Page images
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

chimney. The chlorides of silver and cop- is added. If any silver remains, a cloud
per are prevented from volatilizing by a will form on the surface of the liquid, and
protective covering of melted borax, and the precipitate will be equivalent to one-
having a lighter specific gravity than the thousandth of a gramme. In this manner
molten gold, they rise to the surface. The the proportion of pure silver in a given
pot is then removed from the fire, the gold weight of alloy is rapidly determined with-
is allowed to “set,” and the chlorides of out weighing the precipitate. So accurate
silver and copper poured into molds. The are these methods that the value of thou-
“king” of gold is then turned out nearly sands of dollars is calculated from the as--
pure, and the silver is reduced in the ordi- say.
nary way. This method was devised by
Prof. Miller, of the Sydney mint, Australia,

[From the Engineer.]
to recover the silver contained in the native

gold of that country (often amounting to as
much as 14 per cent).

Professor Lampadius, Frieberg, concludThe delicate processes of assaying the ed that at a certain low temperature of precious metals were described in detail fusion the metallic impurities present in the and illustrated by actual analyses. The more easily, fusible of metals would sepasample of gold or silver cut from the bar is rate, partially as such and partially as deficarefully weighed upon a balance sensitive nite crystalline compounds, and float in the to the twentieth of a milligramme. The fused mass, from which they could be renormal weight used for gold assay is the moved by filtration. Experiments by him half gramme; this weight is decinially di- in this direction were so far successful that vided down to the ten-thousandth degree. the expected definite compounds were found A weight of pure silver is added, to make upon the filter, but the metallic filtrate was the proportion approximately two parts still

very impure. The filter was made of silver to one part gold. The alloy is enclosed quartz, sand, slag, etc., which was not wet in an envelope of pure lead, melted in small by molten metal. Curter, however, accordbone-ash cupels in the muffie of a furnace. ing to a communication by him, in trying The base metals are converted into ox- to adapt this principle to the purification ides, which, being much more fluid than of Bohemian tin, of a commercial scale, the melted precious metals, sink into the sought for material for a filter which would pores of the cupel. When the button has be wet by the metal to be purified without “ flashed” it is removed from the cupel and being dissolved in it. Iron, with its coinweighed; this gives the proportion of base paratively high temperature of fusion, and metal. The button is then laminated, rolled its affinity for tin, as manifested in the tin

cornet," and boiled in nitric acid, ning of iron, was employed for a filter; 500 The silver entirely dissolves, leaving a roll strips of tinned iron, as thin as paper, about of pure gold. The difference between the six-tenths inches long and one-fourth of an weight of the gold cornet and that of the inch broad, were packed tightly in a square base metal, less the amount of fine silver iron frame by the aid of wedges, and the added, is the proportion of silver originally frame was then luted into a suitable openpresent in the sample. The object of ad- ing in the bottom of a graphic crucible. ding fine silver is because the atoms of gold The tin, melted in a second crucible, was would otherwise cover up and protect the allowed to cool until the separation of fine silver were it not in excess.

crystals on the surface was noticed, and the The fire or "dry” assay is not well adapt thickening metallic mass was then poured ed for silver, owing to its volatility; hence into the filtering crucible, when the still the humid process invented by Gay Lussac, pure metal passed through, and a pasty is employed. This is at once the most magna was left, in which iron, arsenic delicate and accurate process of analysis and copper, concentrated to a great degree, known to chemical science. In order to were found combined with the tin, while obtain a true sample of the metal to be as the filtered tin proved to be almost chemsayed, a small dip” is taken from the ically pure. Fifty hundred weight were melted niass and poured into cold water, purified in the crucible described. Other forming granulations. This is important, forms and other materials for filters are as alloyed silver segregates, on cooling, into suggested, and other possible applications richer and poorer alloys within certain lim- of the method, and in the separation of its. The weighed sample is dissolved in ni- silver from lead containing the former tric acid, and a charge of salt water is ad- metal. ded. The solution is prepared of such a strength that the pipette (holding one Filters for water works may be calculated hundred grammes). shall precipitate one for as follows: 1 square yard of filter for gramme of pure silver. This solution is each 700 gallons in 24 hours, formed of 2 feet. called the normal salt solution.” The bot- ( 6 inches fine sand, then 6 inches common tle is agitated for a few moments to settle sand, 6 inches shells, and lastly 2 feet 6 the precipitate. A decimal salt solution, inches of gravel. Perforated pipes should one-tenth of the strength, and one-hun-be laid in the lowest stratum, to carry off dredth the volume of the normal solution, the supply of filtered water.

into a

The Road.

this the apparatus must be seen at work. But from the above a fair idea may be gained. The lever is situated about ten

inches from the rail and about six inches STEAM STREET CAR TRIALS.

above. It consists of a wooden spring in

semi-circular shape, so attached that a shoe, The trial of the Baldwin motor on the New placed on the locomotive tender, striking ark & Irvington Railroad is stated to have it, presses it down, gives a steady pressure resulted very successfully. The motor used upon the wire, which draws the bolts in the was one of the separate engines, and it was box, on the post, above mentioned, letting employed to draw the ordinary cars in use fall a shaft held in suspension by them. To on the line. The road is over rolling ground, i this shaft is attached a lantern cover, a having three grades on which an extra sign on which the word 'stop' is painted in horse has to be used to assist the two draw large, plain letters, a white flag and a gong. ing the car, and over these grades the en- If the train approaches the crossing in the gine drew without difficulty two cars well daytime, the shoe upon the tender of the loaded with passengers, making as fast time locomotive, traveling over the lever or as was deemed safe or desirable. No defi- spring, works the mechanism in the box a nite figures were published, but the Presi- quarter or a half mile away, as may be dedent of the company stated that it had sired, and instantly a white flag is displayed proved itself to be much more economical from the post and the large, conspicuous than horse power. President Dennis, of the sign “Stop!” comes in view. In the night Newark & Orange Company, witnessed a large lantern is suddenly uncovered, givmost of the trials, and it is said that that ing a brilliant light, and at the same time company will adopt these engines for its a large and loud gong is violently sounded. suburban lines from Newark to Orange and When the train reaches the crossing it Belleville, if the necessary permission from strikes another lever and the whole appathe City Council can be had, of which there ratus is shut up as safely as before." is little doubt. No trouble was experienced in running the engine through crowded streets, horses taking little notice of it. A STEEL-CLAD BULLET-PROOF CAR,

The Third Avenue Railroad Company in A car of this sort has recently been conNew York has applied for leave to make a structed at York, Pa., for the Spanish Gov. trial of steam ca on its road. It purposes ernment, for use in Cuba. The steel slides, to use what it calls the noiseless steam en- which are pierced with loopholes for musgine.”

ketry, and which take the place of win

dows, have been so cunningly planned by THE HAWLEY ENGINE SIGNAL. the painter's skill to resemble the decorated on the New York Central last winter, and The car is :31 feet long, S feet wide, of the

This automatic signal had a partial trial ground-class sometimes used in cars, as to a new trial is now being given to it at a usual height, and is momted on the Penn crossing on the Rochester & State Line Sylvania Railroad standard passenger car road in Rochester, N. Y. It is thus de- truck. Its weight is about 34,000 pounds. scribed by the Rochester Democrut:

No finer work of the kind has ever been * First we find a hollow iron post firmly made. set at the side of the track at the road crossing. At about twenty feet from the ground

A railroad company is trying to persuade is a square box, containing the principal the British Parliament to allow it to run portion of the mechanisin, which consists within 1,700 feet of the famous Cambridge of a cam lever held in its place by two spis observatory. Experience of the kind in ral springs, and which controls two bolts other observatories shows that the delicate governing the signal. From either end of instruments are almost certain to be affectThis box extends a wire, communicatiog ed by earth vibrations, due to passing trains, with a lever by the side of the rail, which and on account of the importance of this can be placed at any desired distance along national observatory and datum point for the track. The manner in which this wire the whole world, the road is likely to be is attached so as to get the proper force, and forced to change its route. at the same time overcome the difficulty of the effects of heat and cold, is very ingenious and one of the most interesting features The two thousandth locomotive was reof the signal. The wire is suspended by cently completed at the London & Northpendulums upon telegraph poles, alterna-western's works at Crewe. The occasion ting with arm wires fastened to the ground was celebrated by giving a holiday and a betwen the poles, allowing a sag of five day's pay to all the workmen, some 6,000 in

Now when the lever is touched the number, and a banquet, which was attendtension at once becomes perfect without ed by the directors of the company, at the strain which would be necessary on a which were exhibited specimens of the difstraight wire. To thoroughly understand ferent classes of engines used on the road.



Now, while the elements of power always exist, it does not follow that the power itself exists. Thus, two things are

absolutely essential to its existence; first, A REVIEW OF THE REPORT OF THE the elements; and second, their combina

MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION- tion. Again, if the power does exist, it is ERS ON THE STRIKE OF THE just as capable for self-destruction as it is BOSTON & MAINE RAILROAD.

for the destruction of that against which it

is designed to operate. Therefore, it is MESSRS. EDITORS: Arising as I have absolutely essential to its continued sucfrom the ranks of labor, unless I were cessful operation against that which it false to my early training and associations, is arrayed, that it should be directed and I must of necessity sympathize with the controlled by a judgment and discretion, sons of toil in their struggles against the which has within itself a strength and continued invasion of their just rights. depth of comprehension equal in degree or But a true exercise of this natural friend- magnitude to the power operated. Thus ship does not, by any manner of means, an army of one hundred thousand men, in consist in encouraging them, by means of the absence of a competent commander, a wholesale, indiscriminate justification of would be powerless for all purposes, other all their acts. It consists in the defense of than self-destruction. And hence the fact, all their rightful acts, coupled with a con- sad but true, that most, if not all, labor or demnation of their errors.

ganizations, large and powerful as they Considering employers and all who sym- have been in point of numbers and in the pathize with them upon the one side, and justice of their cause, while they fought employes and all who sympathize with hard and earnestly for their just rights, them upon the other, they would stand in have battled but to their own destruction. a ratio of about one hundred to one; that The cause of the unjust advantage of emis to say, for every one of the former there ployers over their employes, first arose from would exist about one hundred of the the fact, that while employers were comlatter. Hence, if all else were equal, the bined against them, there was an entire power of the latter, whether physical, want of counter-combination upon the part moral or political, would stand as one hun- of the employes. In this case the naked dred to one in favor of the latter, as power stood against them, because while against the former. Thus stands the mat- they lossessed the elements of much greater ter so far as concerns the naked elements power than did their employers, such power of power. But when we consider the man- did not, as indeed it could not exist in the ner and means by which the powers upon absence of combination. When at last they the one side and upon the other are put in did combine, and in this manner did estal). operation and controlled, how quickly does lish a vast power, having neither sufficient the scene reverse itself, throwing the means, ability or discretion to properly power --one hundred to one -- upon the control so great a power, their able and other side.

ingenious employers turned its operation Now, the cause of this sad result, as wi- upon themselves, and thus reversed, it just as it is unnatural, I propose to con- slaughtered its own creator. sider. An intelligent understanding of this

I only state the naked fact of experience peculiar cause requires a consideration of when I say that all labor organizations the subject from its very bottom; and have been as weak and feeble in the accomtherefore the first thing in order would be plishment of their designed objects, as they a definition of the power itself, together have been strong and powerful in point of with the manner of its creation Power, numbers and in the justice of their cause. in the sense in which it it is here used, may To this the Brotherhood of Locomotive be defined to be the capacity or ability of Engineers as yet forms an exception, but reone set of men to compel obedience on the cent developments do not augur well for part of others to their wishes and desires, their continued legal existence as an operand may, for all purposes inaterial to the ative power of self-protection against the main subject of consideration, be divided wrongs and oppressions of their powerful into moral, political and physical. This employers. Already they are crippled in division is not based upon any inherent two States, and in the absence of the most difference in the power itself, but upon the keen, able and persistent work they will manner and means of its use or operation. cripple them in most, if not all other In either case the elements of the power States. are the same.

The usual and most effective manner by All human power which arises above the which employers turn the power of their power of an individual is created and ob- employes upon themselves, is this: When lained by means of the combination of two their power becomes established, the emor niore individuals for a common purpose. ployers impose upon their employes a most The power thus obtained is great or small, gross and outrageous wrong. This wrong in exact proportion to the number of india naturally spu's them to desperation; under viduals combined.

this condition of things their passion, in



stead of their judgment, holds the reins of strike does occur-that is, when actual war action; a great power put in motion, to be is declared and in existence—it cripples one controlled by the rein of possession, must of the contending parties for the benefit of of necessity run into self-destruction. the other.

The assumption that any action, whether Again they say: “Throughout their inright or wrong, which will prevent the vestigations the members of the Board consummation of a wrong is justifiable, have looked at the question simply in its though very natural, is very false. The public bearings." I will not say this is not end does not always justify the means, and true; but I cannot help suggesting that the two wrongs never equal one right. But recommendations of the Commissioners this is the language of the most cool and are not at all consistent with its correctreflecting judgment, and never the lan- ness. And if it be true, their very next guage of passion.

expression is sadly deficient in expression. A great power, the motion of which is It is this: “With the Boston & Maine Railcontrolled by the dictates of passion, will, road, as such, they (the Commissioners] independent of all else, complete its own have not concerned themselves.” Now, if destruction. A great power, like the one they did not concern themselves with the now under consideration, which, in the na-engineers of the Boston & Maine Railroad, ture of things, is compelled to move beneath why did they not say so. Simply because the hostile frowns of the powers of govern- that would be expressing a glaring falsement-its motion must be controlled by hood; the fact being that their sole purpose more than ordinary judgment and discre- and design was not a discovery of the mistion, or it will form the groundwork, or a chief and a remedy, but a discovery of a pretext for the groundwork, of its legal pretext on which they might suggest legisdestruction. Thus, for example, a very lation hostile to the natural rights of the slight mistake or oversight on the part of engineers. In order to carry out their the Brotherhood on the Boston & Maine purpose and design, notwithstanding their Railroad, viz: their concluding to strike at very able and commanding abilities, they a certain fixed time, without making any were forced to base their conclusions, to provision for running the trains to their say the least, upon doubtful and immaterial schedule destination, has, by reason of the assumptions. These assumptions are genius and most able abilities of the three follows: men to whom the duty was assigned, been First. In case of a strike, the pub erected into the most plausible pretext for the chief sufferers. the passage of legislation hostile and de- Second. The engineers of the Boston & structive to the just, reasonable and natu-Maine Railroad were entirely responsible ral powers of the Brotherhood.

for the public suffering caused by the By way of illustration of the ingenious strike. sophistry by which

the Massachusetts Com- Third. The railroads of Massachusetts missioners reach their conclusions, I will are its arteries. quote and comment upon that portion of Now, in regard to the first, while it is their report wherein they attempt a justifi- true that in all cases of strikes the public cation or an apology for them. They say: suffers more or less, it is equally true that “The Commissioners believe they speak in no case is the public the chief sufferer. within bounds, and say only what it is their In regard to the second, to say the least duty to say, when they express their belief of it, if the Company had ample notice, as that the condition of affairs disclosed in they did have in case of the strike on the our railroad system, as the result of the Boston & Maine Railroad, of the time at strike of the 12th instant, is wholly incom- which the strike would occur, they were patible with the public interest." Now, equally responsible for the public suffering there is nothing more correct than the fact thereby occasioned; and it is manifestly that a strike of any character, or in any unfair to throw the whole blame upon the department of labor, is incompatible with engineers. the public interest. But the fact that this In regard to the third, the fact that is true forms the most scathing criticism of railroads are the arteries of the State in the manner in which the Commissioners no way changes or alters the fact that they performed their most important duty. are private enterprises, owned and operThat the subject of their investigation was ated for private gain; and when the incompatible with the public interest was owners, in furtherance of their private the most forcible reason for them to extend gain, reduce the pay of their operators, their inquiries to its very foundation, and and a strike results, it is purely a private thus discover the original cause of strikes, question, and in no sense, legal or otherand, when discovered, suggest such legisla- wise, in the absence of an actual breach of tion as in their judgment would remove it. the peace, can it be tortured into a public But, instead of doing this, they totally question; and the attempt of the Commisignore the cause, and very correctly assume sioners to do so, by reason of the most bald that strikes will occur; and upon this as- assumption, is too transparent to mislead sumption they recommend legislation, the anybody who does not desire to be misled. effect and purpose of which is this: when a The Commissioners speak very correctly

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

when they say they have not concerned rights and obligations which exist between themselves about the Railroad Company; employer and employe can be rightfully yet it is equally true that they did most and justly adjusted. The law, for the most seriously and effectively concern them- unaccountable reason, while it justly proselves about the engineers. And thus out tects the rights of all other contracting of their own mouth do they prove their parties, by compelling them to deal with investigation to have been a most er parte each other upon equal footing, permits the one, and as such it is neither entitled to parties to the parent of all contracts, viz: respect nor consideration.

the contract of hire, to fix and adjust their When the Commissioners affirm that the terms as best they may; that is to say, it corporations and their employes may en- permits the one to drive the other to the ter into such disputes between themselves wall, as chance affords the one or the other as may seem good to them," they squarely the power to do so. This, and this alone, is and entirely ignore the root and the trunk the evil, all else are but mere results or of the whole question, and their recom- consequences; and all legislation which mendation to lop off some of its branches stops short of the evil itself is far worse (results) cannot only never rise to the dig- than none at all, inasmuch as all legislative nity of a remedy, but must necessarily interference with an evil must, in the result in giving additional vigor to the root nature of things, either cure or aggravate. and growth to the trunk.

If it cannot accomplish the former, it will Inasmuch as the Commissioners have surely accomplish the latter. seen fit to neither attempt nor even pretend The main general premises and the main to stop the disputes which, in the nature of general conclusion of the report is as folthings, must result in strikes, how, in the lows: The Brotherhood of Engineers in face of this they can protect the public this particular instance, viz: the strike on from the suffering which a strike must the Boston & Maine Railroad, made use of necessarily impose upon them, is something their power without a just or sufficient they have seen fit not to explain, and to my cause; therefore they should be by law promind it is entirely beyond the domain of hibited from the further use of their powexplanation.

ers. Now, admitting, for the sake of the This report, although manifestly false, argument, that, in this particular instance, both in its assumptions and conclusions, is the premises are correct-is it fair, just or yet plausible and ingenious; and this is all reasonable to say that, because they used sufficient to move a modern legislature to their power in a single instance without hostile action against the rights of labor. sufficient cause, they should be prohibited And hence, until all labor organizations from using it in case a sufficient cause did can impress upon each and every one of exist! And that sufficient cause for its use their members, in such a manner that, bas, does, and ever will exist is a fact too under no excitement, under no circum- well established for cavil or dispute. stances, or under no condition of things, Had the Commissioners, with a purpose will they forget the following truth, viz: to discover the evil and its remedy, gone to that the powers of government, physical, judi the bottom of the subject of their investicinl and legislative, are in full accord and sym- gation, instead of contining their inquiries pathy with capital; and that, upon the slightest to a particular strike and its cause, they pretext, they will let loose their dogs of war in might have suggested something which, its defense, their continued existence as a with some degree of correctness, might bé defensive power against wrong and oppres- termed a remedy. But what they have sion cannot be reasonably hoped for. So suggested, as will hereinafter clearly aplong as they lose sight of this truth, they pear, is a positive aggravation. And for lose sight of the chain, of the sheet-anchor this purpose I will state the case, as considof their existence. If this required proof, ered by the Commissioners; and then, by the report of the Massachusetts Commis- way of contrast, state the case as it manisioners furnishes abundant evidence. festly should have been considered by the

Now the fundamental fallacy of the re- Commissioners, or anybody else who honport consists in the fact that it wholly ig- estly desires to remedy the evil. nores the main question, and entirely confines itself to a mere consequence. Thus, THE CASE AS CONSIDERED BY THE COMMISwithout even the slightest inquiry as to whether the disputes between employer

First. Was there a sufficient cause for and employe could or could not, in all the strike on the Boston & Maine Railroad? cases, be satisfactorily adjusted, and in the public of this particular strike?

Second. What were the consequences to that way entirely prevent strikes, they say to employer and employe, you may have

Third. What, if any, legislation is necesall the disputes you please; but when you sary to protect the public against future go to war, in order that the public may be injury or inconvenience from a strike? protected, we recommend that the guns of THE CASE AS IT SHOULD HAVE BEEN CONthe employes be spiked.

SIDERED. Now, the original cause of all strikes is First. What are the relations out of the entire absence of any rule by which the ' which strikes originate?





it is iblic that


, as the

at ere

ing stly the


[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »