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as an enemy, whose military talents are no longer formidable to your armies.

The two towns Troppau and Jägerndorf are it is true included in the winter-cordon of the enemy's army, and are secured by some field-fortifications, but I hope these two places will prove a very unquiet spot to them.

I hasten to report to you personally the affairs of your majesty, and the condition of the Austrian army, and shall at the same time recommend to your majesty such officers as have by their courage and valor acquired claims for rewards.

I am, with unbounded esteem, your majesty's most dutiful son, Prague, October, 1778.


To *

Mon cher-, The campaign is over, and the king has neither · added to his fame nor acquired any advantages; yet he has convinced himself it was the ne plus ultra of his plans.

In spite of this, it is represented to the empress in an odious point of view,-and peace was projected in a senate, to which no one in Europe ought to give laws.

With this view they fixed upon Teschen as the place of congress. A considerable number of ambassadors immediately assembled, and for three months applied themselves with great wisdom in arranging a peace, by which Austria received only a small part of Bavaria, when the whole country was in her possession.

They did not fail to convince the empress, my mother, of its advantage, and to shew the power of the king through a prism. Immediately a number of compliments were exchanged, and ninety-nine thousand Te Deums were sung and fired in Vienna on the occasion.

It is true, in order not to grieve the empress, I approved this peace, and gave the requisite guarantee. But I may compare my conduct in this respect with that of Charles V. in Africa, who, after a contemptible campaign, returned with his fleet to Spain; he re-embarked, like the rest, but he was the last who did so.

I am like a Venetian general, who in time of war commands the land-army and receives his commission from the republic.- When the campaign is over he obtains a pension.

Live contented like a wise man; enjoy all the charms of your private station, and by no means envy the happiness of kings. Vienna, May, 1779.


To Stephen Francis, Duke of Choiseul, Knight of the Golden

Fleece, and of the Orders of the King, Secretary of State, and Minister (formerly Ambassador at the Court of Vienna).

Mon Ami,- The empress, my mother, has left me a great state, ministers and generals of approved talents, faithful subjects, and a fame which it is difficult for any successor to maintain.

I always entertained the greatest respect for her virtues and character. I honor her memory, and her excellent heart will never be forgotten by me as long as I live.

With respect to the officers of state, this princess has given proof of considerable knowledge of government. Kaunitz, as minister for foreign affairs, Hatzfeld, as minister of the interior, and several ambassadors to various courts, prove, that she knew how to appreciate and reward talents.

With the governors of the provinces I am not quite satisfied. I shall pay some attention to their mode of conducting affairs; there shall be in reality governors in Bohemia, and a minister in Milan.

The influence the clergy have hitherto exercised in the government of my mother will be another object of my reform. I do not approve that those, who are entrusted with the care of our future life, should take so much pains to make our existence here the object of their wisdom and solicitude. The state of the finances of the Austrian dominions also -ires an alteration. After a short examination I find the

al debt has considerably increased; the bounties, penmons, additional salaries, and the perquisites of various noblemen and persons in office, have risen to rather a large amount.

I must make retrenchments, however sensibly they may be felt by some whom they will reach.

These matters are yet new to me; I must better ascertain my real position; to the duties of my new station I must add a perfect knowledge of their objects, otherwise I should be a monarch like the Grand Seignior, who is well acquainted with the pleasures, but not with the duties of his station.

Live happier than myself: I have hitherto hardly known what happiness is, and before I have finished the career I have marked out for myself I shall be an old man. Vienna, December, 1780.


To Catherine II. Alexiewna, Empress of Russia. Madame,-Your majesty, on the demise of my never-tobe-forgotten mother, has manifested so many kind sentiments for my welfare; has shewn so much attention to myself and my house; has so clearly convinced me how ready you are on every occasion to give me proofs of your friendship, that if I were insensible of your kindness I must be a barbarian in the very centre of civilisation.

I thank your majesty for all these marks of your generous friendship. I am too sensible of the obligations which your sentiments impose upon me, ever to be ungrateful for the distinguished manner in which you treat me.

Dissatisfied with myself, and with the distance between us, I regret nothing more than being denied by destiny, the delight of giving you proof of all the gratitude which I owe you.

A high regard for your majesty shall be the object of my constant solicitude; and I shall derive a sort of glory, when every body is obliged to confess that I knew how to obtain the friendship of a princess, who is worthy of the veneration of all Europe.

I have occupied too much of your majesty's time, but who, that knows your accomplishments, can resist the pleasure of conversing with you? I am, with sentiments of the most perfect esteem and veneration,

Your Majesty's most obedient,
Vienna, December, 1780.



To Maria Christina, Archduchess of Austria [Consort to the

Duke of Saxe-Teschen, and second sister of Joseph IJ,' Madame,- It is with the utmost pleasure I discha obligation, which a promise to her majesty, the late em,

of imposed upon me, by my offering your highness and your loved consort, the dignity of Stadtholder in the Austrian Netherlands.

The banks of the Sambre, Marimont, and the enchanting environs of Brussels, will, I hope, be a more pleasing spectacle than Panonia, a country which was once inhabited by Huns and Avars, and which, in spite of all the efforts of government, still bears the traces of the residence of those Barbarians.

The Netherlands have advantages over many other countries in Europe: they have rich citizens, a high noblesse, and a flourishing commerce; the people are attached to our house, and Charles Lorrain received abundant proofs of the good-will of the Belgians.

I wish you may be perfectly satisfied with the arrangements which I have made for you, and that you may find Brussels as agreeable as it was to our deceased uncle.

To render the cares of your government easy, I have associated with you prince Stahrenberg, who fully possesses the qualifications of a minister, and who will assist your highness in every affair.

Adien, Princess! I embrace you with the greatest friendship, and am, with the most perfect esteem,

Your most obedient brother,
Vienna, January, 1781.

To the Archbishop of Salzburg.
Mon Prince, I have conducted the affairs of the German
Empire alone, since the death of my father, and also for a
long time the department of war. In the former, I have been
assisted by a vast number of the laws of the empire, and the
vice-chancellor Colloredo; the latter is superintended by my
Lascy, one of the most able generals of the age; his great
talents guaranty to me the good condition of my armies, and
the security of my empire.

But the internal administratiom of my states requires immediate reform.-An empire which I govern must be swayed according to my own principles; prejudice, fanaticism, partiality, and slavery of the mind must cease, and each of my subjects be re-instated in the enjoyment of his native liberties.

Monachism has considerably increased in Austria; the number of ecclesiastical establishments and of monasteries has an to an extravagant height. The government till now,

ing to the rules of these people, had little or no right zir persons, and they are the most dangerous and use

subjects in every state, as they endeavour to exclude wemselves from the observance of all civil laws, and on all occasions have recourse to the Pontifex Maximus in Rome.

My minister of state, Baron von Kresel, the enlightened van Swieten, the prelate Rautenstrauch, and several other men of approved talents, will be nominated for the Aulic commission, which I have appointed for the suppression of the unnecessary monasteries and convents; and from their zeal for the good cause, and their attachment to the crown, I can expect all the good services which they will thereby render to the country.

When I shall have torn away the veil from monachism, when I shall have removed from the chains of my universities Andromache's web of the Ascetic doctrine, and when I shall have converted the monk of mere show into a useful citizen, then perhaps some of the party zealots will reason differently of my reforms.

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I have a difficult task before me; I have to reduce the host of monks, I bave to transform Fakirs into men: those, before whose shorn head the common people fall down on their knees in veneration, and who have acquired a greater influence over the heart of the citizen, than any thing capable of making an impression on the human mind. Adieu ! Vienna, February, 1781.


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