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tian king. Thus, as early as the commencement of the eighteenth dynasty of the Pharoabs, that is to say, nearly 3400 years before the present era, Nubia was inhabited by a people speaking the same language, employing the same writing, holding the same faith, and subjected to the same kings, as the Egyptians.

• But, from Soleb to about the fifteenth degree of North latitude, proceeding southward and ascending the Nile, in ancient Ethiopia, and over an area of more than two hundred leagues, are scattered a multitude of other great monuments, which belong to nearly the same general system of architecture as the temples of Nubia and Egypt. They are equally adorned with hieroglyphic inscriptions, and contain representations of gods, which bear in the sacred writing the same names and the same legends as the divinities sculptured on the temples of Egypt and Nubia. The same analogy exists in the titles and the forms of the royal legends ; but the proper names of the kings inscribed on the edifices of Ethiopia, in phonetic hieroglyphics, that have come to my knowledge, have absolutely nothing in common with the proper names of the Egyptian kings mentioned in the long chronological series of Manetho. Nor do any of them occur either on the monuments of Nubia or on those of Egypt. From this fact, established by an examination of the numerous drawings of Ethiopian monuments brought home by our enterprising traveller M. Callaud, it follows that there was a time in which the civilised part of Ethiopia, the peninsula of Meroe, and the banks of the Nile between Meroe and Dongola, were inhabited by a people possessing a language, a written character, a religion, and arts similar to those of Egypt, who were independent of the Egyptian kings of Thebes and of Memphis.' pp. 391–3.

This is a highly interesting fact; and the testimony of the classical authors is in favour of the opinion, that the superstitions and literature of Egypt migrated from Ethiopia northward. There is nothing, however, in this opinion, which militates against the primary Asiatic origin of the great African family. It is altogether a gratuitous supposition, that Lower Egypt, great part of which is probably made land, originally a vast marsh uninhabitable, was first peopled. It is more natural to suppose, that the first settlers proceeded from the Arabian peninsula, where its southern extremity approaches nearest the eastern coast. The origin of the Pyramids is a distinct question. The absence of inscriptions renders it difficult to fix with precision either their date or the country of the architects; but this very circumstance, as Dr. Richardson has remarked, strengthens the opinion that they are the monuments of an exotic faith and a foreign conquest. Hieroglyphics were an unknown language to the Asiatic invaders. They were doubtless the invention of the Egyptian Hermes whoever he was, and their high antiquity is unquestionable. The knowledge of hieroglyphics, the only species of writing

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then known, formed, there can be little question, part of that **'wisdom of the Egyptians"* into whicn Moses was initiated ; and if we exclude the idea of Divine Revelation in accounting for the origin of Alphabetic writing, we may suppose that the Jewish legislator so far improved upon the Egyptian art, as to form from idiographic signs the first Hebrew alphabet. Jacob Bryant's opinion, that there was no (alphabetic) writing antecedent to the giving of the Law at Mount Sinai, would, on either hypothesis, seem to be by no means unreasonable. • Here,' he says, 'the Divine art was promulgated, of which

other nations partook; the Tyrians and Sidonians first, as they were the nearest to the fountain head.'+ What he remarks of the Chaldeans and Babylonians, may, with great propriety, be applied to the Egyptians. They are greatly celebrated for their wisdom and learning; and they were un

doubtedly a most wonderful people, and had certainly all the learning that could arise from hieroglyphical representations. 4. They had, I make no doubt, the knowledge of lines, by which geometrical problems must be illustrated ; and they

had the use of figures for numeration; but they were with• out letters for ages. .

.. For if they had been so fortunate as to have had for so long a time these elements, they were too ingenious a people not to have used them to better purpose.

They were ingenious and wise above the rest of the sons of men, but had 'no pretensions to literature properly so called. For I cannot help forming a judgement of the learning of a people, from the materials with which it is expedited and carried on. And I should think that literature must have been scanty, or none at all, where the means above mentioned' (stones, slabs, bricks, and tiles) were

applied to. For it is impossible for people to receive any 16 great benefit from letters, where they are obliged to go to a

shard or an oyster-shell for information, and where knowledge is consigned to a pantile.'!

Art. IV. A concise Exposition of the Apocalypse, so far as the Pro

phécies are fulfilled ; several of which are interpreted in a different
Way from that adopted by other Commentators. By J. R. Parks,
M. D. 8vo. pp. 94. Price 5s. London. 1823.
THE Author of this book has shewn his judgement to ad-

vantage at least in two respects; he has restricted his in

* Acts vii. 22. † Analysis of Antient Mythology. vol. iv.p. 158. Ibid. pp. 160, 1.

terpretation of the Apocalypse to the prophecies which have been fulfilled; and remembering the maxim of former days, when book-making and publishing were not quite so common as they are at present, that a great book is a great evil, he has condensed his observations into comparatively little space. The peculiarity alluded to in the title, consists in regarding the Apocalypse as altogether a spiritual, and not a political prophecy; as relating exclusively to the progress of true religion, and not to the history of the Roman empire. This principle, the Author has adopted from the very admirable work of Archdeacon Woodhouse, to which he acknowledges his obligations, and which he has taken as his guide. Occasionally, however, he diverges from the path of his leader; as in the interpretation of the fifth trumpet, which the Archdeacon explains of the Gnostic heresy, but which the present Writer considers as applying to the Mahommedan apostacy. signing the limits of his expository labours to the prophecies • which have been fulfilled,' Dr. Park has fixed on the pouring out of the Sixth Vial; the accomplishment of which, he thinks, is obviously taking place in the impending fate of the Ottoman empire. As the section in which this portion of the book of the Revelation is explained, is short, we shall transcribe it as a specimen of this concise Exposition,

In as



1800 1850. Verse 12. And the sixth poured · The History extending to the out his vial


great river.

East as well as the West, now Euphrates; and the water there- intimates the downfal of the of 'was dried up, that the way Ottoman Empire ; the great bar. of the kings of the East might be rier that prevents the disseminat prepared.

tion of Christianity among the

Eastern nations. « 13. And I saw from the mouth • The nature of these three of the dragon, and from the mouth spirits may be infe

spirits may be inferred from their of the beast, and from the mouth origin. From the dragon proof the

false prophet, three unclean ceeds irreligion; from the beast, spirits, as it were frogs.

worldly ambition; from the false prophet, false religion, Mahom

medism. • 14. For they are spirits of

· These will be leagued together demons, working wonders, which for the support of their worldly go forth upon the kings of the interests, and in opposition to whole region, to gather them those of true religion ; but will together for the battle of that receive a signal overthrow. great day of the Almighty God.

:15Behold, I come as a thief, And this defeat, though foreblessed is he who watcheth, and told and looked for, will yet be preserveth his garments, that he more sudden than is expected, may not walk naked, and they see his shame.

16. And they gathered them • Whether the final conflict be together into the place which is spiritual, or political, or both, the called in Hebrew Armageddon. event alone can determine.

• The drying up of the Euphrates, (in evident allusion to the dominion established by the Euphratean horsemen under the Sixth Trumpet,) is a metaphor that appears singularly appropriate to the gradual manner in which the Ottoman empire is now dwindling away. And as the Eastern and Western Apostacy arose at the same time, so it here appears that they are destined to fall together. There can scarcely be a doubt, that the third party to the league announced in verse 13, applies to the imposture of Mahomet, and to the Turks.?)

Perhaps some profound investigator of the preceding passage, who may be more highly gifted than his brethren with clear and penetrating sight, may discover the Triumvirs of the Holy Alliance in the symbolic frogs or three unclean spirits. They are certainly leagued together for the support of their worldly interests; they are besides working wonders; and they also go forth upon the kings of the earth. And who can doubt that a signal overthrow awaits the members of a league which was formed for the oppression of mankind, and the destruction of every right and privilege which lift men above the degradations and miseries of slavery? And who will scruple to repeat his prayer, that He who sits in the heavens, and laughs at the deeply laid counsels of these rulers of the world, and holds in contempt and scorn their unhallowed projects, may soon confound their devices, and, in the utter confusion and ruin of all the measures which they oppose to freedom and religion, may open the way for the advancement of truth, and righteousness, and peace ?

This concise Exposition deserves to be recommended as a useful outline of the Apocalyptic predictions and their fulfilment.

in Art. V. 1. A Narrative of the Political and Military Transactions

of British India under the Administration of the Marquess of Hastings, 1813 to 1818. By Henry T. Prínsep, of the Hon. East India Company's Service, Bengal. 4to. Price 21. 12s.6d.

London. 2. Considerations on the State of British India, embracing the sub

jects of Colonization, Missionaries, the State of the Press, the Nepaul and Mahratta Wars, the Civil Government and Indian Army. By Lieut. A. White, of the Bengal Native Infantry.

8vo. Price 12s. Edinburgh. 11 NDIA has of late years been the theatre of the most memo

rable exploits, and of the most astonishing vicissitudes of empire. The policy by which so tremendous a mass of empire has been accumulated, as England now possesses there, and the civil wisdom by which it is to be preserved, are problems in political science highly deserving of serious meditation, and they have recently called forth the most anxious inquiry. The public mind is at last fully awakened to the importance of the subject; and the civil and military affairs of that country are no longer considered as being little more than what Milton, speaking of the disorders of the Saxon heptarchy, called, the skirmishing of kites and crows.'

The first contemplation of an empire geographically extended from Cape Comorin to the utmost natural barriers of India, the Humalachy, the sandy deserts of the Indus northward, and the impenetrable forests and mountains on its eastern side, fills the mind with an image of terrific greatness, not unlike that produced by the huge impending masses of external na ture, which seem every moment ready to fall by their own magnitude. But the difficulty vanishes so soon as we examine the minute texture of our Indian government, which is one great federative constitution, where treaties stand in place of physical superiority, where influence produces all the effect of military strength, and the whole system is kept close and compact, because, either by contrivance or by accident, the various native powers think that they govern themselves, although not a shadow of political independence is left to them. Analyzed into its elements, it will be found little more than a government of opinion, carried on by means of the confidence reposed in us, by those in whom the physical strength resides, and by those chiefs and princes who, having been forced successively into our alliance, find that they reap such benefits from it, as render them unwilling to desert it.

It is obvious, that this confederacy is subject to many dangers; and it has been the necessity of successively obviativg


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