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bottom with loose cinders. This valley is bounded on the left by a ridge or wall of immense height, as if the great flood of melted matter had been chilled and stopped in its course.
In some parts it seemed as if the lava and scoria had been in part decomposed ; and in these, several species of aloes, yucca, dracinæ, and other strange and picturesque plants were thriving luxuriantly. In other places, thousands of trunks of huge trees, dead and crumbling into dust, added wildness to the scene of desolation. Still further on the left, the mountain of pipes, of extraordinary size, and others covered with stunted oaks, served by contrast to exhibit the picture of this tremendous-looking and savage region with greater force.'
Mr, Bullock was highly delighted with the city of Puebla de los Angeles, said to contain 90,000 inhabitants, many of whom are wealthy, and live in good style, and vying in the splendour of its churches and the richness of its endowments, with the capitals of Europe. It contains, according to this Traveller, 60 churches, 9 monasteries, 13 nunneries, and 23 colleges.
' They are the most sumptuous,' he says, • I have ever seen. Those of Milan, Genoa, and Rome are built in better taste, but, in expensive interior decorations, the quantity and value of the ornaments of the altar, and the richness of the vestments, are far surpassed by those of Puebla and Mexico
The high altar of the cathedral appears to be the ne plus ultra of El Doradic splendour. We should exceedingly like to see it in the Egyptian hall, Piccadilly. It is described as ! A most superb temple, of exquisite workmanship, and in elegant taste, lately finished by an Italian artist, from Roman designs, but executed in Mexico, and of native materials. It is of such size as to occupy a considerable part of the cathedral, and to reach into the dome. Its fault is, that it is too large, being disproportionate to the building in which it is placed, and also too modern to harmonize with the surrounding objects. The materials are the most beautiful marble and precious stones that can be found in New Spain. Its numerous and lofty columns, with plinths and capitals of burnished gold, the magnificent altar of silver, crowded with statues, &c. &c., have an unequalled effect.
I have travelled over most of Europe, but I know of nothing like it; and only regret that it does not belong to a building more worthy of it. The side altars are all crowded to excess with statues, carving, gilding, silver candelabras, balustrades, gold chandeliers, &c. It was Holy-week, and in the evening I accompanied Mr. Furlong and bis lady to the service of Tenebræ, and never witnessed such a splendid scene : certainly it surpassed in magnificence all I knew of the pomp of courts. The whole cathedral, and all its costly appendages, and fretted golden roof, were displayed and illuminated by thousands of wax-lights, reflected from gold and silver chandeliers of the finest workmanship; an altar covered with massive plate, as fresh as from the hands of the artisan ; a host of officialory clergy, arrayed in the richest vestments; the waving of banners; the solemn music, and a well-conducted band! That heart must have been cold indeed, which could have remained inanimate amid sucb a scene. He who would wish to see the pomp of religious ceremony, should visit Puebla.'
There is one question which it did not occur to Mr. Bullock to put to himself, Is all this religion? We ask, Has it any connexion with religion--any more connexion than a levee, a review, or a pantomine? Unless, indeed, the name of religion is to be given to any rites, however absurd or revolting, which Turk, Papist, or Pagan may deem an acceptable worship of Allah, the Virgin, Buddh, Brahma, or Teoyamiqui. But if this were all that Mexico could furnish in the way of sights, it would scarcely be worth while to endure even a day at Vera Cruz, to say nothing of a transatlantic voyage, to enjoy the spectacle. Possibly, Mr. Bullock may be of a different persuasion from ourselves. He speaks with great complacency of there being in every drawing-room or sitting-room in Puebla, a wax model of the infant'Saviour, or some Saint, or the picture of the Virgin of Guadaloupe, or of a Magdalen, or of the Crucifixion; the frames often of silver.' Here, too, he says, the Englishman will witness the same religion and ceremonies, • the same observance of holydays, with the religious proces• sions, that at once were the solace and amusement of our an. • cestors.' Mr. B. never met with clergy so humble, kind, • and attentive to strangers, as the clergy of Puebla de los An
geles.' In short, he is perfectly dazzled with the magnificence, charmed with the politeness, and animated by the piety, that distinguish this angelic' city and its fortunate inhabitants. Here it is gold, real gold, that glitters, and the proverb is all on his side.
The approach to Mexico is far from prepossessing. When first seen, it is discovered to be situated in a swamp, and the country in its immediate vicinity resembles the worst parts of Lincolnshire. 'Nothing around gives any idea of the mag. • nificent city to which you are approaching: all is dreary si
lence and solitude. The suburbs are mean and dirty, and the inhabitants are covered with rags or wrapped in a blanket. The interior of the city, however, is represented as quite repaying the traveller. The regularity and largeness of the streets, ---many of them nearly two miles in length, terminating in view of the mountains; the size and grandeur of the churches and houses; the novel effect of the style of building,—the houses being, for the most part, painted white, crimson, brown, or light green in distemper, or cased with glazed porcelain ; to
gether with the grandeur of the surrounding scenery, and the purity of the atmosphere, render Mexico a magnificent city.
* But the furniture and internal decorations of most of the houses ill accord with their external appearances. The closing of the mines, the expulsion of the rich Spanish families, and sixteen years of revolutionary warfare, with all the concomitant miseries, have wrought a melancholy alteration in the fortunes of individuals and in the general state of the country: and in this the capital bears no incon. siderable share. The superb tables, chandeliers, and other articles of furniture, of solid silver, the magnificent mirrors and pictures framed of the same precious metal, have now passed through the mint, and, in the shape of dollars, are circulating over Europe and Asia : and families whose incomes have exceeded half a million per annum, can now scarcely procure the means of a scanty existence:
For a minute description of the public Luildings, costume, manufactories, &c. of this splendid capital, we must refer our readers to Mr. Bullock's volume, and to the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly. Among the 'antiquities' with which he returned enriched, are casts of the great Calendar Stone, called Montezuma's Watch; the Sacrificial Stone on which the human victims were immolated, said to have amounted to 2500 annually, and a colossal statue of the most celebrated of the Mexican deities, which was disinterred for his
express accom; modation.
Some writers,' says Mr. Bullock, have accused the Spanish authors of exaggeration in their accounts of the religious ceremonies of this, in other respects, enlightened people; but a view of the idol under consideration will of itself be sufficient to dispel any doubt on the subjeet. It is scarcely possible for the most ingenious artist to have conceived a statue better adapted to the intended purpose; and the united talents and imagination of Brughel and Fuseli would in vain have attempted to improve it. This colossal and horrible monster is hewn out of one solid block of basalt, nine feet high its outlines' giving an idea of a deformed human figure, upiting all that is horrible in the tiger and the rattlesnake: instead of arms, it is supplied with two large serpents, and its drapery is composed of wreathed snakes, interwoven in the most disgusting manner, and the sides terminating in the wings of a vulture. Its feet are those of the tiger, with claws extended in the act of se zing its prey, and between them lies the head of another rattle-snake, which seems descending from the body of the idol. Its decorations accord with its horrid form, having a large necklace composed of human hearts, hands and skulls, and fastened together by the entrails. It has evidently been painted in natural colours, which must have added greatly to the terrible effect it was intended to inspire in its votaries. During the time it was exposed, the court of the University was crowded with people, most of whom expressed the most decided Vol. XXII. N. S.
anger and contempt. Not so, however, all the Indians :-I atten tively marked their countenances ; not a smile escaped them, or event a word-all was silence and attention. In reply to a joke of one of the students, an old Indian remarked : “ It is true, we have three very good Spanish gods, but we might still have been allowed to keep a few of those of our ancestors !” And I was informed that chaplets of flowers had been placed on the figure by natives who had stolen thither unseen, in the evening, for that purpose ; a proof that, notwithstanding the extreme diligence of the Spanish clergy for three hundred years, there still remains some taint of heathen superstition among the descendants of the original inhabitants. In a week the cast was finished, and the goddess again committed to her place of interment, hid from the profane gaze of the vulgar.'
A very interesting excursion was made by our Traveller to Tezcuco, in old times the seat of Mexican literature, and termed by Mr. B., somewhat facetiously, the · Athens of • America. At a distance of two leagues from this city, he was informed that there was a place called Bano de Montezuma, which had formerly been used as a bath by that monarch.
• A gentleman of the town, Don Trinidad Rosalia, offered to escort us, and in a few minutes we were on horseback : after a smart canter through cultivated grounds, and over a fine plain, bounded by the mountains of the Cordilleras, we approached an hacienda and church ; and here I expected to find the bath of which we were in search, in some subterraneous place, but learnt to my surprise that we had to mount a conical mountain called Tescosingo. We employed our horses as far as they could take us, but the unevenness of the ground at last obliged us to dismount, and having fastened them to a nopal tree, we scrambled with great difficulty through bushes and over loose stones, which were in great quantities on all sides, and at last perceived that we were on the ruins of a very large building-the cemented stones remaining in some places covered with stucco, and forming walks and terraces, but much encumbered with earth fallen from above, and overgrown with a wood of nopal, which made it difficult to ascend. In some places the terraces were carried over chasms by solid pieces of masonry; in others cut through the living rock: but, as we endeavoured to proceed in a straight line, our labour was very great, being sometimes obliged to climb on our hands and knees. By the assistance of underwood, however, at length, after passing several buildings and terraces, the stucco of which appeared fresh and of a fine peach colour, we arrived at about two-thirds of the height of the hill, almost exhausted, with our exertions; and great indeed was our disappointment when we found that our guide had mistaken the situation, and did not know exactly where we were. Greatly chagrined, we began to retrace our steps; and luckily in a few minutes perceived the object of our search. It was cut in the solid rock, and standing out like a marten's
mest from the side of a house, It is not only an extraordinary bath, but still more extraordinarily placed. It is a beautiful basin about twelve feet long by eight wide, having a well about five feet by four deep in the centre. surrounded by a parapet or rim two feet six inches high, with a throne or chair, such as is represented in ancient pictures to have been used by the kings. There are steps to descend into the basin or bath ; the whole cut out of the living porphyry rock with the most mathematical precision, and polished in the most beautiful manner. This bath commands one of the finest prospects in the Mexican valley, including the greater part of the lake of Tezcuco, and the city of Mexico, from which it is distant about thirty miles.
• Night was fast approaching, and the sky portending a thunderstorm, we were obliged to depart; and now I had occasion to regret the hours I had unprofitably lost at the cock-fight. I had just time to make a hurried 'sketch for a model, and my son to take a slight drawing, when we were reluctantly forced to quit a spot which had been the site of a most singular and ancient residence of the former monarchs of the country. As we descended, our guide showed us in the rock a large reservoir for supplying with water the palace, whose walls still remained eight feet high; and as we examined farther, we found that the whole mountain had been covered with palaces, temples, baths, hanging gardens, &c.; yet this place has never been noticed by any writer.
• I am of opinion that these were antiquities prior to the discovery of America, and erected by a people whose history was lost even before the building of the city of Mexico. In our way down we collected specimens of the stucco which covered the terrace, still as hard and beautiful as any found at Portici or Herculaneum. Don T. Rosalia informed us that we had seen but the commencement of the wonders of the place ;-that there were traces of buildings to the very top still discernible ;-that the mountain was perforated by artificial excavations, and that a flight of steps led to one near the top, which he himself had entered, but which no one as yet had had courage to explore, although it was believed that immense riches were buried in it.
• We regained our horses, and an hour brought us back to Tezcuco, greatly fatigued indeed, but more lamenting the little time we bad been able to give to the most interesting place we had visited ; and wbich, it is not a little extraordináry, appears to have been unnoticed by the Spanish writers at the conquest, in whom it probably excited as little interest as it does in the present inhabitants of the city of Mexico, not one of whom could I find who had ever seen or even heard of it.'
The pyramids of the Sun and Moun,' near Otumba, form another of the wonders of Mexico. They are especially interesting as indicating an apparent affinity between the aborigines and the Egyptians. • As we approached them,' says Mr. Bullock, the square and