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consistency amongst themselves, and so render them much more dangerous, is to say a thing upon a great mistake. For common experience shows us, that nothing unites parties more amongst themselves than a hot persecution; nor does any thing bring them so much together as that; 'tis like a great storm that drives cattle that are scattered about altogether, and brings then to meet in one common shelter to save themselves,

“Methinks the author should have remembered, that that advice would have kept Christianity out of the world: for if we follow the track of such policy, we shall find that what we now say against tolerating dissenters amongst ourselves, the papists first said, and do still say against us all; and if we go one step higher, the heathens said the very same against the Christian religion itself, and thought it a factious, fanatic project of sickbrained men, and a thing not to be endured, that men should not content themselves with the same gods that the rest of the world worshipped and acquiesced in. 'Tis a sad thing, and much lo be lamented, that the protestants should take up the dregs of those politics, and inake use of them one against another upon every small difference amongst themselves.

“ He that would have the magistrate force all men to his religion, will himself be burnt by his own principles when he comes into a countrey where the state religion differs from him: to say he is in the right, and the state that does it in the wrong, is a miserable begging the question. If one magistrate be to do it, all are to do it; and there can be no oiher rule of truth and error in that case but what they think so. If a magistrate be once ad. mitted to punish with death what is really and truly in itself an heresie, he may and 'must, by the same rule, so punish every thing he thinks so. Where shall the definition of heresie terminate, and who shall set the magistrate bounds in such a case? Misinformation, passion, or some sinister interest, can only lead men into such principles, which tend to gothing but to makc religion disturb the peace and quiet of all mankind; and, as one saith well, to bring Christians to a butchery one of another, and to make shambles of Christendom.

The concluding quotations are made from that standard work, “ The Apology for the Freedom of the Press, and for General Liberty, by the Rev. Robert Hall;" third edition, 1794. Their direct application io the present times requires no comment.

“ The most capital advantage an enlightened people can enjoy is the liberty of discussing every subject which can fall within the compass of the human mind: while this remains, freedom will flourish; but should it be lost or impaired, its principles will neither be well understood or long retained. To render the magistrate a judge of truth, and engage his authority in the suppression of opinions, shows an inattention to the nature and design of political society. When a nation forms a government, it is not wisdom but power which they place in the hands of the magistrate; from whence it follows, his concern is only with those objects which power can operate upon. On this account the administration of justice, the protection of property, and the defence of every member of the community from violence and outrage, fall naturally within the province of the civil ruler, for these may all be accomplished by power; but an attempt to distinguish truth from error, and to countenance one set of opinions to the prejudice of another, is to apply power in a manner mischievous and absurd. To comprehend the reasons on which the right of public discussion is founded, it is requisite to reinark the difference between sentiment and conduct. The behaviour of men in society will be influenced by motives drawn from the prospect of good and evil : here then is the proper department of government, as it is capable of applying that good and evil by which actions are

mere

determined. Truth, on the contrary, is quite of a different nature, being supported only by evidence ; and as when this is presented we cannot with hold our assent, so where this is wanting, no power or authority can command it.

“However some may affect to dread controversy, it can never be of ultimate disadvantage to the interests of truth, or the happiness of mankind. Where it is indulged in its full extent, a multitude of ridiculous opinions will, no doubt, be obtruded upon the public; but any ill influence they may produce cannot continue long, as they are sure to be opposed with at least equal ability, and that superior advantage which is ever attendant on truth. The colors with which wit or eloquence may have adorned a false system will gradually die away, sophistry be detected, and every thing estimated, at length, according ió its true value. Publications, besides, like every thing else that is human, are of a mixed nature, where truth is often blended with falsehood, and important hints suggested in the midst of such impertinent or pernicious matter; nor is there any way of separating the precious from the vile, but tolerating the whole. Where the right of unlimited enquiry is exerted, the human faculties will be upon the advance; where it is relinquished, they will be of necessity at a stand, and will probably decline.

“ And had this principle of free enquiry been permitted in succeeding times to have full scope, Christianity would at this period have been much better understood, and the animosity of sects considerably abated. Religious toleration has never been complete even in England; but, having prevailed more here than, perhaps, in any other country, there is no place where the doctrines of religion have been set in so clear a light, or its truth so ably defended. The writings of Deists have contributed much to this end. Whoever will compare the late defences of Christianity by Locke, Butler, or Clarke, with those of the ancient apologists, will discern in the former far more precision, and an abler method of reasoning, than in the latter; which must be attributed chiefly to the superior spirit of inquiry by which modern times are distinguished. Whatever alarm then may have been taken at the liberty of discussion, religion, it is plain, hath been a gainer by it; its abuses corrected, and its Divine authority settled on a firmer basis than ever."

ON THE

TENDENCY OF CERTAIN CLAUSES

IN

A BILL NOW PENDING IN PARLIAMENT

TO

DEGRADE GRAMMAR SCHOOLS,

WITU

CURSORY STRICTURES

THE

NATIONAL IMPORTANCE OF PRESERVING INVIOLATE

THE

CLASSICAL DISCIPLINE PRESCRIBED BY

THEIR FOUNDERS.

« NAM VETUS ILLA DOCTRINA EADEM VIDETUR BENE DICENDI MAGISTRA."

ET RECTE FACIENDI ET

CICERO.

BY VICESIMUS KNOX, D. D.

(Continued from No. XXXVII. p. 272.]

SECOND EDITION:

Altered und corrected exclusively for the PAMPHLETEER.

LONDON:

ANIMADVERSIONS,

&c. &c.

It would be a public and most deplorable loss to degrade the grammar schools of the metropolis from being, what they are, fit places to educate the most illustrious of the land; and to turn them into schools, to teach paupers, what paupers can better learn at every parish school; that sort of school, which was instituted and maintained by voluntary contribution, raised, for the most part, by the sermons of the officiating clergy, who learned the laudable arts of persuasion, at the very grammar schools, thus unjustly and unnecessarily threatened with degradation. Ought not those ancient societies which are the patrons and trustees of these noble foundations, to petition and remonstrate against this barbarous innovation ? Ought not the whole city to petition and remonstrate against it? The whole city is most deeply interested in preserving them in their present state. They are not only excellent seminaries, similar in every part of their plan and discipline to the most favored schools of fashion, but possessing also fellowships, scholarships, and exhibitions at both universities, inore in pumber, and greater in value, than most of the endowed schools in the United Kingdom. And shall these be degraded at last, and one portion of them become schools for reading, writing, and arithmetic; and can practice and the rule of three, qualify for exhibitions, and fellowships and degrees at the university? Will merchants' accounts raise bishops, judges, philosophers, and scholars of the first order, men eminent in the art of healing, and every other art, either useful or honorable? The registers that enrol the names of scholars of these schools, exhibit men who were the glory of their times, and the ornaments of the human race. And shall half the instruction of such schools become merely preparatory to trade, while day

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