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guished sentiments of friendship, and reckon on your support whenever circumstances occur that render it indispensable to me. God preserve you a long time to Germany. Frankfort, April 1764.

Joseph. To Charles, Prince of Batthian. Mon Prince,-We travelled, in company with the GrandDuke of Florence, and the two Archduchesses, Anna and Christina, to Inspruck, to assist at the nuptials of my brother; and on the 18th, the melancholy event of the Emperor's death took place. He was suddenly attacked with apoplexy, and expired in my arms.

Mon Prince! No human being is capable of adequately expressing the acute feelings with which the heart of a son is overwhelmed, who loses for ever a father, by whom he is convinced he was loved.

In the midst of my own sufferings I did not forget my mother. But could the consolations of a son whose heart was almost broken-could these consolations compensate for the cruel blow which fate had given her ?

My father had the most tender affection for me. He was my teacher, my friend, and the greatest prince of his house ; worthy the confidence of his family and his whole people. He was generous, just, beneficent, a patron of the arts and sciences, a friend to the indigent, and to aspiring genius, and, hough a monarch, well acquainted with private merit.

I am now twenty-four years of age. Providence has given me the cup of sorrow in my early days! I lost my wife after having possessed her scarcely three years.

Dear Eliza ! thou wilt never be forgotten by me! Since thy death I have felt inexpressible sufferings !

You, my Prince, were the guide of my youth; under your direction I became a man. Do now support me also as a monarch in the important duties which destiny imposes upon me, and preserve your heart for your friend, Inspruck, 20th August, 1763.

Joseph. To Maria Beatrix of Esta, Princess of Modena, Consort of the

Archduke Ferdinand. Madame,- I wish you all the happiness of this life, and all the joys of which you are susceptible. May heaven grant your heart that contentment and happiness which your amiable disposition deserves.

Princess! these are the wishes which, with sentiments of real friendship, I sincerely offer you, on a day you were des

tined to become the consort of my brother, and which I shall always reckon among the solemn festivals of my house.

I recommend myself to the continuation of your kind friendship, and am, with the most decided sentiments of respect and esteem,

Your Highness's most affectionate brother and friend, Vienna, October, 1771.


To General ***** My General,-You will immediately arrest the Count of K. and Captain W. The Count is young, passionate, and influenced by wrong notions of birth, and a false sense of honor. Captain W. is an old soldier, who will adjust every dispute with the sword and pistol, and who has received the challenge of the young Count with unbecoming warmth.

I will suffer no duel in my army. I despise the principles of those who attempt to justify the practice, and who would run each other through the body in cold blood.

When I have officers who bravely expose themselves to every danger in facing the enemy, who at all times exhibit courage, valor, and resolution, in attack and defence, I esteem them highly: the coolness with which they meet death on such occasions, is serviceable to their country, and at the same time redounds to their honor. But should there be men amongst them who are ready to sacrifice every thing to their vengeance and hatred, I despise them; I consider such a man as no better than a Roman gladiator.

Order a court-martial to try the two officers; investigate the subject of their dispute with that impartiality which I demand from every judge: and he that is guilty let him be a sacrifice to his fate and the laws.

Such a barbarous custom, which suits the age of the Tamerlanes and Bajazets, and which has often had such melancholy effects on single families, I will have suppressed and punished, even if it should deprive me of one half of my officers ! There are still men who know how to unite the character of a hero with that of a good subject; and he only can be so who respects the laws of the state. August, 1771.


To Choiseul, Duke and Peer, and Secretary of State in France.

Sir,- I thank you for your confidence. If I were regent, you might boast of my support. With respect to the Jesuits, and your plan for their suppression, you have my perfect approbation.

You must not reckon much on my mother; attachment to this order has become hereditary in the family of the house of Habsburg. Clement XIV. himself has proofs of it. However, Kaunitz is your friend; he can effect every thing with the Empress. With regard to their suppression, he is of your and the Marquis Pombal's party; and he is a man who leaves nothing half done.

Choiseul, I know these people as well as any man; I know all the plans which they have executed; their endeavours to spread darkness over the earth, and to govern and confuse Europe from Cape Finisterre to the North Sea.

In Germany they were mandarins, in France academicians, courtiers, and confessors, in Spain and Portugal the grandees of the nation, and in Paraguay kings.

Had not my grand-uncle Joseph I. become emperor, we probably might have lived to see in Germany Malagridas, Aveiros, and an attempt at regicide. But he knew them thoroughly: when the Synedrium of the order suspected his confessor to be a man of integrity, and found that he manifested more attachment to the Emperor than to the Vatican, he was summoned to Rome. The confessor foresaw his cruel fate, should he be compelled to go thither, and entreated the Emperor to prevent it. But all the efforts of the monarch were in vain. Even the Nuncio demanded his removal in the name of his court. Indignant at these despotic measures, the Emperor declared that if this priest was obliged to go to Rome, he should not go there without a numerous suite; for all the Jesuits in the Austrian dominions should accompany him, none of whom should ever return. This positive answer of the Emperor, so unexpected in those times, caused the Jesuits to give up their intentions.

Thus it was formerly, Choiseul; I foresee that things must change.

Adieu! May Heaven preserve you a long time to France, to me, and to your numerous friends. January, 1770.


To the Count of Aranda, Knight of the Golden Fleece, Grandee of Spain, Privy Counsellor, Minister President of Castile, and

Ambassador in France. Monsieur,—Clement XIV. has acquired eternal glóry by suppressing the Jesuits. He has annihilated these apostolic sibyls from the earth ; and in future their name will be mentioned only in the history of controversies and Jansenism.

Before they were known in Germany, religion was a doc

trine of happiness to the nations; but they have converted it into a revolting image: they have degraded it by using it as an instrument to promote their ambitious views, and as a cloak for their secret designs.

An institution, projected by the fanatical imagination of a Spanish veteran, in one of the southern parts of Europe, which attempted to obtain universal dominion over the human mind, and, with this view, wished to subject every thing to the infallible senate of the Lateran, must have been an unwelcome present to the descendants of Tuiskon.

The principal object of the Loyolists was to acquire glory, to extend their power, and to spread darkness over the rest of the world.

Their intolerance caused Germany to endure the misery of a thirty-years' war. Their principles deprived the Henrys of France of their life and crown; and they were the authors of the abominable edict of Nantes.'

The powerful influence which they had over the Princes of the House of Habsburg is too well known. Ferdinand II. and Leopold I.-were their patrons to their latest breath.

The education of youth, literature, rewards, the distribution of the first dignities of the state, the ear of kings, and the hearts of queens, all were confided to their wise counsels.

We know too well what use they made of their power, what plans they executed, and what fetters they imposed on the nations. . It is not unknown to me, that, besides the great Clement, the ministers of the Bourbon Courts and Mons. de Pombal have labored to effect their suppression. Posterity will do justice to their efforts, and will erect altars to them in the temple of fame.

If I were at all capable of hatred, I should hate a race of men who persecuted a Fenelon, and who effected the Bulla in cæna Domini, which created so much contempt for Rome. Adieu !

JOSEPH. Vienna, July, 1773.

To Maria Theresa, Empress Queen Mother. Madame - The Grand Duke and myself have arrived in Venice several days earlier than we expected; the Archduke Ferdinand from Milan arrived the following night, and at last my youngest brother. Our residence here is according to the symbol of all my travels, incognito, as Count Falkenstein. I

· The Emperor must have meant its revocation.- Translator,

have seen every thing in this celebrated city; there is an extraordinary concourse of strangers, on account of the approaching nuptials of the Doge with the Adriatic Sea.

I have seen the celebrated armory of the Republic, which is two and a half Italian miles in circumference. I assisted at a regatta, in company with my brothers and the Duke of Parma; visited several theatres, some nobles, and the Ambassador of your Majesty, the Marquis Durazzo.

I must, however, now say something of the celebrated nuptials of the Doge. On Ascension-Day, his Highness sails in the Buzentaur, with the whole senate, in the greatest splendor, between il Lido and Santo Erasmo, to the high sea; and the Patriarch having gone through several ceremonies, the Doge drops a golden ring into the sea, at the same time pronouncing these words: Desponsamus te, mare, in signum veri perpetuique Domini. The roar of the cannon, the numerous suite of some hundreds of the finest barges, and the vast concourse of people, make this farce very imposing. On returning the Patriarch holds a high mass in the church of St. Nicholas; and in the evening the senate, and those who accompanied the Doge in his Buzentaur, are splendidly entertained by the Signoria.

The day previous to our departure, we visited the great council, where there were present above four hundred persons ; we afterwards heard an oratorio sung by the virgins of the Conservatorio de Mendicanti ; and supped at the Chevalier Tron's, where upwards of three hundred ladies and one hundred and twenty nobles were present.

From Venice I went to Padua, not without a very numerous suite, among whom were the Marquis Durazzo, the Princes Lobkowitz, Rohan and Salm, and Count von Rosenberg. As soon as I arrive at Florence I will give your Majesty further news of my journey through Italy.

I respectfully kiss your hands, and am, for life, your Majesty's most dutiful son,

JOSEPH. Padua, June, 1775.

To Marie Antoinette, Queen of France. Madame,- I congratulate you on your consort's accession to the throne. He will compensate France for the late government; he will rekindle in the nation the love which they formerly had for their kings; and will render the kingdom as happy and great as it once was.

The nation groaned under the burden which had been imposed upon them of late years by Louis XV. He dissolved

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