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language only. The attempt to preach without premeditation, he justly deprecates as most unjustifiable. Among the dangers of the practice, the temptation to indolence in preparing for the desk, is admitted to be undoubtedly the most serious and formidable.

A man finds that, after a little practice, it is an exceedingly easy thing, to fill up his half-hour with declamation which shall pass off very well, and hence he grows negligent in previous meditation, and insensibly degenerates into an empty exhorter, without choice of language, or variety of ideas. We see examples of this wherever we look among those whose preaching is exclusively extempore. In these cases, the evil rises to its magnitude in consequence of their total neglect of the pen. The habit of writing a certain proportion of the time, would, in some measure, counteract this dangerous ten. dency.

But it is still insisted,' continues Mr. Ware, that man's natural love of ease is not to be trusted ; that he will not long continue the drudgery of writing in part; that when he has once gained confidence to speak without study, he will find it so flattering to his indolence, that he will involuntarily give himself up to it, and relinquish the pen altogether; that consequently, there is no security, except in never beginning. To this it may be replied, that they who have not principle and self-government enough to keep them industrious, will not be kept so by being compelled to write sermons. I think we have abundant proof, that a man may write with as little pains and thinking as he can speak. It by no means follows, that because it is on paper, it is therefore the result of study., And if it be not, it will be greatly inferior, in point of effect, to an unpremeditated declamation; for, in the latter case, there will probably be at least a temporary excitement of feeling, and consequent vivacity of manner, while, in the former, the indolence of the writer will be made doubly intolerable by his heaviness in reading.

• It cannot be doubted, however, that if any one find his facility of extemporaneous invention likely to prove destructive to his habits of diligent and careful application, it were advisable that he abstained from the practice. It could not be worth while for him to lose his habits of study and thinking, for the sake of an ability to speak, which would avail him but little after his ability to think had been weakened. As for those whose indolence habitually prevails over principle, and who make no preparation for duty, excepting the me. chanical one of covering over a certain number of pages,--they have nó concern in the ministry, and should be driven to seek some other employment, where their mechanical labour may provide thema livelihood, without injuring their own souls or those of other men.'

The temptation to indolence attendant on the practice of reading sermons, is at least equally strong. It can hardly be expected, that such persons will rigidly confine themselves to the use of their own compositions, and if they do, a practice which discharges them from the necessity of a moment's premeditation before entering the pulpit, the manuscript being once prepared, is but too likely to have an unfavourable iufluence, by inducing a carelessness in the only effective kind of moral preparation. An indolent man, too, will not study the more, because he writes: he will only read the less. There can be no doubt that the practice of composition is favourable to correctness. And yet, it is well known, that a tolerable degree of correctness of language may be obtained in conversation or public teaching, by persons, strictly speaking, illiterate, and incompetent to write either a sermon or a letter with any thing approaching to the same degree of propriety. It is, therefore, no paradox to affirm, that a preacher's written compositions may be inferior in correctness to his extemporaneous discourses. There is, moreover, a peculiar tact required in writing for the pulpit, which few possess

. Good writing differs 80 essentially from the style proper for oratory or familiar address, that there is great danger of falling into an intermediate style possessing the character of neither. We should be disposed to recommend the student to exercise his pen in any species of composition rather than sermons.

His object should be to improve himself by writing, not as regards style, which may be better learned from reading the best authors, so much as in the power of close thinking. And sermon-writing is of all kinds, perhaps, the least adapted to foster this habit, being, for the most part, with the shew of method, the most loose and desultory in its character. The chief advantage to be derived from writing one's thoughts, is the obtaining of clear ideas. Furnished with these, little or no preparation of language would be found necessary by the speaker.

Language,' says Mr. Ware, is the last thing he should be anxious about. If he have ideas, and be awake, it will come of itself, unbidden and unsought for. The best language flashes upon the speaker as unexpectedly as upon the hearer. It is the spontaneous gift of the mind, not the extorted boon of a special search. 'No man who has thoughts, and is interested in them, is at a loss for wordsnot the most uneducated man; and the words he uses will be according to his education and general habits, not according to the labour of the moment. If he truly feel, and wish to communicate his feelings to those around him, the last thing that will fail will be language. The less he thinks of it, and cares for it, the more copiously and richly will it flow from him; and when he has forgotten every thing but his desire to give vent to bis emotions, and to do good, then will the unconscious torrent pour, as it does at no other season. This entire surrender to the spirit which stirs within, is indeed the real secret of all eloquence. " True eloquence," says Milton, “I find to be none but the serious and hearty love of truth; and that whose mind soever is fully possessed with a fervent desire to know good things, and with the dearest charity to infuse the knowledge of them into others,—when such a man would speak, his words, like so many nimble, airy servitors, trip about him at command, and in well-ordered files, as he would wish, fall aptly into their places. Rerum énim copia (says the great Roman Teacher and Example) verborum copiam gignit:

It is remarkable, that the prejudice against extemporaneous preaching, which exists in some quarters, has attached itself to no profession but that of the ministry. The most fastidious taste,' observes Mr. Ware, never carries a written speech

to the bar or into the senate.' This does not apply, indeed, to France, and some other foreign countries. But, speaking of the United States, (and the remark equally applies to this country,) he adds:

• The very man who dares not ascend the pulpit without a sermon diligently arranged and filled out to the smallest word, if he had gone into the profession of the law, would, at the same age, and with no greater advantages, address the bench and jury in language altogether unpremeditated. Instances are not wanting, in which the minister who imagined it impossible to put ten sentences together in the pulpit, has found himself able, on changing his profession, to speak fluently for an hour.'

The rules laid down by Mr. Ware, for acquiring the habit of extemporaneous speaking, will be found very serviceable. We can only make room for the following, which we think highly judicions, and at the same time valuable for the recommen. dation which it conveys, of expository preaching.

• There will be a great advantage in selecting for first efforts ex, pository subjects. To say nothing of the importance and utility of this mode of preaching, which render it desirable that every minister should devote a considerable proportion of his labours to it, it contains great facilities and reliefs for the inexperienced speaker. The close study of a passage of Scripture which is necessary to ex pounding it, renders it familiar. The exposition is inseparably connected with the text, and necessarily suggested by it. The inferences and practical reflections are in like manner naturally and indissolubly associated with the passage. The train of remark is easily preserved, and embarrassment in a great measure guarded against, by the circumstance that the order of discourse is spread out in the open Bible, upon

which the eyes may rest, and by which the thoughts may rally.' We have no very serious apprehensions that extemporaneous preaching will ever become unpopular among English Dissentérs, notwithstanding that we have recently observed in some quarters, a disposition to follow the seductive example of certain celebrated Scotch orators. To read an oration eloquently, is a rare and difficult attainment, which few will be able to master. Mr. Ware urges it as one powerful recommendation of the extemporary inode of address, that its general adoption would tend to break up · the constrained,

cold, formal, scholastic mode of address, which follows the • student from his college duties, and keeps him from imme

diate contact with the hearts of his fellow men. We are well persuaded that there are substantial reasons for the preference which he gives to the more popular method.

Art. IX. L'Indépendance de l'Empire du Brésil. Presentée aux Mo

narques Européens. Par M. Alphonse de Beauchamp, Historien

du Brésil, &c. 8vo. pp. 141. A Paris. 1824. ONE NE would have thought that, with the example beføre

them of the United States of America, the re-conquest of Brazil by any forees which Portugal could send against her now independent Colonies, would have appeared too visionary to be attempted. Its virtual independence may be dated from the emigration of the Court of Lisbon. That event shewed, as this writer remarks, that Portugal stood in need of Brazil, but that Brazil had no longer need of Portugal; and it became thenceforward impossible that the union of the two countries should subsist on the same conditions as before. It were suf ficient, one would think, to content the sovereign of Portugal, that the throne of Brazil is occupied by a member of the house of Braganza : and no doubt the king himself would have been ready to acquiesce in the elevation of his son to the empire, did not commercial as well as political jealousies prompt the government of the mother country to attempt to recover .at once the sovereignty and the monopoly of its ancient possessions. But, says Monsieur Alphonse de Beauchamp, 'L

Le Brésil est, et restera Independant.' And he thinks that their holinesses, the allied monarchs, must, on reflection, be satisfied with this. Brazil may and ought to be, he thinks, the monarchical safe-guard of the new hemisphere and of old Europe.

• The accession of Don Pedro to the imperial throne is an advantage to all the European monarchies : the example will not be lost. Let it be recollected, that the United States of America, in establish. ing their independence, inoculated us with the fever of democracy, unhappily imported into Europe. The contrary will be the case of Brazil, which has preserved the monarchical regime and the hereditary principle.' What immense advantages for an ancient race! The example of Brazil will be of great weight beyond the Atlantic, and perhaps, among us. May the fruits of Brazil, grafted on the tree of the European monarchy, be appreciated and enjoyed in both hemispheres !

The Writer of this tract is, at least in his own estimation, a very great man,-a great historian, a great politician, and

a true prophet. Comme historien du Brésil,' he says, ' pou'vais-je rester insensible aux grands évenemens qui l'agitent ' & le régénèrent; pouvais-je rester silencieux lorsque les

deux Mondes en parlent? Le premier n'ai-je pas annoncé au monde les brillantes destinées de l'empire du Brésil sous

le sceptre de l'auguste maison de Bragance ?' &c. This is very amusing. But when M. B. affirms that no history of Brazil bad appeared before the publication of his work in 1815, and that it was a sort of creation,' he shews only that his faithlessness is equal to his ridiculous vanity. The use made in that work of the manuscript documents cited in Southey's History of Brazil, and in the exclusive possession of the English historian, proves that M. de Beauchamp had not only seen the work, which he is so base as to depreciate, but had borrowed from it the very information on which he prides himself. His claim to the title of historien du Brésil, is about on a par with that of Goldsmith to be considered as the historian of England. The present Tract contains some interesting information, but the greater part has found its way into the public Journals.

The Empire of Brazil is now calculated to extend over more than two millions of square leagues. Its limits are not precisely defined, but the great river Maranham and the Plata have been considered as its natural boundaries, separating it from the Spanish dominions on the North, and from the territory of Buenos Ayres on the South, while on the West, it is bounded only by Peru and Paraguay. The population, according to the last census, already amounts to upwards of four millions, of whom nearly one half is supposed to be free, viz. 343,000 whites, 426,000 mulattoes, 260,000 Indians, and 160,000 free blacks. Its revenue, which, in 1818, amounted to little more than fourteen millions of francs, had risen, in, 1820, to sixty-one millions, and in 1823, to sixty-six millions, and it is rapidly angmenting. Possessed of from a thousand to twelve hundred leagues of coast, with the finest ports in the world, an immense interior navigation, excellent fisheries, and a . geographical position peculiarly advantageous, being situated in the narrowest part of the vast channel of the Atlantic, a territory capable of one day affording sustenance to a popula-" tion of a hundred millions, with abundance of the finest timber for ship-building,—with such immense natural advantages, nothing but a bad government can hinder this rising empire from becoming one of the greatest maritime states in the New World.

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