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supports 64 inches apart, and was broken oxid of iron, nickel and cobalt, which at the first trial with a lead ball of 3 lbs. 10 satisfied him of the existence of a cosmical ozs. weight falling on its center from a dust, falling imperceptibly and continuheight of two feet. A piece of the same ally. dimensions, which had been toughened, In 1875 and 1876, Gaston Tissandier and was then tried without alteration of cir- M. Young independently collected dust cumstances. The lead ball of 3 lbs. 10 ozs, from the towers of cathedrals and other was dropped upon the center of this plate elevated places, which they subjected to from a height of 2 feet without effect, and chemical and microscopical examinations. afterward from an increased height up to By means of a magnet they discovered 20 feet without effect.
small spherical corpuscles with a slight
roughness, which made many of them [From the Engineering.)
somewhat bottle-shaped, resembling in ap
pearance iron which has been reduced to COSMICAL DUST.
an impalpable powder and burnt in a The attention of modern physicists has hydrogen flame. been directed to the particles of dust which M. Young also collected snow at Monare at all times foating in the air. Many treux, Les Avants, Hospice of St. Bernard, of them come from the soil, but some are ! and Channossal, being careful to avoid the characterized by a special chemical com- | lower layers, which might have been position and form, which show that they stained by vegetable debris. The residues have reached us from the interplanetary from the evaporation of the several samspaces.
ples were first dissolved in distilled water, In 1825, Brandes examined, during a which separated the chloride; then in puré number of successive months, the chemical chlorhydric acid, which showed no trace substances contained in the rain-water near of iron, Chemical reagents showed the Salzuffen, in Germany. He found various presence of iron in each of the residues, organic and mineral substances, among and there were often irregular particles which oxid of iron was especially note which were attracted by the magnet. He worthy.
found none of the characteristic globules, In 1851, M. Barral, in a series of analyses but M. Tissandier found them in the sediof the rain-water collected at the Paris ment of some snow which his brother Observatory, distilled 5.57 liters of water, collected on the side of Mont Blanc, at the which gave him a dry, yellowish residuum, Col-des-Fours, at a height of two thousand, weighing 183 milligrammes, a portion of seven hundred and ten meters. which was insoluble in water, alcohol or M. Young proposes to continue his obserether. Its solution in aqua regia gave all vations on a larger scale. He feels justified the reactions of iron.
already in affirming that the interplanetary The idea of attributing these minute spaces are not destitute of solid materials, particles of iron to a fall of cosmical dust but they contain very minute metallic parseems first to have occurred to Ehrenberg. ticles; that those particles, when drawn After analyzing numerous specimens of into our atmosphere, play an important dust which had fallen upon vessels at Malta part in the dispersion of light, as Tyndall and in the Indian Ocean, he at first sup
has shown by his experiments; that they posed that they were of African origin; belp to explain the luminous trains of but noticing their difference from any of bolides and the peculiar spectra of the the African sands in color, the great geo- aurora borealis; and that these microscopic graphical distances which they must have aerolites, by their daily arrival, must intraveled, according to his firsť hypothesis, crease the earth's mass, so as to afford an and the amount of oxid of iron which they explanation, as M. Ch. Dufour has shown, contained, he broached the theory that of the moon's secular acceleration. they had fallen from the upper layers of
He closes his paper with the following the atmosphere.
conclusions: This hypothesis was adopted and ex- 1. That iron exists in all the dust which tended by M. Nordenskjold. In a letter to has been accumulated in church towers by M. Dubree, Sept. 9, 1872, be mentions find the winds of ages. ing, in a careful analysis of snow, soot-like 2. That this iron, floating in the atmosparticles, containing organic matter and phere, is trapped in its fall by the snow, in minute pellets of metallic iron. Thinking which it is always found. that this dust might possibly have come 3. That its globular form indicates that from the chimneys of Stockholm, he re- it has been raised to a high temperature. quested his brother, who lived in a remote 4. That facts tend to prove its celestial part of Finland, to collect and send him origin. some snow, in which he found particles of 5. That it plays an important part in the the same description. In 1873 and 1874 he physics of the globe; but that science, in repeated his observations at Spitzbergen, order to fully understand it, should seek to , and on the glacier of Inlandis, in the inte estimate the phenomenon quantitatively, rior of Greenland, finding magnetic iron, i and study it in its variations.
is from 6 to 10 per cent. of the total operating expenses; so that a saving of 30 per cent. in that item would, in round numbers,
amount to from two to three per cent, of (From the Railroad Gazette.]
the whole expenses
Such figures as these often make very litTHE ECONOMY OF FUEL.
tle impression, since a railroad manager The London Engineer recently contained quite naturally says this is not worth savan editorial in which some comparisons ing, because in doing so an equal amount were made between English and American must be expended for the improvements on locomotives, and among others of the rela- the engines, for the cost of keeping account tive amount of fuel which each burns. It of the fuel, and for the maintenance of the was stated that in 1875 the "goods" engines requisite facilities for handling it. Thus it on the United Railroads of New Jersey would be a very easy matter, on a small burned nearly twice as much coal “as sui- road, the operating expenses of which fices the North British Railway Company amounted to $100,000 per year, to expend for working the exceptionally heavy road two or three thousand dollars, in locomobetween Edinburgh and Carlisle."
tives, wages to fuel agents, maintenance of A correspondent of the same paper, Mr. fuel stations, etc. The same thing is true J. E. Clanchy, who signs himself “ Late of roads which expend annually a half milEngineer First Section San Paulo Rio de lion, or one or two millions for operating Janeiro Narrow Gauge Railroad," in a let- expenses, for the saving in such cases of ten ter on the same subject published in the or fifteen, twenty or thirty, forty or sixty issue of Jan. 25, says: “On the Itu & Jun- thousand dollars could easily be squandered diahy metre-gauge line a Baldwin engine in the effort to save it, with the disadvan. and one from the Avonside Engine Workstage, too, that in the latter case more clerical have worked alternately under the same force and more complication of accounts conditions for some time, and naturally ex- | would result from such efforts at economy; cited much interest as to their relative still, notwithstanding the fact that most power; yet in the matter of fuel alone there practical and experienced managers are inhas been a saving of 30 per cent. in the ciined to this view, yet we are disposed to English engine."
think that if the right kind of effort were Now, if these statements are true, or made by the right kind of men, the risk of rather if English engines can be made to spending more than is saved could be elimdo the same work with 30 per cent. less inated, and that it could be shown in adfuel than American engines consume, it is vance whether certain measures would pay a matter of the most vital importance to or not; for, after all, that is the test which railroad managers and railroad owners in must be applied to any improvements which this country. It will, however, be difficult, are made. we fear, to induce them to give the subject Attention has been called in these pages serious consideration, owing to the fact that a number of times to the importance of they are so accustomed to hear extrava- keeping account of the fuel consumed by ganit estimates of what can be accomplished all the engines and of the work done by by inventors and inventions, that such each. This is done on some roads, but still statements generally have very little influ- it is far from being general or even comence on their minds. But in this case the mon, It is objected by many that to do statements are not made by inventors, nor this it is necessary not only to increase the is there any invention whose merits are be-clerical force, but to add materially to the ing extolled.
National prejudice might force required to handle the fuel, and that have some influence on the conclusions to be able to measure or weigh it a considreached, and have led to some partiality, erable outlay is required to provide the but it is to be feared that railroad man- necessary means for doing this. Besides, agers who snap their fingers at such state- to determine the amount of fuel consumed ments, if subjected to a cross examination, without knowing how much work is done would be compelled to admit that they makes the record almost useless for purhave not the necessary information con- poses of comparison. To keep a record of cerning the consumption of fuel, on their the latter there is only one effectual way, own lines, to be able to make an intelligent which is to keep an account of the car milecomparison. This being the case, the ques- age, the expense of which is apt to alarm tion comes up whether it is wise to make a those high in authority. Now admitting general denial without any evidence to sus- that the objections to incurring these extain such an opinion. Whether the state- penses are valid, although it is not believed ments made by the Engineer are true or not, that they are, it is still hardly wise to turn we will not undertake to show at present, a deaf ear to such statements as those made but the point to which attention is directed by the editor and the correspondent of the is the fact that very many railroad man. Engineer. If English engineers have the agers do not know whether their locomo- secret of making locomotives which burn tives are burning 30 per cent. more coal 30 per cent. less fuel than those made here, than they should or not. The cost of fuel 'locomotive-builders and master mechanics should not rest until the secret is revealed, exceed the limits imposed by physical conand until our locomotives are made to do as ditions." well as those built abroad. We are not English engineers, however, avail theminclined to admit unreservedly that the dif- selves of one great advantage in the design ference in the consumption of fuel in Eng of their locomotives that has been almost lish and American engines indicated in the entirely disregarded here. The frames of Engineer really exists, without some more American locomotives are usually from exact data obtained under conditions of three to four inches wide, and extend the working and supervision alike for both whole length of the machine. Consequently classes of engines, but still the statements the fire-box must be confined in width to referred to are sufficiently suggestive to in the available space between the frames, dicate that it would be judicious to test the which on a 4 ft. 872 in. gauge seldom exmerits of some of the features in which ceeds 43 or 44 inches. The outside of the English locomotive construction and work-fire-box is therefore only about 35,5 inches ing differs most from ours, even if this were wide, whereas, in English engines, whose not desirable without such suggestions. Be- plate frames are from 24 to 1'4 inches fore doing this, however, it might be well thick, the fire-boxes are from 42 to 44 to point out that the smallest consumption inches wide inside, and therefore the grates of fuel, say per car per mile, may not in have about 25 per centmore area than the end be the most economical. Thus in those of American engines of the same some experiments, a report of which will be length. It must also be kept in mind that found on page 450 of the “Catechism of the the weight of a wide fire-box is very Locomotive," the consumption of coal with little if at all greater than that of the nara train of 31 cars was 1.12 lbs. per car per row one, because the side plates of the latmile, whereas with 41 cars it was 1.21 lbs., or ter must be contracted in order to bring a little over 7 per cent. more in the one case the fire-box within the limits of the space than in the other; but it must be kept in between the frames. Therefore the other mind that the wages of the engineer and fire portion of the boiler may be made heavier, man alone cost as much as the fuel, and that and consequently have more heating surin the one case they do over 33% per cent, face. more work than in the other, so that the The wide fire-box has also another advancost of hauling the cars in the heavy train, tage, from the fact that it is nearly square, although the consumption of fuel was 7 per and therefore the heat evolved during the cent. greater, really resulted in a saving of process of combustion is not conducted over 26 per cent. on the cost of fuel, owing away so rapidly, and therefore higher temto the greater amount of work done by the peratures and a more perfect combustion locomotive runner and fireman. If the are attainable. If a fire box is long and wages of other train hands and other train narrow, the heat is conducted away from expenses were taken into account, it would the fire 'very rapidly, and it is conceivable make the amount saved still greater. For that it might be made so narrow that the this reason the tendency in American prac- fire would not burn at all, especially with tice has, of late years especially, been to anthracite coal. The object to be aimed at construct locomotives so as to haul the in a locomotive is to retain the heat in the largest possible trains, without much regard fire during the process of combustion, and to the economy of fuel, because, by doing then expose it to as much surface as possithis more money could be saved in the train ble afterwards, so as to transmit it to the expenses (chiefly the wages of the men) than water. The first end, it is thought, is acin the cost of fuel. Now to haul a heavy complished better by a wide fire-box than train it is necessary to burn a large amount with a narrow one, and the last by a large of fuel, and to do this a large fire-box and amount of heating surface. In both of grate are needed. Therefore it will be these features the English engine is superior found that generally in American practice, to the American type. Nevertheless, these the fire-boxes of locomotives are made advantages are attained by a form of conlonger than those of English engines. Their struction which is in many ways inconveweight being in proportion to their length, nient, and which affords less facilities for the other portions of the boiler must be re- making repairs than the American plan duced in size, so that usually the grates does. With the frames and fire-box conhere are larger and the heating surface structed on the English plan the springs smaller than in locomotives built on the must be placed below the frames, and there other side, of the Atlantic, thus reversing is not sufficient room for the equalizing the axiom of Mr. D. K. Clark that “prac- beams on the sides of the fire-box. Nevertically, there can never be too much heating theless, the advantages to be gained by this surface, as regards economical evaporation, method of construction are sufficiently but there may be too little; and that, on great to merit the attention of American the contrary, there may be too much grate master mechanics. While it would be great area for economical evaporation, but there folly to close our eyes to any advantages cannot be too little, so long as the required / which the English designs have over ours, rate of combustion per square foot does not yet in making comparisons like those in
The Engineer, the fuel consumption should
AUSTIN, MINN., March 31, 1878. under any given conditions at the least to
MESSRS EDITORS: We can hardly nake tal cost is the most economic engine for that special purpose, even though its con- ourselves believe it, when we see the names sumption of fuel is greater than that of of some of our oldest, and, as we thought, some other engine which is not capable of most tried and true members, on the black hauling so heavy a train. At the same time in attempting to accomplish the one last in the past three months or more. The end we should not lose sight of the other. terrible ordeal is past. This subject is, however, larger than the
Optimism is prevalent with most of the amount of space which can now be devoted to it, and therefore we will be obliged to Brothers in our yet noble order, and it return to it hereafter.
shall reign supreme, but we cannot help ex
pressing surprise and sorrow as we read A RAILROAD VELOCIPEDE. the names of some of our expelled memThe Golden (Colorado) Globe, tells the bers in our last JOURNALS, men whom we following little story: " Mr. Johnson, a have met in convention time and again, traveling musician, being in Garland, Colo- and Brothers whom we always looked to for rado, and anxious to depart, manufactured a railroad velocipede with which he pro
advice. These same expelled Brothers were poses to travel into Texas. Having become the strongest advocates of right and justice, possessed of two two-wheeled velocipedes, and I can but remark again, what has come such as were in common use a few years ago,
over them? why have they done thus? It he proceeded to fasten them together to run on a railroad. Wooden axles were con- is almost enough to make distrust get the structed so that the machine could be adapt- better of the strongest mind or the best ed to any gauge of track, a broader tread character; but we say again, this ordeal we was placed on the wheels, to which were have just passed through was what the added flanges made of whiskey barrel hoops, levers were fitted to give means for Brotherhood wanted. It is our only trial using the hands as well as the feet to gain to see who would be true. It had to come motive power; the whole arrangement was
some time; it has come, and we have passed given a coat of red paint, and it was placed on the track at Garland ready for service. it and are safe. The battle has been fought; The machine weighs about forty pounds, we are victorious, with a loss of but very and is easily handled. The operator sits on few men from our ranks. a seat resting across what were the twoseats of the old velocipedes.
Many times I have said to the Brothers, " Johnson mounted his novel traveling and have heard it remarked by many, that apparatus at Garland, and arrived here we were in too much of a hurry for quantity without accident, having made the trip at and did not pay enough attention to quality. the rate of about fifteen miles per hour. He remained in this city a day or two and, The list shows it, and at the same time realtering the gauge of his car to suit that of minds us how some of these expelled memthe Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Road, he bers got up in their Divisions, and in public, started out on Friday afternoon for the and expressed themselves as willing to give East. Our informant tells us that he saw Johnson near Goldsmith's ranch, and tried half of their earnings to sustain the cause; to keep up with his car on a good horse, but but when it came to the dollar, the althe animal was soon distanced. The engi- mighty dollar, that was altogether another neer of the eastern-bound passenger train met Johnson at Apishapa yesterday.
thing; things had changed, but their pay "Johnson is an old railroad man, and al- remained the same. But, again, there are ways provides himself with a time card, so exceptions to be made with some of them, that he can keep out of the way of the reg: for circumstances over which they had no ular trains. His apparatus is so light that it can be moved from the rails in a mo- control put them where they are.
We are ment."
sorry for that, and hope they will avail
themselves of the first opportunity to come The London Engineer says, editorially, back to us, which, of course, all will do that "bar steel of Sheffield make cannot be sold in Sheffield because American steel who think that there is any show for their as good can be had for less money.
I sincerely hope that every Brother of wherever and whenever we meet, and under this Brotherhood will not fail to read Bro. (any and all circumstances let no ill-feeling Arthur's editorial in February JOURNAL. arise between any of us: help every Brother There is the truth, plainly told, for those to when a stranger among us, and make him whom some portions of it refer will see it, feel that he is not among strangers; select and will not need to have any one call their officers for our Divisions who can always attention to it. I am glad to know--are we attend our meetings, and Brothers who not all of us, Brothers, glad to know-that will deprive themselves occasionally of a we have a man at our head who does not pleasure to attend meetings; and last, but fear to publish to the world the wrong. not least, live up to the letter of the Constidoings and rascality of some of the dishon- tution and By-Laws and sustain our Grand est members who have been thrown out. | Officers. This must be practiced well and Well done, good and faithful servant; show all will end well. And now to all memthem up at every opportunity.
bers in good standing, we thank you for We wonder how men, with the years of your faithfulness. We know now how you experience as lccomotive engineers that will act in the future, and can govern oursome of them have had, can do as these selves accordingly. Wishing you all safely men have done; how can they, when they up and back every trip, I am yours, think how the engineers were before there Fraternally, S. O. BRIETY. was any Brotherhood? Their condition then and now-compare it any of you who were there; took at them in any light you
DANVILLE, ILL., Jan. 20, 1878. wish to, morally, intellectually, financially
MESSRS. EDITORS: Please excuse my or otherwise, and we leave it for your an. trespassing upon your kind indulgence, and swer, and we know what that will be. We I hope the readers of the JOURNAL will all know what it has done for us. When you pardon me for taking up so much space hear a dissatistied Brother say the Brother- where matters of more importance might, hood has never done him any good, you perhaps, be presented. True, we feel, or know what answer to make him, and he should feel, deeply interested in each others' invariably drops the conversation then and welfare; but this seems to have ceased to be there. A prominent railroad man, not a
a virtue. Adversity seems to be forced member of our order, said to me the other upon many, where brotherly kindness day, “You will destroy your organization, should be administered, and we seem to if you are not careful.” I says, “How?” grope our way through darkness, with no "Why,” said he, "by the looks of my friends to minister to our wants. Even JOURNAL you will have them all expelled,” | brothers give each other the cold shoulder, I said that was "good riddance to bad rub- seemingly for personal gratification and bish. We have got thousands to back us revenge, without any previous animosity, up yet and more coming in, and have not when the hand of kindness and fellowship lost any that are a real loss in the past six should be given to lighten our difficulties as months.” This surprised him; he had noth- we struggle through life. Discontent and ading further to offer. I have not met a versity are with us at every turn of life; all Brother yet who was true to his obligation feel gratified with their own success and but what is of the same opinion, and says feel indifferent to others that by chance are we are doing now what should have been more unfortunate; and especially among done long ago, purging our Divisions of all railroad employes is this mode practised to unworthy members, and we know that by a great extent. A man may work on a line doing this we will save ourselves trouble in of road for years with success, and gain the future and stand upon a firmer founda- reputation as a first-class man; all pay tion than ever before since our organiza- honor to him. But as time rolls on, the sad tion was founded.
intelligence comes to headquarters that this Now, Brothers, a few words more and I man has had a wreck; no matter whether will close. Let us be true to one another caused by his neglect or that of some one