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them, together with the duty of every member of a printing establishment. Tables of prices, and abstracts from the acts by which the trade is regulated, are also added.
STEREOTYPE AND MACHINE PRINTING. The Author inveighs loudly against these inventions, which, he says, have retarded the improvement of the art, and caused poverty and distress among the regular trade. We do not altogether coincide in opinion with him here. Stereotype printing is, we believe, in a great degree confined to those works which it is of great consequence to the community to have rendered at the cheapest rate possible; for example, Common Bibles, Testaments, Religious Tracts, Spelling Books, and the most generally used of our School Books; and we think that these are far better printed now than they were before the introduction of Stereotype. Upon no other classes of literature will it answer the purpose of the publisher to employ it. It never can compete with the regular press in fine printing, nor, to any great extent, in standard works; because the taste of the public is constantly changing as to the sizes and appearance of such works. It must, therefore, be employed only upon works of which very large impressions are required, and where no alteration is admissible; for stereotype will admit of no improvement in its pages, a circumstance which must always be fatal to its general adoption. As to the other alleged evil, we are informed that there never was a period in which the presses of this country were more actively employed than the present.
In concluding our examination of Mr. Johnson's volumes, we can honestly pronounce them to be not less creditable to his talents as the compiler, than to his skill as the printer of them. They contain a vast deal of well arranged and interesting information; and, from the variety of types and embellishments employed, they may be adduced as a favourable specimen of the perfection to which the art of printing has been carried. The size, we confess, is too diminutive to please us, for, in consequence of this, the print is of course for the most part very small. The utility of our pocket Miltons and Shakspeares is obvious enough; but a History of Printing is surely not likely to be so close and constant a companion; and if it were, none but a Dutchman could accomplish the intention, since, comprising as they do nearly seven hundred pages each, the volumes are of necessity both thick and stumpy, a most inconvenient pocket companion.
Art. VIII: The Bible Teacher's Manual: being the Substance of Holy Scripture, in Questions on every Chapter thereof. By Mrs. Sherwood. Part III. Leviticus and Numbers. 24mo. Map. pp. 96. Price Is. London, 1824.
he first part of this very useful manual was noticed in a former volume, with the commendation which it deserved. Its author was a clergyman, whose name there can no longer be any propriety in concealing, since he has ceased to be numbered with the living-the late Rev. Cornelius Neale, formerly Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. His name is known to the public chiefly as the author of a very elegant volume of lyrical poems, which appeared in 1819, and a tragedy entitled Mustapha, printed in 1814, which possessed no ordinary merit. He was a man, indeed, of a highly cultivated taste and true poetical feeling; his mind was richly stored with the treasures of classical erudition, and he combined in himself the scholar, the poet, and the gentleman. Of his critical taste and acumen the pages of this Journal would furnish abundant specimens, did, we feel at liberty to specify his contributions. A few years before his death, Mr. Neale took orders; after which his lite-s rary pursuits, if they did not lose their attractions, were made to hold a subordinate place, while he conscientiously addressed himself to the exemplary discharge of his clerical functions. In this point of view, the portion of the present work which he lived to complete, forms an interesting memorial of his zealous and amiable solicitude for the religious improvement more especially of the young, of his sound judgement and unaffected piety.
No person could have been selected better qualified to com¡plete Mr. Neale's plan, than the popular Author of " Little "Henry and his Bearer" and "The Fairchild Family.
It is remarkable,' says Mrs. Sherwood, that although unknown to the Author of Questions on Genesis, and not having received the slightest intimation of his purposes, the Writer of this little volume had formerly commenced an undertaking of the kind, not with a view to publication, but solely for the use of her own family; and had desisted from the work merely from the pressure of other business. It is, however, very probable, that she might have allowed these other and more secular occupations to have entirely diverted her from this more important concern, had not a voice as it were from the grave, urged her to proceed with the work.'
There are many persons,' it is added in concluding the preface,
* Vol. XIX. N. S. p. 188.
who mean well, who have neither time, nor a proper knowledge of Scripture, to enable them to examine a child on the subject of a single chapter; but, with the help of a guide of the nature of this now presented to the public, one child may instruct another, and the subordinate teachers in any school may prepare pupils for the inspection of the superiors; and in this manner a regular system of Biblical instruction may be carried on with little fatigue to the masters and universal benefit to the pupils.'
It can hardly be requisite to give any specimen of the present Part, but we will make room for a short extract.
• Chap. III. 1. With what does this chapter commence? A. The law of the peace-offering,
2. Wherein did the peace-offering differ from other offerings A. The burnt offerings were wholly consumed on the altar, and the priests had part of the meat offering; but the peace offering was divided between the altar, the priests, and the offerer, and formed a kind of feast, in which the Lord, the priests, and the people met together.
3. What was required respecting the animal which was to form the peace offering? 1.
4. Of whom was this animal the emblem ?-A. Of him through whose death peace is made between God and the sinner.
5. Is there any verse in the New Testament which points out this interpretation? Rom. v. 1, 2.
6. What part was the offerer to take in this sacrifice? 2. f.
7. By whom was the blood to be sprinkled? 2. L,
8. Of what doctrine is this sprinkling of the blood the emblem ? A. Of the washing of the sinner by the blood of Christ.
9. What part of the animal was burnt on the altar? 3. l. 4.
10. What were Aaron's sons to do with these parts of the animal? 5.
11. What do you learn from this observance ?-A. This observance may probably denote that our inward feelings and affections must be sanctified through the sacrifice of Christ, if we would be accepted by God.
12. If the animal which was to be for the sacrifice was of the flock instead of the herd, what was required of this animal? 6, 7. 13. Were the same ceremonies to be attended to respecting this last sacrifice as those before mentioned? 8.
14. Which part of the animal was to be burnt? 9, 10,
15. What was the priest to do with this? 11.
16. Supposing the offering to be a goat, what directions were given? 12, 13,ƒ.
17. In this case what were the priests to do with the blood? 13. l. 18. Was any part of the goat to be burnt? 14, 15.
19. Who was to burn these parts? 16, f.
20. For what purpose was this fat to be burnt? 16, l.
21. What was the use of this offering?-A. It fed the sacred fire, and typified the satisfaction made for sin by the death of Christ, fat VOL. XXII. N. S.
being the emblem of fulness, and it being said of him," in him all ful ness dwells."
22. How long was this command to be observed? 17.' pp. 8, 9. If we have any fault to find with this Part, it is that the phraseology is hardly simple enough to be intelligible to a child, and that the Writer is occasionally tempted to spiritualize without any sufficient warrant from the Scriptures. Some objectionable instances occur at page 22.
Art. IX. The Seats and Causes of Disease investigated by Anatomy, containing a great Variety of Dissections, and accompanied with Remarks. By John Baptist Morgagni, Chief Professor of Anatomy, and President in the University of Padua. Abridged and elucidated with copious Notes, by William Cooke, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and one of the Secretaries of the Hunterian Society. 2 vols. 8vo. Price 11. 10s. London. 1823.
No science is less reducible to abstract rules than the seience of medicine. An immense range is presented before the student as it relates to objects of research, and after all, his practical success depends upon his own discernment and tact, more than upon any scholastic precepts, or axiomatic deductions from pathological or therapeutic principia. Every new case, it has been said, is a new study; and if this may be said with even an approach to truth, it is obvious that medicine taught merely as a science of semiology, must necessarily be much wanting in a very material part of its elementary organization.
Certain it is, that post mortem inspection often gives the direct lie to prior predication, and proves the impotence of nosology in its endeavours to fasten down disease to fixed and unalterable points. A considerable part, indeed, of the improvement which modern medicine lays claim to, consists in, or rather results from; the value it has learned to set upon a minute investigation of morbid structure, and its comparative disregard of abstract or systematic doctrine. To such an extent has this feeling been recently called into exercise, that we may question whether the re-action has not operated too strongly upon the present cultivation. of the therapeutic art; whether it has not tended to induce an indisposition towards a just appreciation of those preceptive rules that are deduced from observation and experience. The knowledge of a mere anatomist would fall very far short of that which an efficient practitioner must possess; and when the Dissecting Room is shewn to the student as the only place for the culti
vation of medical philosophy, he is led into a sort of medical materialism, erroneous in its principles, and mischievous in its results.
In the study of morbid anatomy, the necessity ought ever to be held in recollection, of combining reflection with observation, comparative with abstract research,-in a word, doctrine with fact; and it is inasmuch as we see this combination successfully arrived at in the work before us, that we chiefly value it as a very important addition to English Medical literature.
The volumes of Morgagni have always been justly regarded as a medical classic; but the form in which they were published, was open to many objections. It has been a constant subject of complaint, that their first translator did not divest them of their exuberant matter, and become the editor of his author's work, instead of giving us a servile transcript. Not having effected this desirable task, he left the undertaking a desideratum, which, after an attentive and critical perusal of the volumes now under notice, we are happy in being able to assure our readess, has been well supplied by the present Editor.
Had Mr. Cooke, however, only selected and arranged the materials furnished him by Morgagni, he would still have left much to be accomplished. But he has done more :-he has corrected the numerous errors, and made up the many deficiencies of his author; he has added considerably from the stores of his own researches, and he has very ably interwoven the late improvements in pathology with the facts presented by the dissector's industry. In the general way, too, we have been pleased with Mr. Cooke's style; it is manly, forcible and scientific. Here and there, indeed, we have detected too much of what our neighbours term recherché, in words and phrases, giving to otherwise good writing an air of pedantry. But, upon the whole, we may say with truth, as we do with pleasure, that very few books are sent into the world, with so little to condemn, and so much to commend, as Mr. Cooke's edition of Morgagni's Morbid Anatomy.