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transformer of intellectual and generous- What strange infatuation is it that hearted man into all that is despicable! tempts men to drink intoxicating drinks to

Temperance is a virtue that belongs to excess, when facts, reason, nature and the Brotherhood, Odd-Fellows and Masons, religion are continually warning them of and let it be held in everlasting remem- the inevitable train of disaster and evil brance that intemperance is a most fatal attending it. When our senses warn us of and destructive vice. The temptations and the immediate danger of a precipice close delusions of this adversary of our peace, at hand, have we not prudence to avoid it, the treacherous acts by which it flatters us clinging to life as we do with a cowardly from the paths of rectitude, and the syren tenacity? And when physicians demonsong by which it lures us into its foul em- strate to us the deadly poisonous influence braces, surpass all powers of description. of ardent spirits upon the system, and all The cursed, fascinating, fatal charm by experience illustrates the truth, why have which it binds the faculties, captivates the not men sufficient sense and consistency to heart, and perverts and paralyzes the un- forsake the miserable, foolish indulgence derstanding, is a matter of the profoundest of drinking poison? astonishment. Before the danger is discov- Above all, let me urge on those who ered escape is almost hopeless; and as the would bring out and elevate their higher victim floats gently down a smooth and nature to abstain from the use of spirituous delightful current towards the brink of liquors. This bad habit is distinguished tremendous cataracts, he sees no necessity from all others by the ravages it makes on of resisting its force, perceives not its the reason and the intellect. These effects increase, nor reflects that he is approaching are produced to a mournful extent, even the danger. Every moment the power and when drunkenness is escaped. Not a few inclination to resist diminishes, while the men called temperate, and who have called danger is increased. He approaches, per- themselves such, have learned, on abstainceives the dashing, hears the roaring, and ing from the use of ardent spirits, that for feels the trembling; the current is accele- years their minds have been clouded and rated and becomes irresistible.

impaired by moderate drinking, without Does the malady admit of no cure? Is the their suspecting the injury. Multitudes, in calamity inevitable? Can nothing be done city and country, are bereft of half their by the above-mentioned Brothers to pre- intellectual energy by a degree of indulvent this evil? I answer, yes. Let them gence which passes for innocence. administer correction with the hand of Of all the foes of the working-class, this friendship. Let the admonition be honest, is the deadliest. Nothing has done more to faithful and seasonable. They will pardon | keep down this class, to destroy their selfmy encouragement, for it is in the cause of respect, to rob them of their just influence humanity I plead; in the name and in in community, and to render profitless the behalf of suffering virtue, neglected and means of improvement within their reach. abandoned to revel and riot. See the They are under solemn obligations to give father's pride, the mother's joy, snatched their sanction to every effort for its supfrom their embraces, and hurried headlong pression, and they ought to regard it as to an untimely tomb. See the flower of their worst enemy. youth and beauty, shedding its fragrance The most degraded and most wretched and displaying its glory; but ere the dew of human beings is the man who has prachas escaped on the breeze it sickens, withers ticed this vice so long that he curses it, and dies. Here the object of virtuous clings to and pursues it, because he feels affection, there the promise of connubial an evil spirit driving him on, but reaches bliss, this the hope of his country and the it, knowing that it will gnaw his heart and encouragement and consolation of re- make him roll himself in the gutter with ligion-all poisoned by intemperance-all anguish and despair, and yet he says one doomed to a premature and disgraceful more glass to top off with and I am done. death. Look at these--we know they are As for myself, I have seen the effects of facts-and beware.

this terrible evil. I conjure you to join the

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Red Ribbon and carry the emblem upon

THE WATCH. your vesture, and come out like men and MESSRS. EDITORS: Considered simply as let the world know you are on the side of a machine, the watch is in all respects like right, no matter who may point the finger any other where the motive power is transof scorn at you, your wife and children mitted through a system of wheels, pinions, and the authorities by whom you are em- levers, pulleys, cranks, and other mechanployed, will have ten-fold more confidence ical devices, and delivered up at the other in you. Be sober men, and then if any end of the series in work, minus the loss by mishap should befall you, they cannot say friction during its passage. It differs in no you were drunk. I regard the Red Ribbon respect from a mill, lathe, press, or engine, as my family, and so far as I am personal- in the mechanical principles involved, and ly concerned, I should as soon see the flag the same laws of frictional resistance, levof my country (which I fought four years erage, inertia, momentum, atmospheric reto maintain), trailed in the dust as to sur-sistance, lubrication, etc., etc., must be render up my obligation to the temperance complied with in its planning and construcYours truly,

tion, or a defective macbine will be the ANDREW ERWIN. result. If the watch was enlarged to the

dimensions of a cotton mill, errors that MESSRS. EDITORS : Ever since reading escape detection by the most rigid scrutiny the address delivered by the G. C. E, at in its diminutive form would become glarthe Convention of the Brotherhood I have ingly conspicuous. Faulty pitchings in the felt a strong desire to thank him for the wheel-work (or train) that can only be excellent advice it contained, especially in known to exist by their effect upon its regard to keeping the Sabbath. I wonder action in the watch, would in the mill if railroad managers ever think of how transmit the power so fitfully as soon to much comfort they deprive their employes ruin the machinery, if it did not actually and their families, by causing trains to run endanger the structure in which it was on Sunday, thereby necessitating the great- placed; and yet people wonder why watches er number of men in their employ to be at do not run well. An eye-lash among the their respective posts of duty every day in wheels of a watch is a very little thing, the week. But then, again, when I know but it is as effectual in stopping it as a of railway men making their Sunday off hoop-pole would be in stopping a mill, if duty a holiday, and go for an excursion thrust amongst its wheels down the river, and spend the day strolling Engineers are all practical mechanics about from one saloon to another, I do not (or should be), and they ought to have so much wonder that some of their employ- more consideration for the watch as a ers consider them an immoral class of indi- machine that is subject to all the laws of viduals who do not enjoy a Sabbath's rest machinery than they seem to have. They whenever they have an opportunity. No should remember that minuteness in no doubt such conduct is more the result of way lessens imperfections, but rather inthoughtlessness than a willful disposition to creases them (from difficulty in construcdo wrong, and I am sure that many besides tion), and that the fragile nature of the myself unite in thankfulness that our hus- machine commends it to careful and tenbands have a leader who has the courage to der usage rather than such rough treatdenounce Sabbath-breaking, intemperance ment as would almost spoil a monkeyand all other vices which drag a man to wrench. destruction, and who will not allow an I have heard great, manly fellows, with opportunity to pass unimproved to urge the arms of Vulcan and the shoulders of upon the members of the Brotherhood the Atlas, "d-n a watch that wouldn't stand importance of making their influence per that much," when it refused to go, after ceptible in elevating the condition of the being bounced about for a month in the laboring men, and in helping to promote pants' pocket, in company with tobacco“Sobriety, Truth, Justice and Morality.” box, switch-keys, knife, screw.driver, bolt

AN ENGINEER'S WIFE. nuts, etc., whereas they ought to treat it as the very apple of the eye, if any satisfac- action induced by which the oil becomes a tion is expected from its performance. greenish, soapy compound in from eight to They should also, as machinists, know that twelve months, depending probably upon watches ne the same care as larger ma- the character of the oil and brass respecchines, if durability and usefulness are to be tively. Now when the oil at the jeweled desired. An engine may be run without | hole becomes viscid and charged with fine lubrication, the tightening of a key, or the dust (grit), it is harmless as far as wearing turning of a nut; but when it comes in the either the pivot or hole is concerned, for repair-shop, the probabilities are that en- the jewel is too hard to be cut by it, and if quiry will be made as to who has had the it adheres to the pivot it goes harmlessly care of that engine; and it is still more around with it. It is, however, very differprobable that his services will no longer be ent with a brass hole; the grit and soapy required by the Company.

oil adhere to the porous brass hole and it at Like causes will produce like effects, and once becomes a cutting surface, charged similar treatment of a watch, running it with the very material most active for till it refuses to go longer will inevitably abrading purposes (emery and oil), and the necessitate repairs that may astonish the pivot suffers accordingly. The moment owner. “It only needs cleaning," is the this action commences another active eleorder usually given the watch-maker; but ment is added, the minute particles of steel "'dirt” is not what ails it, like tłe neglected that are worn away at once become oxiengine it has worn itself into disorder for dized by the atmosphere (turned to rust), want of lubrication.

and in this condition are even more active At the risk of endangering mine own in cutting than the dust and oil. This red craft by giving information that will, if oxide of iron, as you all know, is largely acted upon, save your watch from injury, used for various polishing purposes under prolong its useful life and cheat the watch the name of “sharp” and “crocus" for maker out of many a'fat job, I will ex-steel, and “rouge” for softer metals, as gold plain, as well as I can, the how and why. and silver, and pivots under these condiMost good watches-those that are suitable tions are cut with great rapidity. Watches for the road, are jeweled, full jeweled as are frequently brought in having run so the seller claims. This, in general, is not long that the owners have a suspicion that true; there are certain pivots which, for something ought to be done. They say prudlential reasons, run in brass boles. "they only want a little fresh oil.” Should These are the pivots of the main wheel, the watch-maker hint that they need cleanthat on which the key is put in winding. If ing it would be regarded as a bid for a job, these holes were jeweled the chances are and be answered by the remark that it is that the carelessness which usually accom impossible, for it has been carried very litpanies wateh-winding would sooner or later tle, has a tight case, etc., etc.; so, to avoid break those jewels, consequently the dim- profitless controversy and the polite intimainished friction of a jeweled hole is sacri- tion of dishonesty, the oil is added as reticed for the greater safety of the brass one. quested and the oxide at the pivots goes on The other brass holes are the two in which grinding with renewed energy, the owner the centre wheel runs; these are also left congratulating himself that he has got his unjeweled for the danger of breakage when watch oiled for nothing, and the watchsetting the hands by the key. All the other maker inwardly smiling at the thought that actions, in a good watch, are jeweled. a close customer has overreached himself. Watch oil, the best and most reliable is re- In those watches where all the holes are fined porpoise oil, will only remain limpid jeweled this cutting of the pivots cannot from eighteen to twenty-four months when take place; in them the oil becomes thickapplied to a steel pivot running in a jewel- ened and tenacious to a degree that finally ed hole. No chemical action takes place stops the watch. It is harmful in the first other than oxidation of the oil (provided case to add fresh oil to the pivots, and useno dust has access to it); but when applied less in the latter unless all the old oil and to a brass hole there is a gradual chemical / dust is first removed by cleaning. Some watches, especially fine ones, are jeweled ers-accidental breakages can always be with "end-stones” that is, the balance staff, repaired by a good workman, but the batthe lever and escape wheel have the ends tering, and filing, and bending, and scratchof the pivots that project through the hole ing of a watch movement by incompetents jewel running against a flat jewel or “end is what brings on an old age that cannot stone,” thus lessening the friction by trans- be rejuvenated by the most skilled doctor. ferring it from the wide shoulder of the MORAL--If you can find him, go for the pivots to their narrower end; when so jew- honest

WATCH-MAKER. eled, the oil is drawn in between the hole CLEVELAND, OHIO. jewel and end stone by capillary attraction, and there remains to harden till some ALLAHABAD, CENT'L INDIA, Oct. 29, 1877. watch maker, more honest and painstaking MESSRS EDITORS: Your letter, dated the than most of his fellows are, takes them 20th of September, reached me by last apart and carefully cleans them out. This mail. I have instructed the editor of the is too often neglected to be done because India Railway Service Gazette (which is the two or three little screws must be taken property of our Society) to send you all the out from each jewel setting, which can then back numbers of the journal for the curbe pushed out, cleaned and replaced. This rent year, I have also requested him to send consumes time, and as the owner has no you a copy every week that you may be idea of its necessity, and has probably taken acquainted with what transpires on railhis watch where it will be done the cheap- ways in this country. I trust to have the est, the watch maker must either neglect to pleasure of receiving your JOURNAL in exdo it or do it at his own expense--and it change. I thank you very much for those must be a very good man who will labor you have already sent. From the reports without pay or thanks or even appreciation, published in this country I gather that for the owner cannot possibly know wheth- your Association has been thrown open to er it has been done or not. There is no all classes of railway employes. This, I trade where the honest, conscientious work- consider a step in the right direction, as it man is so little appreciated and where will give your Union a greater amount of greater opportunities are offered for slight- strength by which you will be better enaing the work entrusted to him. This un-bled to resist the encroachments of sordid doubtedly is the real reason why there are and imperious officials. - I am well aware so few really good workmen; they must do that some consider the interests of all railone of two things, become dishonest them- way servants are not the same; but this is selves or enter into ruinous competition to a great extent an error, for my experiwith those who are so.

ence enables me to affirm that when officials The public have only themselves to thank are desirous of unfairly curtailing the refor this state of things for largely they muneration and privileges of their emrun after the lowest priced labor of this ployes they endeavor to promote a division kind, partly from the universal desire to among the various departments first. The get things at the smallest cost and partly employes in times now rapidly passing through ignorance. With this kind of away have, unfortunately, in many instanwork it is eminently "penny wise and ces fallen into the snare made for them pound foolish."

and considered that as their immediate in The difference in cost between the labor terests were not involved it was quite un of an honest, skillful mechanic and the other necessary for them to take any steps for the kind, does not pay for the risk of having a protection of the interests of others not in good watch ruined in appearance, if it for the same department of the service as tunately escapes being ruined in fact. Nine- themselves. The result has too frequently tenths of the watches that are “worn out” proved disastrous to themselves, for when are the victims of bad workmanship to they in turn have been assailed, they have announce the honest truth, they are spoiled had to rely entirely on their own resources by the watch-makers and not by the own- (frequently inadequate) to extricate themselves from the difficulties they have had to has undue strain put upon it or is injured, oontend against.

all the works immediately come to a dead I may perhaps be charged with indirectly stop; therefore, the owners of watches are accusing the men of selfishness. This would generally particularly careful of them and be wrong. Workingmen, as a rule, possess treat them with delicacy and care. Some strong sympathies, also strong prejudices, chief officials on railroads display, I regret . and when they chance to be badly in- to say, less regard for the various departformed or indifferently educated, it is no ments over which they have control than difficult matter for designing men, auto- they do for the watch they carry in their crats by nature and imperious from design, pocket. Therefore, it bebooves all railway to prey upon the feelings of those employed employes to form one mutual bond, by by them, until sentiments are evoked which which means their interests may be probear the semblance of selfishness.

tected and welfare promoted, then should A separation or division of interests any official place an unjust strain on any among any body of workmen belonging to one department greater than the men could any one particular enterprise, must be at- bear, the entire body, being like the works tended with (to them) lamentably sad re- of a watch, mutually dependent upon each sults. Where there is only the same degree other, would come to a stand-a dead stop. of unity and combination among the vari- It must not be thought, from what I have ous departments of any great industry, as written, that I am an advocate for strikes; there is in the mechanism of a locomotive far from it; I know full well the amount engine, such combination cannot be termed of misery they cause, and therefore, conperfect. If any injury or accident should sider that no means should be left untried happen to one of the pistons or valves or by which they may be avoided; nor must machinery on one side of the engine, that it be considered that I look upon all master's particular side would be paralyzed and use- and employers of labor as tyrants. I know less; some delay would result, but matters there are many good and noble-minded might shortly be arranged (as every com- men who treat their employes with kindpetent engineer is aware) in such a manner ness and consideration, who are ever strivas to enable the locomotive to continue its ing to promote the welfare of, and add to journey and perform its work, although the happiness of, the working classes. Such probably not so rapidly or so efficiently as men merit all the honor that can be bebefore the accident happened. So also stowed upon them, for they recognize the with the employes on a railroad. Should great and important duty of man to his an arbitrary and dogmatic President at- fellow man, ever ready to alleviate suffertempt to injure the men in one department ing, foremost with sound counsel and adof the service, and they were to rebel vice, they are ever ready to listen to the against his treatment, it would, for a time, grievances of those over whom they are derange the system and cause confusion and placed and afford redress, if the complaints delay, but the services of those connected are of a legitimate nature. Alas! such with other departments of the service could men are not numerous, they are in the -and would if there was no perfect com- minority. Too many employers and capbination-be utilized to work the traffic; in italists forget that all capital, all the wealth all probability the work would be less rap- they may control or possess, has been priidly and not so efficiently performed as be- marily won by labor, has been garnered by fore, but still the remedy would suffice until the horny hand of the workingman, whom other arrangements could be made. they desire to grind down and render mis

I consider that any association or combi- erable. Their conduct is too frequently nation of railroad employes to prove truly inhuman. God knows--what autocratic beneficial to their interests must include all officials either do not know or willfully departments; they should be like tte mech- close their eyes to—that the bright spots in anism of a watch, mutually dependent one the workingman's existence are few in on the other. Every one knows that if any number, and even these they often endeavor one of the pieces which compose a watch 'to deprive him of.

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