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proved by statistical evidence from excep- palling result of their stupidity, impiously tional sources.

arraigned the Almighty for producing eleThe expense of power to propel the dead ments to destroy property, and cause huweight of the modern locomotive, is, in it- manity to shudder at his atrocity. self no insignificant item; just what the ex- Let us now examine the long run” syspense of this waste of power amounts to, Item adopted, and from the vast array of will leave to the scientific corps to demon- figures made by the order of the Motive strate, being myself satisfied to show the Power Manager of Locomotive Performplainer sums of loss. There are 15,000 ance, if cannot successfully locomotives in this country; each of whose prove that long runs are not in the interests gross weight, as compared with engines in of economy; and by using their published the same service twenty-five years ago, will tables of mileage and cost per mile run, I average an increase of ten tons-equal to certainly cannot be accused of exaggera150,000 tons, which, at the present price of tion. Of fifteen railways that run their merchantable iron would amount to 9,000- machinery 150 miles (or more) per continu000 of dollars, or about one-fourth of one ous trip, the average mileage for the year per cent interest on the entire bond and 1877, per engine, was less than 29,000 miles, stock indebtedness of all the railways in at an average cost per mile run, of 17.87 America.

cents; while upon the same number of Think of it, sorrowing investors in Amer- roads that ran their engines 100 miles (or ican railway securities, and charge it up less) per continuous trip, the mileage was to the stupidity of managers. Again, the in" 31,000 miles per engine, at an average cost of creased weight of motive power has neces- 16.02 cents per mile. I have before me the sitated the replacing of the then sufficiently table of locomotive performance of a railheavy track bars of fifty-four pounds per way only fifty miles in length, for each yard, by those weighing not less than sixty month of the year 877, and the total milepounds per yard, which is equal to 844,800 age of eight engines was 258,600 miles, or tons, costing $53,792,000, which amount 32,325 miles each, at a cost of 10.88 cents per would pay an interest of seven-eighths of mile; and this total cost includes all charges one per cent. on the total bond and stock for repairs, fuel, oil, waste, and wages of indebtedness of all our railways. Note this, engineer, fireman, wipers and watchmen, indigent shareholders, and ere we leave the and superintendence; and during the year subject let us see if we cannot illuminate one of these engines underwent extraordiyour darkened understanding and deter- nary repairs in the shops of a connecting mine the cause of the non-productiveness road, which of course charged a profit beof your investments.

yond the actual cost, and the other seven This increased dead weight has also engines were so closely watched, any stitch caused the renewal of bridges and trestles in time taken, that they were all in actual with a heavier and more expensive class, better running repairs at the expiration of the cost of which I have not sufficient data the year than at the beginning. On this upon which to submit an estimate, but all road the wages of engineers was $3.50 per will agree that it is of no inconsiderable day, while connecting roads paid $4.00 per amount, and notable instances are recorded, day for longer runs; and yet, on the short that certain bridges, which, when erected road those men netted better wages than were regarded as perfectly reliable and suf their long run brethren, for the reason that ficiently strong to endure the strain of light- they were not compelled to pay from fifty er machinery, have failed under the weight cents to seventy-five cents per day away of the monster modern machine, burying be- from home, as was the case with the $4.00 neath their ruins hundreds of thousands of men. If any farther testimony is needed, dollars of shareholders' property, and hurl. I would refer the managers to their own ing to their death the living freight they tabular statements, which show that the hud promised a safe transport; and mana- greatest mileage made by their own engers, when called upon to witness this ap- gines was by those that were used on short

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runs between the cities and suburban sta- not the direct result of fast running. tions; and that the expense of repairs was Faulty construction of bridges--or if perless upon these engines than upon those fect in design and workmanship, when the making the long runs. The cause of this timbers had become rotted by age, or the result is found to be, that the short-run en iron crystallized by repeated blows and gines are more frequently examined and the action of weather--rotten and worththe stitch in time taken that prevented what less cross-ties, insufficient rail-joint supwould inevitably lead to more expensive ports – worn-out frogs, and misplaced repairs if neglected,

guard-rails, had nothing to do with it--fast The principal reasons given by the advo- running was the only cause; every expecates of the long run system, that it is in dient that science and cunning could dethe interest of economy, are: first, saving vise has been resorted to, to detect trainof time in frequent changing of engines; men in fast running. Spies have been and second, that short runs necessitate placed upon trains--agents and telegraph the frequent drawing of fires-consequent operators have been placed under surveilwaste of fuel-and that boilers and por- lance-superintendents and road-masters tions of the machinery are injured, their have hidden away in some deserted outvitality weakened, and durability de- building, under bridges, behind trees--lain creased, by frequent cooling off and heat-prove upon their backs behind a log-to ing up-the result of too rapid contraction detect train-men and punish them for exand expansion of metals. No intelligent ceeding the schedule rate of speed; and engineer will say that this is not true, in latterly an ingenious device, known as a view of the manner in which engines on "speed-recorder," bas been adopted by short roads are usually handled; but they Managers, to assist them in locating and believe these serious objections can be en- punishing the guilty operatives who insist, tirely overcome by proper management at times, in stretching the rate prescribed. and care. To sum up in this branch of the Every locomotive engineer knows that subject, I desire to submit the following to slow speed has necessitated the reduction all whom it may concern:

of the number of cars and tonnage hauled A great many locomotives purchased by each engine, increased the consumpduring the war cost $50,000; that is, the tion of fuel, and increased the expense of manufacturers' price was $30,000, and they maintenance of way by the excessive use were paid in bonds at forty per cent. dis- of sand in keeping trains moving upon count. Hence it would seem to be advisa- inclines at slow speed, and increased the ble, if actuated by the spirit of true econ- expense of transportation by reducing the omy, that these expensive, perishable in-number of cars per train. vestments be made to earn as much as Having endeavored to show the disadpossible during their natural period of vantages and increased expense of slow usefulness. Do the Managers contend that speed so far as it relates to the locomotive, they had this in view when they adopted let us call attention to the effects of the the "slow speed system"? By slow speed I system upon the freight car department. mean the very slow rate indicated by time It is estimated that there are 375,000 schedules for freight trains on the trunk freight-carrying cars used upon our raillines, which is about nine miles per hour, / ways, and it is well known that only about including stops, for ordinary freight trains. one-third of this number are kept in mo

The slow speed system has been adopted tion--the other two-thirds being detained or forced upon the managements by the along the lines, on sidings, held in reserve, theoretical conclusions of the hereinbefore or at warehouses and stations, being loaded mentioned scientific corps, who never lose or unloaded at the convenience of the an opportunity to utter or reiterate their shipper or consignee-no effort being made stereotyped objections to high speed; and to hurry the process or keep the cars in in their judginent there has never been an motion. The advocates of the slow speed accident or derailment of a train that was system contend that the maintenance of




any speed exceeding twelve miles an hour ous but criminally reckless; and the records is attended with increased cost of transpor- of the appalling accidents to passenger tation, and a much slower method would trains, and the de-railment of freight produce economical results,

trains furnish abundant evidence that a Let us convict them out of their own large proportion of accidents have occurred mouths. The Superintendent of one of the only when the permanent way was unsound best managed and most successful "Special and unsafe for the passage of trains; and it Freight Lines" says that during the year is a fallacy born of scientific ignorance, 1877, with 700 cars in their line, they trans- that high speed increases the liability to acported a greater tonnage, at greater net cident, or that damage to superstructure is profit, than did the managers of the lines more positive. over which these special cars ran, with 2200 There are circumstances, however, when

the lamination of rails and bridges is inHow did you accomplish this result, Mr. creased by high speed. These conditions Superintendent? Simply, sir, by securing are frequent, and is the basis of the argufast schedule rates, and employing good ment of the Engineer Corps. I refer to agents at generous salaries, to keep our cars the too common and altogether wanton moving. Again, said the President of an- | neglect of trucks that carry ordinary other special line: “We made a greater freight cars-trucks with wheels attached mileage and tonnage with 900 special cars whose periphery will approach a true cirat fast speed, than did the managers of cle about as nearly as does the boundarylines over which our cars ran, with 2700 line of the State of New Hampshire, and in cars.” What system have you, sir, that whose construction there has not been any enables you to obtain so much better re- provision made to relieve the repeated sults than ordinarily shown by railway blows of a flat wheel by introducing in its managers? “We keep our cars moving at proper place some kind of a yielding the highest speed that we can get the man- spring. These conditions will, beyond a agers to accord us;" and to add the most question, contribute to the expense of mainconclusive and silencing argument against taining permanent way, and will successslow speed, is the published fact, that the fully destroy track. This unsafe condition only lines of freight in this country that of tracks is the result of neglect by those earned a revenue for the owners during the persons chosen to care for the car departpast year were the fast freight lines. As ment, and it is a marvel that these destruc. suming that with the present dilatory and tive and defective cars are allowed to move shambling manner of handling freights, along the lines at any speed. In no other and the execrable eight mile an hour sys-country but enlightened, scientific America. tem; that it requires 375,000 cars to do the would such dangerous rolling stock be perfreight carrying trade of the country, a mitted to be used. well managed system of handling and an Here, again, the system adopted of diincreased speed to eighteen or twenty | viding the general care of properties into miles per hour, would reduce the number several departments, is bearing annual of cars to about 150,000, which, at an aver-evidence of an unwise policy. cost of $500 each, would amount to about The chief of each department is com$113,000,000, or three per cent. interest on manded by the manager to exercise the the total stock and bond indebtedness of utmost economy in the expenditures of his. American railways. Under certain ex- department. They are not required to pressed conditions, slow speed is not only in have in view the general welfare of the the interests of economy, but an imperative corporation they serve-their talents must necessity. These conditions exist when be exercised in devising means to cheapen the department controlled by the scientific the cost of the property they have in corps has been badly managed; when the charge, and with this single idea constantly permanent way is in such dilapidated con- before them, they care but little how much dition that high speed is not only danger-they increase the expense of other depart

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ments, being content to show economy in

their own.
The Superintendent of Motive

Power is pleased with a system that per-

ALBANY, March 17, 1878.
mits him to rate the power of his machinery MESSRS, EDITORS: I have often been re-
vastly below its capacity. He would be de-quested by those in authority to write an
lighted if his charge could run over the article for the JOURNAL; and as each
road, make a large figure in mileage and month I peruse its contents, I think I will.
haul nothing but empty cabooses. The But the question arises, what shall I write
amount the power earns he has nothing to about? I know no more of the working of
do with-earnings do not come within the an engine than I do of politics; and as I am
scope of his jurisdiction. He points with not strong minded, or in other words, do
a degree of pride consistent with the native not belong to the order of woman's rights,
modesty of his class, to increased mileage I give myself little trouble about public
and decreased cost per mile run, but not matters, except a desire that some time jus-
one of them can tell you how much the tice may be done to all; and to hasten this
power earned during the month. The millennium, pay my taxes regularly.
Master of Car Repairs knows that flat Now, there is one thing I do know, and
wheels, rigid, unyielding trucks, are dam- that is, every true woman loves a pleasant
aging to superstructure, yet he is willing home and pretty garden. To make our
that the engineering department should gardens pretty we spend hours at hard
suffer if it will lighten the expense of his work in the Spring over our seedlings,
charge. His side of the account is increas bulbs and slips, and as soon as the garden
ed whether the car earns a dollar or not, is in order, we begin to arrange for our
and he cannot tell you how much a single winter plants; we rest all that have bloomed
car in his department has earned in a given in the winter, and bring forward those that
time. The Division Superintendent ex have rested; and now, here comes what all
pends a great deal of talent in engineering this is about. A few weeks ago I read in a
â crippled or dangerous car over and off Sunday paper, that a Kentucky lady (I
from his division, and his sigh of relief think it was) had learned that more than
resounds like the breaking up of the one Calla could be obtained from the same
mighty deep, when his responsibility is at leaf by removing the first lily as soon as it
rest and the destructive element is trans-begins to fade. When I read this I deter-
ferred to some other division. The Mana- mined to try it, as mine was then in bud;
ger sees his line crowded with freights that so I watched as anxiously for it to fade as
he knows scarcely pay the cost of trans- I had done for it to bloom; at length it be-
portation, he sees cars pounding and gan to fade, and I followed directions,
wabbling over the road, destroying the which were: “Draw the old flower stalk
permanent way, he pensively reflects upon down gently to the ground and cut it off,
the grand success of his system and con- and in a few days another bud will show
soles himself with a monthly statement of itself and grow rapidly." It did soon show
increased tonnage. The Chief Engineer itself, and now the second lily from one
sees that all of these elements of misman- leaf is ready to open, not quite as large as
agement have conspired against his de- the first, but a good sized lily.
partment, and he sounds the hewgag and I love to help along, as Mr. Vick once
beats the tom-tom of "Slow Speed” with said, that very respectable class who have
renewed vigor. Thus we recognize the fine tastes but little money. In these days of
damaging results of heavy machinery, long small pay and retrenchment we may grat-
runs and slow speed, which may be classi- ify our tastes with little expense. We can
fied as follows: The first may be charged all have an ivy, a few geraniums, fuchsias,
to scientific ignorance, the second to stu- a calla, with some ferns and autumn leaves
pid mismanagement, and the last to a to beautify our homes with in winter.
combination of both the others.

Please give this a little corner in the OCCASIONAL. JOURNAL, for I know that engineers' wives read the JOURNAL, and perhaps they will

CARSON, NEV., March 18, 1878. give us their experience and experiments

MESSRS EDITORS: In looking over the in this pleasant labor, and so encourage a Conductor's Magazine for March, I saw a love for the beautiful.

R. A. G.

letter over the signature of a Mr. Kilpat

rick, who claims to be a conductor, and if THE OLD LOG HOUSE.

he had not made the assertion that he had

charge of the train and all the men employThe old log house with jutting logs, Its walls are crumbling down,

ed on it, including the engineer, I should The moss grows thick on the broken roof

have come to the conclusion that Mr. Kilo To vail decay's grim frown.

patrick ran his train without an engineer,

but as he acknowledges there is such a perAnd green about the blackened logs

son connected with his train, I would ask The dainty lichens cling,

him what the engineer is doing while he is Like memories within my heart Oi life's eventful spring.

over-taxing his mind making mental calcu

lations as to where he is going to meet the It seems but yesterday, to me,

next train. From the language that Mr. Since through its open door

Kilpatrick uses the public would probably The morning-glories played

infer that the engineer is only a tool in the With their shadows on the floor;

hands of the conductor; but we know to the And bare feet pattered in and out,

contrary, from the fact that we have spent And busy lips called mother,

about twenty-seven years of our life in the That sweetest word of childish tongue, service of railroad companies, about five She first, then one another

years of this time as conductor, and inany At night all nestled in the loft,

years as engineer, and think we bave some Where hen-like the low roof covered

knowledge of the duties and responsibiliWe slept, while through seant shingle feathers ties of these two classes of men. In the first Of dainty frost down pothered.

place it is generally necessary to have a

conductor and engineer on each train, from Then when the summer turns again,

the fact that there is more work than one Like lover after parting, To kiss the weeping earth anew,

man can do and properly protect the safety That kiss, love's magic, darting

of the company's property. The conductor

has charge of the train and the engineer is Through ev'ry grief-chilled shrunken vein subject to his orders so far as stopping, Transtigures earth, with joy atlame,

starting, switching, and disposing of his 'Twas then the oak trees bending o'er

train is concerned, but the engineer is exTo list sweet words that came

pected to carry a watch and time-table and Up through the blue ethereal vail

conform to the rules and regulations thereSummer folded round his love,

in, and should he violate those rules or Showered brown fruitage on the roof

commit any act unfitting him for his place, Like pattering feet of many a dove.

he is responsible to his employers, and not And roar of the mighty forest

to the conductor. We admit, that should Was the only anthem heard,

the engineer attempt to violate any of the And dainty little operus

rules in regard to the safety of the train it By some sweet-throated bird ;

is the conductor's duty to check him. With ever ready chorus

Should the conductor order the engineer to In tender minor keys

do anything in violation of the rules or By myriad insect voices

jeopardize the safety of life or the compaThat roge and fell like the breeze,

ny's property, he (the engineer), would be Ah, memories of the log house,

held equally responsible with the conductor. My soul thrills with delight;

As I said before, in most cases it is necesWould God they'd but return to me,

sary to have a conductor on a train, and My childhood's faith to-night.

two heads are better than one, but in cases MRS. J. V. MURCH. where only one is needed the conductor is

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