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manufacturers in the ordinary routine of | most lovely hands. In both the indes business. The sale of course presented some longest. curiosities, but we will only mention an 2. A Jewess of Modena, very lovely, overcoat pocket for a lady's hand when and with beautiful bands. Ring finger walking with a gentleman, which brought much the longest. $350, with the State of Pennsylvania re- *3. A Tuscan lady with a most lovely served; a double pocket to cheat pickpock- hand. Index the longest. ets, and a machine to "lick" postage “4. A lady of Ferrara, pretty, and with a stamps

hand of rare beauty. Ring finger longest."

And so the list might be extended, and a (From The Galaxy.

long row of shapely hands arranged that THE ARTISTIC HAND.

would exhibit the ring and the index fin

gers alternately longer and shorter. In naSome months since we referred to a dis- ture the type is not positive, but in art it cussion of the proportions in the human seems to be so. The hands designed by hand, which had been made by Prof. Ecker Canova, Titian, and Ary Scheffer have been of Freiburg university. It will be rémem entirely or partially examined to test this bered that he found the ideal hand, as rep: question, and they uniformly make a long resented by the greatest artists, ancient and forefinger in a beautiful hand. Prof. Manmodern, differed from the majority of liv. tegazza sustains them in this decision. He ing hands in one respect. The artists' ideal recognizes the danger of elevating one's has the index, or forefinger, longer than the own personal peculiarities, or those of perring finger. Nature often reverses this pro- sons we esteem, to the position of a standportion, and makes the index finger the ard in taste, and therefore says that the shorter of the two, and this not in common two critical fingers are of equal length in but in hands of the most beautiful shape. one of his own hands, and the ring finger is New interest attaches to this subject from slightly longer in the other hand. After the fact that an Italian, Prof. Mantegazza thus premising, he says:

" But if artists of Florence, has pursued the inquiry and wish to deduce a practical lesson from this made several hundred observations on the very brief dissertation, I would advise them hands of his countrymen and women. The to give the more perfect creations of their total results must be expressed in tabular tool or pencil an index somewhat longer form, for he found that a difference exists than the ring finger, without, however, between the sexes, men being more inclined wishing to deny to human nature the libto short forefingers than women, and also erty of making very beautiful hands with a that they are somewhat more inclined to ring' longer than the index.” He has variability in the two hanrls than wonen. been able to settle the question of heredity His results were:

in this characteristic by examining a numIndex flager longer

ber of families in which the parents differed 27 or 6.7 per cent. in the proportions of the two fingers. He Women..... 64 or 20.71

found that the children also varied, taking Ring tinger longer......209 or 96.67

the characteristic of the parent they most ...191 or 62.78

resembled in other respects. The two hands disBimilar 57 or 14.14

HOW SCORPIONS SING. Index and ring in.

At the September meeting of the London gers equal in length

Entomological Society, Mr. J. Wood-Mason

announced the discovery of singing organs Women

in scorpions. He procured two large living

scorpions; these, when fixed face to face The percentages as given above are cal- and goaded into fury, at once commenced culated on men and women separately. The to beat the air with their palps and simultaproportions of the two together are as fol neously to emit sounds which were most dis lows :

tinctly audible. It resembled the noise Index Anger longer..

91 or 12-77 per cent.

made by scraping a stiff tooth-brush with Ring Anxer longer

one's finger nails. The singing apparatus is The two hande dlesimilar

developed on each side of the body, the Index and ring fingers equal

scraper upon the flat outer face of the basal in length..

joint of the palp-fingers, and the rasp on The character is therefore a fluctuating the equally flat and produced inner face of one, and examination proves that all forms the corresponding joint of the first pair of of it are found in the hands of the most legs. The former was thickly beset with striking beauty. To prove this we will stout, conical, sharp and curved spinules; quote from an article in “Nature," by Dr. the latter studded with minute tubercles J. C. Galton, who is bringing this subject shaped like the top of mushrooms. The to the attention of the English people, the sounds were produced by these parts being following examples:

quickly rubbed together, friction in a dead “1. A pretty Piedmontese girl with the specimen producing the same sound.




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Men .......
Women.... 45 or 14.56


10 or 2.48
6 or 1.91


503 or 70.65 102 or 14.32

16 or 2.25

He may

(From the San Francisco Bulletin.] ten States on this side of the Rocky MounTHE EMPIRE OF THE PACIFIC.

tains. These States will include an area of

the most important mineral, wheat and Twenty years hence nearly all the bread- lumber production. Every large and ferstuffs for export from the United States tile valley will be made accessible by railwill be produced in the country west of the road, and every great belt of mines will be Rocky Mountains. The exceptions will be reached in the same way. It has taken in the surplus production of corn in the twenty-five years to get the leverage of a Mississippi Valley. The agriculture of all great industrial empire; but it is attained the vast region west of the Rocky Moun- at last. tains is still in its infancy. Some of the great territories are not yet producing breadstuffs enough for home consumption.

THE TRUE GENTLEMAN, That was true of Oregon a few years ago. He is above a low act. He cannot stoop Now there is a great fleet of wheat laden to commit a fraud. He invades no secret ships sailing from her principal port every in the keeping of another. He takes selfish year. Utah Territory, with the exception advantage of no man's mistakes.

He is of a little spot about Salt Lake, made no ashamed of innuendoes. He uses no ignoshow of agricultural products. Now the ble weapons in controversy. He never best potatoes found west of the Mississippi stabs in the dark. He is not one thing to a river are produced in Utah, and sent to man's face, and another to his back. If by California in great quantities for consump- accident he comes in possession of his tion. Fruit culture has been pursued be- neighbor's counsels, he passes them into yond the Sierra. The great apple orchards instant oblivion. He bears sealed packages will be far up the mountains on either without tampering with the wax. Papers slope. The culture of the grape and the not meant for his eye, whether they flutter wine interest will be west of the Sierra, al- in at his window, or lie open before him in though it is just possible that we have not unguarded exposure, are secret to him. yet found the best soils for the production He profanes no privacy of another, howof the grapes. The maximum of lumber ever the sentry sleeps. Bolts and bars, production has already been reached in locks and keys, bonds and securities, notices the States east of the Mississippi. The to trespassers, are not for him. eastern timber belt has been explored, and be trusted out of sight--near the thinnest most of the lands reduced to private posses- partition - anywhere. He buy's no office, sions. The timber belt of the Pacific coast, he sells none, intrigues for none. He would north of Oregon, covers an area clear up to rather fail of his rights than win them the north limit of Alaska, or as far as the through dishonor. He will eat honest climate will permit. No impression has bread. He tramples on no sensitive feelbeen made upon the forests of Alaska, and ings He insults no man.

If he has a the timber resources of Washington Terri- rebuke for another, he is straightforward, tory will last a long time.

open and manly. He cannot descend to The facts worthy of special note are that scurrility. Billingsgate does not lie on his in all of the vast region on this side of the track. Of woman, and to her, he speaks Rocky Mountains, from Mexico to Beh- with decency and respect. In short, whatring's Strait, the production of great sta- ever he judges honorable, he practices ples is yet in its infancy: In particular toward every one. He is not always places mining may have been carried to dressed in broadcloth. the limit of production. So of wheat culti- “Some people," says distinguished vation and of the production of lumber. Bishop, “think a gentleman means a man But for one exhausted mine there are a hun- of independent fortune-a man who fares dred which have not been fairly opened, and sumptuously every day--a man who need for one acre of land where a maximum not labor for his bread. None of these production has been obtained, there are one makes a gentleman-not one nor all of them hundred which have not been brought un- together. I have known men of the roughder cultivation. The great cedar forests of est exterior who had been used all their the northwest coast have hardly been lives to follow the plow, and to look after touched, and it is only near the water's horses, as thorough gentlemen in heart as edge that much impression has been made any nobleman who ever wore a ducal coroupon the forests of fir.

net. I mean, I have known them as unselAll our industrial development is the fish, I have known them as truthful, I have product of less than 2,000,000 people. They known them as sympathizing; and all these have dotted the coast with a few small qualities go to make what I understand by towns, have built one large city and have the term 'a gentleman.' laid the foundations of many others. The "It is a noble privilege which has been Empire of the West is waiting for popula- sadly prostituted; and what I want to tell tion. It comes in slowly, but surely. Cal- you is, that the humblest man, who has the ifornia is pushing toward 1,000,000. The coarsest work to do, yet, if his heart be Territories are filling up; and 'within a tender and true, can be, in the most emquarter of a century there will probably be 'phatic sense of the word, “a gentleman.'”

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[From the London Society. ]

It happened that about the year 1668 the
office of cellarer was conferred upon a

[From the Scientific American.]
worthy monk named Perignon. Poets and

THE GEOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF roasters, we know, are born, not made;

THE ATMOSPHERE. and this precursor of Moets and Cliquots, the Heidsiecks and the Mumms of our days, The gaseous envelope which surrounds our seems to have been a heaven born cellar-| globe plays a very considerable part in the man, with a strong head and a discrimi-chemical changes ever going on in rock nating palate. The wine exacted from the formations, whether actually at the surface neighboring cultivator was of all qualities, -as in what is called the "weathering of good, bad and indifferent and with the rocks"-or in the less apparent, but perhaps spirit of a true Benedictine, Dom Perignon more powerful action carried on below the bit upon the idea of “marrying the surface. In a late number of the Quarterly produce of one vineyard with that of an Journal of Science, Edward T. Hardman, F. other. He had noticed that one kind of C. S., has a very exhaustive paper on "The soil imparted fragrance and another gen- Atmosphere Considered in its Geological erosity, and discovered that a white wine Relations," from which we extract the folcould be made from the blackest grapes, I lowing interesting facts: which would keep good, instead of turning Perfectly pure water has a very appreciyellow and degenerating into the wine obable solvent effect on rocks, which is imtained from white ones. The white, or, as mensely augmented when it is chemically it was sometimes called, the gray wine of charged with carbonic acid, oxygen, nitric Champagne grew famous, and the manu- acid, and other matters derived directly or facture spread throughout the province, indirectly from the atmosphere. But while

The cellarer, ever busy among his vats, on the one hand the influence of the atmospresses, barrels and bottles, alighted upon phere disintegrates and destroys rock massa discovery destined to be far more impor- es, on the other it is mighty in building tant in its results. He found out the way them up. Without the small percentage of of making an effervescent wine-a wine carbonic acid contained in the air there that burst out of the bottle and overflowed couid be no vegetation, and there would be the glass-that was twice as dainty to the none of the coal beds which form such imtaste, and twice as exhilarating in its portant members of our rock formations. effects,

The immense masses of limestone found evIt was at the close of the seventeenth erywhere, and the coral reef of the present century that this discovery was made~ day, must owe their being indirectly to the when the glory of the Roy Soleil was on carbonic acid of former atmospheres. A the wane, and with it the splendor of the drop of rain water absorbs a trace of carCourt of Versailles. The king, for whose bonic acid from the atmosphere, falls on a especial benefit liquors had been invented, rock containing lime in some form, dissolves fowd a gleam of his youthful energy as he the lime as a bicarbonate, carries it down sipped the creamy foaming vintage that to the ocean, and finally gives it up to beenlivened his dreary tete-a-tete with the come part of the skeleton of a coral or molwidow of Scarron. It found its chief lusc, which in its turn may form a portion patrons, however among the bands of gay of an immense mass of limestone rock. young roysterers, the future roues of the The bulk of the atmosphere is made up of Regency, whom the Duc d'Orleans and the oxygen and nitrogen, but these do not take Duc de Vendeme had gathered round them so active shares in geological matters as the at the Palais Royal and at Anet. It was almost infinitesimal trace of carbonic acid at one of the famous soupers d' Anet that present. The amount ranges from 3 to 10 the Marquis de Silery--who had turned volumes in 10,000 volumes of air. The prinhis sword into a pruning-knife, and applied cipal sources of increase are, volcanic and himself to the cultivation of his paternal other subterranean exhalations; respiration vineyards on the principles inculcated by of animals; combustion of fuel, and vegetathe cellarer of St. Peter's-first introduced ble decay, the wine bearing his name. The flower- The series of rock-metamorphisms due to wreathed bottles, which, at a given signal, the simple absorption of carbonic acid by a a dozen of blooming yoang damsels, scan- plant is very interesting. The carbon is astily draped in the guise of Bacchanals, similated by the plant, and it dies and beplaced upon the table, were hailed with comes thus a part of a coal bed or lies rapture, and thenceforth sparkling wine embedded in sediment of some kind. Dewas an indispensable adjunct at all the composition sets in; and if there be a redupetite soupers of the period. In the highest cible compound near it, chemical changes circles the popping of champagne-corks result. If the strata contain sulphate of seemed to ring the knell of sadness, and the iron, it is reduced to sulphide, commonly victories of Marlborough were in a measure known as iron pyrites or false gold. The compensated for by this grand discovery. reduction is effected by the carbon of the plant abstracting the oxygen from the sul- no rain--consequently no denudation by phate. The resulting carbonic acid either rain and rivers--for the vapors of waters is taken up by percolating water and pene could not ascend into empty space. We trates farther into the heart of the rock, ef- should have-but, last and worst of all, fecting new changes, or it finds its way to there would be no “we.” Life would be the surface through some crevice, or by aid impossible, and the earth would finally deof a mineral spring, and once more mingles generate into a pale-faced moon. That this with the atmosphere, to be perhaps again is probably her mission cannot be denied; absorbed by vegetation and pass through a and probably before Saturn and Jupiter similar round of changes afresh. in many have cooled down to a habitable temperacases the action of the carbonic acid changes ture, the senescent earth will roll through a metallic ore from an insoluble to a soluble space-cold, void, and airless. compound, thus reducing the ancient crystailine rocks The metals carried away by streans were deposittel along their beds,

[From the World of Wonders.) and valuable beds of ore were formed.

WONDERS OF THE SNOW. The atmosphere in the carboniferous age

There are wonders in the snow, with contained a much larger portion of car which many who look upon its coming as bonic acid. This has been gradually ab- quite a matter of course may be unacsorbed into the earth, until the amount quainted. Such a wonder is presented in stored in the earth is estimated at 6,620 the phenomena of crystallization. Snow is times as much as there is in the atmosphere, produced by the freezing of moist vapors although the latter contains 1.250,030,000,000 suspended in the atmosphere, and in very tons of carbon. All animal carbon is de- low temperatures the flakes or particles of rived from the atmosphere. Say a tiger snow are found to assume the most elegant dines off a cow; the carbon and nitrogen of and regular forins. These, from their perher flesh have been obtained from vegeta- fect geometrical proportion, are denomin; tion, which in turn extracted them from ated crystals, that name being applied to all the air; so that we have a kind of physical particles of matter which take a definite "House that Jack built.” “ This is the Ti: geometrical shape. It was at first thought ger that ate the Cow that ate the Grass that that only such extreme cold as that of the absorbed the Carbon," etc.

Arctic regions could produce this crystalAny considerable difference in the vol- lization. On investigation, however, it was ume of carbonic acid must result in dinin- discovered that in our own severe winters ution of animal life. Very little above the the snow presents an equally wonderful apordinary standard carbonic acid in air becomes a deadly poison to all warm-blooded Dr. Glashier, in 1855, gave to the world a

pearance; and the eminent meteorologist, animals. If diminished vegetable life would representation of 150 figures from the snow, languish, graminivorous animals would die which had come within his own observaof starvation, and finally the carnivora, tion during the previous winter. One strikbeing obliged to prey upon each other, ing feature in the snow crystal is this--that, would of course become extinet. The re, though differing so widely in character sult would be a completely barren and they are all, or nearly all, hexagonal or desolate planet, perhaps in some degree six-sided in shape. Occasionally three-sided resembling the moon.

figures are seen, but these are very rare. Oxygen is the next in importance as a Sometimes three of the sides are shorter geological agent. Percolating in rocks, than the other three, so that the figure is dissolved in rain water, it quickly reacts on like a triangle, with the points cut off; and all oxidizable substances. Carbonates and now and then two small figures are connectproto-salts are converted to peroxides; sul-ed together by a slender bar or link. As a phides are changed to sulphates, and some- rule, however, the hexagons consist of thin times alums are formed.

plates, shaped like beautiful stars, and someCarbon and oxygen are thus antagonistic tiines surrounded by other stars of similar in their action on rocks and minerals, and

The great variety of these appear. are thus keeping up a circulatiou between ances is apparently inexhaustible, for each the earth and the air. The carbon always investigation has resulted in the discovery reduces the oxides, and the oxygen replaces of forms previously unobserved, although the carbonic acid of carbonates with the

possessing the general characteristics to same inveteracy. The ammonia existing in the air is ab degrees is also found to prevail in all the

which we have alluded. The angle of 60 sorbed by plants, and by their decomposi- various ramifications of these stars amid the tion forms nitrates. “And now," Mr. Haránian says in conclusion, it will be water always crystallizes at this angle.

snow, in conformity with the law by which seen what an all powerful agent the atmosphere we breathe is. Without its aid we should know never a stratified formation, The expenditure by the English Governand would simply form a ball of truly prim- ment for education, science, and art has initive rock. We should have no coal, no creased from £20,750 in 1835 to £3,972,008 metalliferous deposito, no rivers or seas, and in 1875.



The Road.

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tem-also in case of a train parting through a fractured coupling, &c., a strain is immediately thrown, either upon the rope, or

brake connection and the brakes immediTHE HEBERLEIN BRAKE.

ately applied on all parts of the train, so DEAR SIR.-When alluding to the Cono stopping each portion apart from the other. tinuous Brake Trials in 1875, and early part Another feature, the engine, tender, or van of 1876, in my last letter on that subject, I brakes can be operated either by the predrew attention to the Heberlein system. sent. hand-screw system or the "chain sysThe editor kindly gave in a foot-note the tem,” this is a decided advantage. Another reason why my information was deficient. point, a train can be made up with wagons, Since then I have fortunately obtained ihe &c., not of this system, and yet not impair address of the London agency to the above its working in any way. In case of danger system, and one of the directors has kindly the driver, guard or whoever first sees the placed at my disposal a series of drawings, obstruction, at once pulls the brake rope, showing the manner this system has been and instantaneously the whole of the brakes attached to the existing brake vans, &c., of are applied—and that in ratio to the speed of several Continental lines.

the train. On the Northwestern Railway my former letter, published in your the great disadvantage is that the “Ch issue of January, 1876, I advocated the use Brake" is only used in an emergency, this of the “Heberlein Brake” for “mixed” can be utilized in every day work, either and “goods trains.” One reason I gave by the rope connection or the hand gear. was the simplicity of this brake, it could No whistling or signalling is required, and be connected to other brakes in the same as it has been at last acknowledged by the train; another valuable feature in this ar- officials that it is impossible to hear the rangement that I did not formerly notice is guard's alarm whistle in the rear van, I ask --that the present hand brake arrange- what dependence can be placed upon apments can be fully utilized, so the expense plying his brake? As I have frequently in adopting this system cannot be heavy. stated their first intimation is the slacken

The Heberlein Brake depends upon the ing of the train's speed, or that the buffers momentum of the train for its action; a are pressed home; here the “brake cord” cord, similar to the "signal cord," runs acts immediately-and in case of a severthrough the length of the train, and is fas- ance its “ automatic" action at once stops tened to a bell on the engine, and attached both portions of the train. Herr Heberto a reel in the rear guards' vans; this cord lein has certainly introduced a useful and is attached to detent rods in the guards' economical system of "Continuous Brakes," vans, also on the tender and the brake vehi- which can be easily affixed to any existing cles, and, by pulling this cord, the whole of brake, and with little extra cost attached the brakes of the train are put into action. (to any through “good vans or through To the axle of one of the wheels of the carriages at intermediate portions of the guards' vans and also to the tender-or any train. other vehicle-a sheave composed of seg- In conclusion, I need only call attention ments of wood is attached, a weighted lever to a remark in a late Engineering, wbile to which an iron pulley is fixed, placed criticising the Royal Commissioners' report, under the vehicle in such a manner, if the in speaking of Earl de la Warr's report, lever is allowed to fall, the pulley fixed up- that the noble Earl recommended increased on it comes in contact with the wooden brake power for passenger trains only;" sheave on the axle, the revolution of but what of goods trains, to say nothing which turns the pulley and tightens a chain of the lives of the men employed working fastened to this pulley, and connected to them-a heavy goods train might easily the brake lever, thus applying the “brake.” run into a passenger stopped at signalsOne advantage of this system, no power owing to want of brake power to control has to be created, the revolution of the the goods train." Now, as I previously rewheels and the train's own momentum pro- commended the Heberlein system for vide the “brake power," and the higher the mixed" as well as “goods trains' and on velocity of the train, the greater the power our Indian lines-especially the smaller this brake exerts.

Companies — the principal part of their On the Continental lines it is not only trains are “mixed" and the difficulty of attached to the tender but also to the en- providing a suitable brake for such trains gine driving or coupled wheel, so the guard is only too well known amongst our railfrom the rear can command the whole of way men. But this system supplies that the brake power with equal facility as the deficiency, and so long as the engine, tendriver or fireman in front. By introducing der, and say two vans, and a few intermethis system so that one person applies the diate vehicles are worked by this system, whole of the brakes simultaneously, there the fracture to coupling will be almost can be no fear of the train being parted— unknown and the telescoping or violent as the Northwestern train was at the “New- jerking of the train prevented in case of a ark Trials” by chain brake, a similar sys- sudden stop.

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