but few more (ne. cheese— have you too much? Too plus guère) pens; I have but few, I many nuts (noisettes)— have you too have but few more.-5. I have neither many ?–7. He has as much industry (ni) money nor (ni) friends. I have (upplication) as (que) his brother; he uever any (ne. · jamais) mones; I has obtained (obtenu) as many prizes
* Omit this word,
as he (que lui). Has he obtained as or three pencils? A dozen pencils ? many ? Yes, he has.-8. Have you I have one, two, three, etc ; I have paper enough, pens enough? Yes, I a dozen. [Learn the verb VENDRE, have enough.-9. Have you one, two,
GENDER (Gr. p. 5). 14.
Malin 1. What is the GENDER of French
Bellot nouns, articles, adjectives, and pro
Sot nouns? (Gr. p. 5.)—2. What are the
Oblong two ways of expressing the feminine, Vieillot
Gentil as to animate objects ?-3. What is
Bailli(Gr. p. 101, the general rule for the formation of the Nul
note +) Fou or fol
Carme feminine of NOUNS and QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES ?-Give the feminine of Mou or mol
Vieux or vieil • un ami indulgent; un marquis opulent;
Devin (Gr.9 128) Beau or bel
Diacre un voisin obligeant.'—4. Give the feminine of:-(a) un domestique docile;
Jumeau or jumel Dieu le prince; (6) Le cher berger; (c) exigu
Nouveau or nouvel Duc contigu; (d) un heureux époux (doux,
Larron (protecteur, pécheur, pêchear, vengeur,
Pair majeur, mineur, meilleur*),gouverneur,
Roi mortel, cruel, vermeil ; cadet, muet
Canard (complet, incomplet, discret, indiscret,
Chevreuil inquiet, replet, secret, concret).
NUMBER (Gr. p. 6). 16.
initial, aval, cal, pal), combat naval, 1. What is the general rule for the
bâtiment colossal.--3. Give the plural formation of the plural of nouns and
of bijou, caillou, chou, genou, hibou, QUALIFYING adjectives? Give the plu
joujou, pou, cou.—4. Give the plural ral of: Un ami indulgent ; une amie in
of bail, corail, émail, soupirail, tradulgente.—2. Give the plural of: (a)
vail, vantail, vitrail (bétail, ail).Marquis, heureux, nez, marquise, heu
5. Give the two plurals of aïeul, ciel, reuse; (b) tuyau, nouveau, neveu, vou
cil, ail, travail.-6. Give the plural landau, bleu; (c) cheval, royal t
of monsieur, monseigneur, madame, ma(bal, carnaval, régal, chacal, fatal, final,
demoiselle, gentilhomme. THE ENGLISH POSSESSIVE CASE, AND SOME COMPOUND Nouns
(Gr. p. 6). 17.
père.-3. Ce jardin est à ma tante.Translate into English, without 4. Il demeure chez son oncle. [Learn using any preposition :-1. Le livre de the verb ARRIVER, p. 25.] Paul.2. Un des chevaux de mon
* What is the feminine of all words ending in ÉRIEUR, as 'antérieur'? + Translate : The animals are mortal's royal palaces; royal houses.
1. The master's book.-2. This (ce) garden is my father's.-3. One of my (mon) brother's books.-4. My (ma) sister lives at our (notre) aunt's. [Learn the verb INVITER, passive form, p. 26.]
19. O Translate into English, without using any preposition :-1. Un chapeau de paille.—2. Un cheval de bois.—3. Biens l'église.-4. La clef de la porte de la rue.-5. Vin de Bourgogne.—6. Un verre à vin.-7. Cuiller à café.
8. Pincettes à sucre.-9. L'homme à la barbe blanche.—10. La jeune fille aux yeux bleus.-11. L'homme au manteau bleu.–12. Une épée à deux tranchants. [Learn the verb INVITER, reflective form.]
20. 1. A thread (fil) stocking (bas).2. A golden chain.-3. Town-hall. 4. State-prison.-5. Paper-knife.-6. Windmill —7. The fair-haired girl. 8. A double-bedded room. — 9. A double-seated carriage. [Learn the impersonal verb NEIGER, p. 28.]
DEGREES OF COMPARISON (Gr. pp. 6 and 7).
bread, better (adv ) baked (cuit).–5. Translate the words between in- Bad, worse (two ways), the worst (tuo verted commas by a single English word: ways).–6. Small (petit), smaller (two 1. Fort, plus fort,' moins fort, aussi ways, the smallest (two ways).—7. fort.—2. Le plus fort,'mon plus fort,' He works well; he works better; he le moins fort.-3. Bon, meilleur, le works the best of all (de tous).—8. He meilleur. 4. Mauvais, pire, plus works little; he works less; he works mauvais,' le pire, le plus mauvais.'- the least of all.-9. From bad to worse. 5. Petit, moindre, plus petit,' le -10. He is more industrious (laborieux) inoindre, le plus petit.'-6. Bien, than his brother; more learned (inmieux, le mieux.-7. Mal, pis, 'plus struit) than be.-11. He has more mal,' le pis, le plus mal.'-8. Très- wisdom than ambition.-12. He likes bon, bien bon, fort bon. Elle est better to play than to work.-13. There très-attentive, fort laborieuse, et is more honour to die than to surrender. bien sage.-9. ‘Plus grand (tall)' que -14. He is more than half (à moitié) moi (I ).-10. Il a plus d'ambition ruined; he has lost more than two que de sagesse.-11. Ils aimèrent mieux
(deux) hundred thousand francs.—15. mourir
de se rendre.-12. Il a He is as prudent As you.—16. He has perdu plus de cent mille francs; il est as much prudence as courage.-17. plus d'à moitié ruiné.-13. Il est aussi Very much grieved (affligé).-18. He grand que vous.--14. Il a autant de studies very much.-19 He is very modestie que de savoir.–15. J'aime much occupied ; so much occupied ; so autant travailler que de jouer.- [Learn very much occupied ; too much occuthe impersonal verb FALLOIR, p. 28.] pied.—20. He works very much ; so
very much; so much ; too much.--21. 22.
He is as much occupied and works as 1. Fine (beau), finer, the finest ; much as his brother. [Learn the immy finest.-2. Less fine, the least fine. personal verbs IMPORTER and s'AGIR, -3. As fine; not so fine (two ways). p. 28.] 4. Good, better, the best; better (adj.)
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS (Gr. p. 8).
24.* 1. This woman, man, old man, and 1. It is he, it is she, it is you, it is these children.-2. This book and that we; it is they (mr), it is they (F.)pen; these books and those pens.. 2. Is it thou, is it I; is it they (f.)(Learn the impersonal verb Y AVOIR, 3. It is my sister, it is my brother; it and also ÊTRE, used impersonally.] is my cousin. Is it true (two ways) ?
* Let the pupil translate again (vivâ voce) his French translation into English.
-4. Who is it? What is it (two ways)? will be punished; he who will not -5. What (that which) I fear; what listen will be punished; they (f.) who pleases me; what I aim to; what I will not do their task (devoir) will be complain of.–6. That is bad (adj.), punished. [Learn the idiomatic tenses that is bad (adv.); that is well; that formed with Venir and DEVOIR, p. 28.] is nothing.–7. That book-that is mine (le mien).-8. She is a good little
27.* girl, he is a good little boy, they are 1. See these engravings (f.), do you two charming children.
wish to have THIS ONE or THAT ONE;
these are coloured, those are not.--2. 1. Take this and give me that.—2.
Look at these knives (couteaux, m.), What (que) does this mean? Is that
will you have this ONE OR THAT ONE? all? What is that (two ways)? That
these have four blades, those hive only
two.-3. Democr tus and Haraclitus (two ways) annoys me. Learn the idiomatic tenses formed with uller, p. 28.]
were of a very different humour; THE
FORMER was always crying, THE LAT26.*
TER was always laughing.4. Here is, 1. Thatt book, thatt which is on the or this is, my pen, and there is, or that is, chair, that of my brother; this one,t my book. HERE they are, THERE I that one.—2. These pencils, your am; HERE thou art, and THERE we cousin's (those of ), those on the desk. are; HERE he is, and THERE you are, -3. This pen and your sister's; those So it is, or here you are, my dear. on the table.-4. She who will not He who knows how to be contented be attentive will be punished; those with little is always happy (two ways). (m.) who will not know their lessons [See Gr. $ 119, e.] PossessivE ADJECTIVES AND Pronouns (Gr. pp. 8 and 9). 28.*
boulevards are magnificent; I have
visited all its monuments.-8. Good 1. My mother, brother and sisters.
Good -2. My ambition (f.).-3. Thybrother,
morning, sir, madam, miss. sister, and friends.--4. Thy occupa
morning, father, mother, uncle, aunt, tion (f.), thy history (f.).—5. His
brother, sister; where are you, brother? neck, heail, and eyes.-6. Her neck,
here I am, sister (use the poss. adj.). head, and eyes.-7. Its neck, head, and
-9. How is your father? How is eyes.—8. His mother and her father. your mother? How is your sister? -9. His affection; her humanity.–10.
How are your sisters? How is your Our male cousin; cur female cousin.
brother? - 10. A lady, the ladies ; Our male and female cousins.- 11.
this • young lady,' these young ladies;' Your (sing. both gend); your (plur.
a gentleman, these gentlemen. [Learn both gend.).
the verb INVITER conjugated nega12. Their (sing. both gend.); their (plur. both gend.)—13. I
tively, p. 29.] have written it with my own hand. 29.*
1. My horse (cheval, m.), mine; my 1. He washes his hands.-2. Open carriage (voiture, f.), mine; my book your mouth.-3. He warms his feet. (m.) and pen (f.), mine.—2. Thy
have hurt iny hand (two ways). waistcoat (gilet, m.), thine; thy watch 4 His feet are cold.-5. He has the (montre, f.), thine; thy waistcoat and toothache, the headache.-6. He shares watch, thine; thy watch and chain himself.—7. I have been to Paris; itsf (chaîne, f.), thine.--3. His mother, his ;
* See foot-note, p. 292.
† CE is a demonstr. adj. when added to a noun; ce, demonstr. pron. is used either as subject of the verb être or as antecedent of a relative pronoun; celui stands for something determinate, and is used either as antecedent of a relative pronoun or before a preposition. Ce, ceci, cela stand for something vaguely spoken of ; celui, etc., celui-ci, etc., celui-là, etc., stand for something determinate..
| Its and their, relating to inanimate things, are generally rendered by en and the definite article when the possessor and the object possessed are not in the same sentence (see the exceptions, Gr. p. 63, foot-note * I ').
her father, hers; her book and pen, hers; his watch and chain, his. His, her, or its neck-his, hers, or its; his, her, or its head-his, hers, or its ; his, her, or its eyes—his, hers, or its.-4. Our book, ours; our pen, ours; our books and pens, ours; our soldiers (les nôtres) have fought well (se battre). One cannot (on ne peut) be better than among his relations (les siens)-5. Your book, yours; your pen, yours; your books and pens, yours. 6. Their horse, theirs; their carriage (f.), theirs; their horses and carriages, theirs. [Learn the verb INVITER conjugated negatively in the passive form, p. 29.]
31.* 1. The man-servant (domestique), I speak of MINE, of 'THINE, of his, of HERS, of ours, of YOURS, of THEIRS ; the woman-servant, I speak of mine, of thine, etc.; the men-servants, I speak of mine, of thine, etc.; the womenservants, I speak of mine, of thine, etc.
-2. The male cousin (cousin), I speak to mine, to thine, etc.; the female cousin (cousine), I speak to mine, to thine, etc; the male cousins, I speak to mine, to thine, etc.; the female cousins, speak to mine, to thine, etc. [Learn the verb INVITER conjugated negatively in the reflective form.]
32.* 1. These horses and carriages are mine (à moi), thine, bis, bers, ours, yours, theirs. It is not your pen, it is MINE; here is Mine, and there is my brother's.—2. This garden is my father's, and that is mine. Here is my father's garden, and there is MINE.-3. A relation ( parent) OF MINE. This female servant OF YOURS is very active. I have a carriage of my own. [Conjugate the verb avoir in the present and perfect (passé indéfini) indicative, with everyone of the negative adverbial phrases given page 29; as :-Je n'ai pas, Je n'ai point, etc.; Je n'ai pus eu, Je n'ai point eu, etc.]
PersonAL PRONOUNS (Gr. p. 9). 33.*
for them (f.), for themselves (f.). Do 1. I enter (entrer), he sees me, he
they (f.) enter? Do you see them? Do
you speak to them? Is it they ($:)? speaks to me; it is I, for me, for myself. Learn the verb INVITER, conjugated Do I enter? Does he see me? Is it I ? 2. Thou enterest, I see thee, I speak
interrogatively, p. 30.] to thee; it is thou, for thee, for thyself.
34 * Dost thou enter? Does he see thee? Is 1. He blames himself; she blames it thou 2-3. He enters, thou seest him, herself -2. He reproaches to himself ; thou speakest to him; it is he, for him, she reproaches to herself:—3. They for himself. Does he enter? Dost thou (m.) reproach to themselves (m.); they see him? Does he speak to him? Is it (f.) reproach to themselves (f.); they he?–4. She is entering (entre), he sees (m.) reproach to one another (m); they her, he speaks to her; it is she, for her, (f.) reproach to each other (f.).-4. for herself. Does she enter? Dost thou One often only thinks of oneself; everysee her? Does he speak to her? Is it one for oneself.-5. Does he blame she?-5. We enter, she sees us, she himself? Does she blame herself? Does speaks to us; it is we, for ús, for our- he reproach to himself? Does she reselves. Dowe enter? Does he see us? proach to herself?–6. Do you speak of Does he speak to us? Is it we?-6. him, of her, of them? Yes, I speak of You enter, we see you, we speak to him, of her, of them (translate the words you; it is you, for
you, for yourself, for in italics by a single word). I have yourselves. Do you enter? Do we see some of it; I have some of them. I you? Do we speak to you? Is it you ? come from there.—7. Has he any? -7. They (m.) enter, you see them, Does he come from there (one word)? you speak to them; it is they (m.), it -8. Do you trust (vous fiez-rous) to is for them (m.), for themselves (m.). him, to her, to that, to them? Yes, I Do they (m.) enter? Do you see them? trust to him, to her, to that, to them Do you speak to them? Is it they (translate to him, etc. by a single word). (m.)?—8. They (f.) enter, you There is an ugly dog, give it a kick. them, you speak to them; it is they (f.), There is a pretty basket, put flowers