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hend, and biting it deeply with his short and strong teeth. One of the officer's doors was quite disfigured by these starts of frenzy. I never, indeed, saw a drunken man more good-humoured, and he chaunted out his terms of friendship to all around him, while to myself he occasionally turned with great gravity, saying that I was his Bon, and, as well as himself, was a great Annatko.'

Captain Lyon's Journal. The farce was concluded by a still more extraordinary feat, in the rapid disappearance of eleven pints of water down the parched 'throat of Toolemak. After each of the seventeen tumblers, he . proudly patted his belly, exclaiming-anatko coanga (I'm a conjuror).' But when the last was with difficulty emptied, and he could swallow no more, he gave in, with the humiliating confession, I'm no conjuror, I can drink '" no more. In a few minutes, to the astonishment of all around him, he rose and walked to his sledge with little assistance, and reached it after a few tumbles in the snow, and in a perfect elysium of drunken gayety. It is remarkable that, though he had taken enough raw spirit to kill a Europeanwhat excuse can be made for so desperate an experiment ?-it did not produce drowsiness, and that in the short space of one hour, though unable, at first, to support himself on his legs, he recovered their use. On the following morning, he had neither nausea nor headache. This second winter appears to have been injurious to the health of the officers and crew, scurvy appearing among the former, and a greater liability to disease among the latter; and though serious consequences were prevented by prompt and judicious medical and dietetic treatment, there was reason to fear that, in the event of a longer sojourn in these inhospitable climates, the symptoms would return with increased force. This, with other cogent reasons, induced the commanders of the expedition to reverse a plan for the execution of which they had made preparation, by shifting a large proportion of the Hecla's provisions to the Fury. It had been arranged, that, as the stores were too far exhausted to allow of the further prosecution of the enterprise in both vessels, the latter should appropriate as large a quantity as possible of the provisions and equipment of the former, and proceed singly on the business of discovery. Nothing, however, was lost by the abandonment of this scheme, since the barrier of ice in the Strait of the Fury and Hecla, the sole outlet, on this coast, into the Polar sea, was found absolutely impenetrable. The ships left their anchorage at Iglovlik on the 8th and 9th of August, 1823, and made the Orkneys on the 9th of October, after having enVOL. XXII. N.S.


countered, in addition to the usual casualties of Arctic navigation, the perils to which we referred at the commencement of the article, and which nearly made Lyon Inlet the termination of their homeward voyage.

The period of detention, both while seeking a passage through the Strait of the Fury and Hecla, and in the winterquarters, was actively employed in boat surveys and in land expeditions. The result of these exertions has given an accu. rate outline of the coasts, bays, islands, and inlets in this direction, and determined the junction of the strait just named with the ocean. The latitude of Igloolik is 69° 21'. N., and its longitude 81o. 36'. 34". W. The extreme points reached in the course of the voyage may be stated in general, at nearly the 70th degree of latitude, and the 84th of longitude.

It may now, we suppose, be considered as an established point in geography, that a North-west passage exists ;-whether practicable or not, is a different question ;- and the discoveries f6f Hearne, Mackenzie, Franklin, and Parry, have made it all but certain, that the northern coast of the American continent does not extend beyond the 70th or 71st parallel of latitude. Captain Parry, notwithstanding former failures, is still sanguine

in his expectation of ultimate success, and expresses his hope that Regent's Inlet may

be found to afford the desired communication.

Of the two volumes before us, the Quarto, in particular, betrays marks of haste in the getting up. Some of the plates

are good, and all are well adapted to the purpose of illustra. tion; but the aquatints are, with one or two exceptions, of inferior and inadequate execution. The maps are good, though by no means highly engraved. The composition of

the narrative is creditable to Captain Parry as a writer, though the necessarily minute information abates something from its interest to general readers. In this respect, Captain Lyon's Octavo volume will be more generally acceptable. Written for the perusal only of his own family, it is stripped of those professional particularities that are indispensable in an official narrative ; and the quaintness and dry humour of the style, give'a raciness to 'the narrative. It has a valuable chart for general purposes, but we would willingly have given up all the plates of costume for a map of more specific detail.

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Art. II. A Memoir of Central India, including Malwa, and the adjoin

ing Provinces; with the History and copious Illustrations of the past and present Condition of that Country. By Major-General Sir

John Malcolm, G. C. B. K. L. 8. 2 vols. 8vo. Second Edition. Hap. pp. 1127. London, 1894. T seems now to be a settled point, that every ruler in British

India, from the prince who commands the resources of an extensive kingdom, to the petty rajah of some score or two of villages, is to hold bis temporalities on terms of allegiance and feudality to the musnud of Leadenhall-street. This policy, however, has not been adopted without much hesitation; and, at one time, even after it had been acted upon to a conşiderable extent, it appeared to be rejected in favour of a more moderate and unambitious system. Two of the British governors of India, one an experienced soldier, the other conspicuous for wisdom in civil life, made considerable sacrifices, and abandoned settled alliances and contracts, in preference to maintaining a dominion so gigantic and so unsafe. They were of opinion, not only that the East India Company were masters of quite as much territory as could be governed with advantage to themselves and to their subjects, but that they occupied a station so well adapted both for defence and menace, as to give them an efficient control over the restlessness and turbulence of the native powers. The Marquesses Wellesley and Hastings, in their splendid-we believe this is the established formula-administrations, went into the opposite extreme, and adopted a system of federation which placed the whole surface of India under their inspection, and all its resources at their command. The result of this has been, such an arrangement and extension of territory, as to insulate and overawe the more formidable of the native states, and to support the petty rajahs whose fortresses hem in the frontiers of Malwa and Berar, in their independence on their former masters, and their çonsequent dependence on British supremacy. But its effect has also been, to impose the absolute necessity of maintaining this dominion in its complete and unbroken extent, and of watching with unrelaxing vigilance every wheel and lever of this immense machinery. Every native court has been virtually compelled to admit an English garrison, and, specifically, to hold its contingent in readiness for English service. The residents at the different capitals of the Nizam, the Nagpoor Rajab, Holkar, and Scindia, are surrounded by efficient guards, which, in two remarkable instances, have been proved fully equal to the defeat of the native armies by which they were assailed. As we shall probably have to bring this part of the subject forward in another article, we shall only observe, in this place, that such a rigid system of surveillance cannot but he most irksome and intolerable to those over whom it is exercised, and that their implicit acquiescence in its regular continuance must be considered as altogether out of the range of political calculation.

It is, perhaps, not within our competency to decide between the two systems. The first has appearances in its favour, and it is most in accordance with our notions of international relations. It presents an aspect of compact strength and honourable dealing, which strongly recommends it to moral preference, as well as of an abstinence from intrigue and intermedaling, that identifies it with sound policy. On the other hand, the peculiarities of local circumstances, habits, and opinions, are not to be overlooked. The institutions of a large proportion of the native governments are essentially adverse to a state of peace; and as Europeans can appear to them in no other light than that of interlopers and usurpers, their expulsion would be an object continually pursued in every variety of predatory inroad and confederated' attack. The feuds and jealousies which have continually armed the native chiefs against each other, have been the sources of that weakness and misgovernment which have made Hindostan an inviting and easy prey to every invader from Alexander to Nadir Shah; and if the supremacy of the East India Company shall so repress her agitations and consolidate her resources as to give iniernal quiet and external strength to those extensive regions, it will be the most illustrious example on record of beneficial conquest.

It would afford matter of curious and interesting speculation, were we to retrace the history, and to determine the peculiar character of the different wars in which the present lords of Hindostan have been engaged, from the infancy to the con. summation of their power. The fine military maneuvres of Lawrence and Coote, and the subtle policy of Clive, faid the foundation of the empire, whose armies, in the recent contest, advanced from all quarters of India to assert its supremacy, but whose commanders, at a period not far beyond the memory of aged men, were struggling, at the head of a few companies, for the insecure possession of a narrow district or a fortified rock. . The contests which gave us the command of the Carnatic, were often of a doubtful kind. Hyder Ali had, probably, more decided military genius than any of the natives who have risen to permanent dominion, and his combined activity, courage, and skill, frequently drove his antagonists to the very edge of ruin. The defeat and death of his son, left the East India Company without any immediately formidable antagonist, excepting such as miglit be raised up from the union of the Mahratta states; and the apprehensions from this quarter were, at one time, fraught with well-founded alarm. The advantages of European discipline had been duly appreciated by the native rulers, and one of the ablest of the Mahratta chiefs, Madhajee Sindia, had, with the aid of skilful French officers, succeeded in raising a numerous and well appointed army of effective regulars. This corps, formed by De Boigne, and subsequently commanded by Perron, was broken up by the victories of Wellesley and Lake, in the decisive campaign of 1803. It was quite obvious that the pacification which succeeded, rested on no ground more solid than that of reluctant submission to superior force, and that when the immediate pressure was withdrawn, the spirit of restlessness, intrigue, and uneasy subjection to a controlling power, would begin again to work. Nor were there wanting circumstances which might give to sanguine minds a prospect of ultimate success. The subsequent war between the English and Holkar, though terminating in defeat to the latter, was not only unmarked by that entire discomfiture which had usually attended the efforts of the natives against European discipline, but had been distinguished by events injurious to the reputation of the British arms. 'The disastrous retreat of Colonel Monson, and the calamitous failure at Bhurtpore, inspired the malcontents with new bopes, which the casualties and embarrassments of the war with Nepaul by no means tended to diminish. These elements of strife might, however, have long lain dormant, but for the unaccountable infatuation of the Paishwah, Bajee Row, the nominal head of the Mahratta league. This sirgularly weak and infatuated prince had been, after his defeat by Holkar, at the battle of Poonah in October 1802, replaced on his throne by British interference, and his dominions were most unfavourably situated for defence against the armies of the Company. But the considerations of prudence failed before the influence of Trimbuckjee, his unworthy favourite ; and he engaged in a series of intrigues which brought on the late war, reduced him from the rank of a monarch to the condition of a prisoner at large, crushed the Mahratta power, put down the Pindarry system, and enabled Sir John Malcolm to present us with the admirable volumes before us.

Central India, including Malwa and the adjacent provinces, had been, from various circumstances, nearly closed against the curiosity of Europeans, until thus laid open to their inves. tigation. The jealousy, ferocity, and lawlessness of the Mahsaitas rendered their country unsale to travellers; and the

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