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lower lips and in their ears: the lip is thus made to project very much, and the ears of some of them hang, like large wings, down to their shoulders. Their brown bodies are covered with dirt.' p. 204.
One of their leaders wore plugs' of this description in his ears and under-lip, four inches in diameter; and in the skull. of a young Botucudo, which his Highness was so fortunate as to obtain for Professor Blumenbach, (a treasure worth its. weight in gold to the Phrenological Society,) the wood had not only pushed the lower fore-teeth out of their places, but had even pressed together and effaced the sockets of the teeth. The ladies wear the botoque as well as the men; but Prince Maximilian says, or his French translator makes him say, elle (la botoque est plus petite & plus elegante que celle des hommes. Mrs. Graham had an opportunity of judging of their comparative elegance during her stay at Rio, a party of Botucudoes having come to Praya Grande in the Bay of Rio, 'on a visit.' Their appearance is thus described. 13 38d3
'We saw about six men, and ten women, with some young children.ds The faces are rather square, with very high cheek-bones, and lowgis contracted foreheads. Some of the young women are really pretty, of a light copper colour, which glows all over when they blush; and two of the young men were decidedly handsome, with very dark7 eyes, (the usual colour of the eyes is hazel,) and aquiline noses the rest were so disfigured by the holes cut in their lower lips and I their ears to receive their barbarous ornaments, that we could scarcely tell what they were like. I had understood that the privilege of thus beautifying the face was reserved for the men, but the women of this party were equally disfigured. We purchased from one of the men a mouth-piece, measuring an inch and a half in diameter. The ornaments used by these people are pieces of wood perfectly circular, which are inserted into the slit of the lip or ear, like a button, and are extremely frightful, especially when they are eating. It gives the mouth the appearance of an ape's; and the peculiar mumping it occasions is so hideously unnatural, that it gives credit to, if it did not originally suggest, the stories of their cannibalism. The mouth is still more ugly without the lip-piece, the teeth appearing, and saliva running through.' pp. 224, 5.
Mrs. Graham's doubt respecting their cannibal practices is, however, as unreasonable as her manner of accounting for the report is extravagant. The resemblance of their favourite food, the ape, to the human form, is referred to by Prince Maximilian with much more plausibility, as a circumstance that may possibly have given rise, in some cases, to the opinion; but he admits that they cannot be cleared from the charge of now and then treating themselves with the flesh of an enemy. Moreover, they are said to look upon the negroes
as a sort of ape, and to call them by this name; they may, therefore, not consider the cooking and eating of a negro as cannibalism, any more than a West India planter considers the killing of one as murder. But the evidence adduced by Mr. Southey in his History of Brazil, places the repulsive fact beyond the possibility of scepticism. The savages are said to have even expressed astonishment on learning that the Portuguese killed men and did not eat them. Some of the almost incredible stories related by the early voyagers, may be chargeable with circumstantial exaggeration ; but the existence of the practice is established by the concurrent testimony of all travellers who have had any opportunity of observation; and the attempt to palliate the enormity of the fact, by ascribing it to revenge or other motives, is at once ill-judged and gratuitous.
When we questioned the Botucudoes of Belmonte respecting this horrible usage,' says Prince Maximilian, they always answered, that it did not prevail among them; but they owned that many of their countrymen, and among others a chief named Jonué, still practised it. In fact, what had become of the flesh which they had carefully cut from the bodies of the enemies whom they had killed? Moreover, all my doubts on this point were removed by Quêck, the young Botocudo whom I had brought with me. He had for a long time hesitated to confess the truth, but he assented at last, when I told him that I knew that his horde at Belmonte had for a long time relinquished the usage.'
He then related two instances in which Botocudo chieftains had captured, not a negro, but an Indian of the Patacho tribe, and in one of these instances, the whole horde had feasted on the prisoner. His narrative may be the more safely relied upon, says his Highness, inasmuch as it was with difficulty extorted from him.* In other respects, these Botucudoes seem to be by no means the most degraded of the Indian tribes. They are represented to be better-made and handsomer than the other Tapuyas, of middle stature, sometimes tall, robust and well-proportioned, with handsome hands and feet. They are said to be not unsusceptible of fidelity of attachment, and of gratitude; and in many points, the Author is led to characterise them very differently from the diminutive and insensible Puri. Though indolent, like all other Indians, they are sometimes known to be gay, chatty, and facetious.
For the horrible mutilation of the countenance by which they are distinguished, it is difficult to account by even a
* Voyage au Brésil, tom. ii. p. 288.
VOL. XXII. N. S.
plausible conjecture. It appears extraordinary, we are told, even to other Tapuya tribes on the coast, who call them Epcosak, Great-eared. But it is not the ear-plug, or ear-jewel, that is so extraordinary. Lieut Kotzebue mentions some of the islanders of the Pacific Archipelago, who had ear-holes measuring more than three inches in diameter, in which was worn a roll of green leaves or of tortoise-shell.* Captain Cook had before made a similar statement with regard to the natives of Easter Island. Azara states, that the Paraguay Indians. observe the same usage; they also insert a small piece of wood in the shape of a tongue in the under-lip, but it disfigures them less than the large bung' of the Botucudo. Condamine saw on the banks of the Maranham or Amazons river, savages who had the lobes of each ear extended to a monstrous length, and pierced with a hole wide enough to hold a large nosegay as a pendant. One traveller, Gumila, goes so far as to affirm, that he saw on the banks of the Apure, a tribe who had succeeded in stretching their ears till, they served as pockets. In this case, the useful was singularly united with the ornamental. But ear-rings or pendants in the ear, of some description or other, have been worn by almost all nations, civilized or uncivilized, from the remotest times; nor is there any thing more unnatural in the ear-nosegay of the Amazonian belle, or the tortoise-shell pendant of the ladies of Easter Island, than in the jewelry which weighs down the delicate ears of an English beauty. The botoque is the monstrous thing that seems such an outrage upon nature, because, besides being, in the eyes even of savages, a deformity, it is a positive and perpetual inconvenience. Could it originate in the mere wish to give the countenance the appearance of being beautifully under-hung? If so, we might suppose that the fashion had its rise in a loyal wish to copy that grace from the physiognomy of some great cacique, who might chance to be provided by nature with a projecting under-lip; or he might himself enact the fashion of wearing the botoque, not choosing to be singular. In the Mexican paintings which employed the learned ingenuity of Dr. Paul Felix Cabrera of New Guatemala,† it is observable, that the profiles of the figures have for the most part a receding chin and a spout-shaped under-lip; but, whether of natural or of artificial formation, we cannot tell. In either case, this conformation of the nether lip would seem to have been regarded as a trait
Ecl. Rev. N.S. Vol. XVIII. p. 34. + Ibid. p. 529.
of personal beauty by a nation to whom the Aymores may possibly bear some affinity.
But enough of this subject. All that is connected with these humiliating specimens of our degraded nature, is painful and revolting. We hasten briefly to notice the costly quarto put forth by Mrs. Graham, and regret that we cannot compliment the Authoress on having done herself much credit by this hasty production. The first seventy-six pages are occupied with a sketch of the history of the Brazil, the greater part taken from Southey's History, but brought down to the period of Mrs. Graham's arrival at Brazil in Sept. 1821. We are not disposed to find much fault with the sketch; but its professed object, that of making the subsequent political events understood, would have been answered quite as well, had it commenced with the events of August 1807. Twenty pages more are occupied with the voyage, in which the Author has very unnecessarily detailed the well-known ceremonies on passing the line. At length, having travelled through more than a fourth of the volume, we arrive at Pernambuco, to the description of which are devoted between thirty and forty pages, without adding any thing material to the information previously supplied by Mr. Koster. Bahia occupies the next five and twenty pages, and then we are taken to Rio. The first part concludes with the sailing of Capt. Graham and his lady for the coast of Chile. The Captain died on the voyage. The Journal of the Author's visit to Chile is reserved to form the subject of a separate volume, Mrs. G. assigning as her reason for this convenient arrangement, that the narratives.concerning Spanish and Portuguese America should be kept quite separate.' We think that they might nevertheless have appeared in the same volume. The Author's Journal of her second visit to Brazil commences at March 13, 1822, just before the Emperor's coronation. The longest speech that, probably, ever was made from a throne, occupying eleven of Mrs. Graham's pages, was pronounced on that occasion by his Majesty; and we are assured, that so far from the speech having the air of a thing read from a paper or studied, it was spoken as freely as if it was the spontaneous effusion of the moment, and excited a feeling as free in his favour,' This free feeling' we do not quite understand. The remainder of the volume is occupied with a description of Rio and its vicinity, and concludes with a true and particular account of the Author's appointment to the post of governess to the princess imperial of Brazil. As a Brazilian drawing-room may be an object of curiosity to a certain class of our readers, and Mrs. Graham has described it with all the laudable mi
nuteness of a court circular, we cannot do better than extract this account as a specimen of her Journal.
Her Majesty, who had retired with the young Princess, now came in, and the ladies all paid their compliments, while the Emperor was busy in the presence-chamber receiving the compliments of the Assembly and other public bodies. There was little form and no stiffness. Her Imperial Majesty conversed easily with every body, only telling us all to speak Portuguese, which of course we did. She talked a good deal to me about English authors, and especially of the Scotch novels, and very kindly helped me in my Portuguese; which, though I now understand, I have few opportunities of speaking to cultivated persons. If I have been pleased with her before, I was charmed with her now. When the Emperor had received the public bodies, he came and led the Empress into the great receiving room, and there, both of them standing on the upper step of the throne, they had their hands kissed by naval, military, and civil officers, and private men; thousands, I should think, thus passed. It was curious, but it pleased me, to see some negro officers take the small white hand of the Empress in their clumsy black hands, and apply their pouting African lips to so delicate a skin; but they looked up to Nosso Emperador, and to her, with a reverence that seemed to me a promise of faith from them, a bond of kindness to them. The Emperor was dressed in a very rich military uniform, the Empress in a white dress embroidered with gold, a corresponding cap with feathers tipped with green; and her diamonds were superb, her head-attire and ear-rings having in them opals such as I suppose the world does not contain, and the brilliants surrounding the Emperor's picture, which she wears, the largest I have seen.
I should do wrong not to mention the ladies of the court. My partial eyes preferred my pretty countrywoman the new Marchioness; but there were the sweet young bride Maria de Loreto, and a number of others of most engaging appearance; and then there were the jewels of the Baronessa de Campos, and those of the Viscondeça do Rio Seco, only inferior to those of the Empress: but I cannot enumerate all the riches, or beauty; nor would it entertain my English friends, for whom this journal is written, if I could.
When their Imperial Majesties came out of the great room, I saw Madame do Rio Seco in earnest conversation with them; and soon I saw her and Lady Cochrane kissing hands, and found they had both been appointed honorary ladies of the Empress; and then the Viscountess told me, she had been speaking to the Empress about me. This astonished me, for I had no thought of engaging in any thing away from England. Six months before, indeed, I had said, that I was so pleased with the little Princess, that I should like to educate her. This, which I thought no more of at the time, was, like every
Lady Cochrane. His Lordship had just been created Marquéss of Maranham.