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That the exchange with Hamburgh was, in January, 1798, 38. 2; January, 1799, 37. 7; January, 1800, 32.; January, 1801, 29. 8; being a fall of above 22 per cent.--In January, 1802, 32. 2; and December, 1802, 84.; being in the whole a rise of about thirteen per cent.

12. Resolved, That during all the periods above referred to, previous to the commeucement of the war with France, in 1793, the principal states of Europe preserved their independence, and the trade and correspondence thereof were carried on conformably to the accustomed law of nations; and that although from the time of the invasion of Holland by the French, in 1795, the trade of Great Britain with the Continent was in part circumscribed and interrupted, it was carried on freely with several of the most considerable ports, and commercial correspondence was maintained at all times previous to the summer of 1807.

13. Resolded,—That since the month of November, 1806, and especially since the summer of 1807, a system of exclusion has been established against the British trade on the continent of Europe, under the influence and terror of the French power, and enforced with a degree of violence and rigor never before attempted; whereby all trade and correspondence between Great Britain and the continent of Europe, (with some occasional exceptions, chiefly in London and in certain parts of Spain and Portugal) has been hazardous, precarious, and expensive, the trade being loaded with excessive freights to foreign shipping, and the other unusual charges : and that the trade of Great Britain with the United States of America has also been uncertain and interrupted; and that in addition to these circumstances, which have greatly affected the course of payınents between this country and other nations, the naval and military expenditure of the United Kingdom, in foreign parts, has for the three years past, been very great; and the price of grain, owing to a deficiency in the crops, higher than at any time whereof the accounts appear before Parliament, except during the scarcity of 1800 and 1801 ; and that large quantities thereof have been inported.

14. Resolved, -That the amount of currency, necessary for carrying on the transactions of the country, must bear a proportion to the extent of its trade and its public revenue and expenditure ; and that the annual amount of the exports and imports of Great Britain, on an average of three years, ending 5th January, 1797, was 48,732,651l. official value: the average amount of revenue paid into the Exchequer, including monies raised by lottery, 18,759,165l., and of loans, 18,409,8421.; making together 37,169,0071.; and the average amount of the total expenditure of Great Britain, 42,855, 1111.; and that the average amount of Bank-notes in circulation (all of which were for five pounds, or upwards) was about 10,782,7801.; and that 57,274,617l. had been coined in gold during His Majesty's reign, of which a large sum was then in circulation.

That the annual amount of the exports and imports of Great Britain, on an average of three years,

ending 5th January, 1811, supposing the imports from the East Indies and China, in the year ending the 5th of January, 1811, to have been equal to their amount in the preceding year, was 77,971,318l. ; the average amount of revenue paid into the Exchequer, 62,763,746l. ; and of loans 12,673,548l, making together 75,437,2941.; and the average amount of the total expenditure of Great Britain, 82,205,066l.; and that the average amount of Bank-notes, abore five pounds, was about 14,265,8401., and of notes under five pounds about 5,283,330l.; and that the amount of gold coin in circulation was greatly diminished.

15. Resolved,—That the situation of this kingdom, in respect of its political and commercial relations with foreign countries, as above stated, is sufficient, without any change in the internal value of its currency, lo account

for the unfavorable state of the foreign exchanges, and for the high price of bullion.

16. Resolved, -That it is highly important that the restriction on the payments in cash, of the Bank of England, should be removed whenever the political and commercial regulations of the country shall render it compatible with the public interest.

17. Resolved, -That under the circumstances affecting the political and commercial relations of this kingdom with foreign countries, it would be highly inexpedient and dangerous, now to fix a definite period for the removal of the restriction of cash payments at the Bank of England, prior to the term already fixed by the Aci 44 Geo. III. c. 1. of six months after the conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace.

ON THE

TENDENCY OF CERTAIN CLAUSES

IN

A BILL NOW PENDING IN PARLIAMENT

TO

DEGRADE GRAMMAR SCHOOLS,

WITH

CURSORY STRICTURES

ON THE

NATIONAL IMPORTANCE OF PRESERVING INVIOLATE

THE

CLASSICAL DISCIPLINE PRESCRIBED BY

THEIR FOUNDERS.

“ NAN VETUS ILLA DOCTRINA EADEM VIDETUR ET RECTE FACIENDI ET BENE DICENDI MAGISTRA."

CICERO.

BY VICESIMUS KNOX, D. D.

SECOND EDITION : Altered und corrected exclusively for the PAMPHLETBER.

LONDON:

ANIMADVERSIONS,

&c. &c.

On a fair estimate of the utility resulting from our ancient grammar schools, they will probably appear to be the primary sources of that intellectual light, which, in a very remarkable degree, has illuminated, not only the more elevated, but the middle and subordinate classes of our distinguished country. To the ancient grammar schools, founded in many of our provincial towns, and in most of our great cities, we are indebted for the diffusion of that attractive species of literature, which leads the young mind, by its peculiar charms, to the love of a studious life, and consequently conduces, in proportion to the genius and opportunities of the scholar, to bigh improvements in every part of useful science and ornamental erudition. The pleasantness of the path, on first entrance on the journey, strewed as it is with flowers of poetry, has allured the student to proceed in his course, who might have been deterred, on the very threshold, if he had seen nothing but the roughness of the road and the difficulty of the ascent to any very distinguished eminence. Many of the aspirants, it is true, never reach the summit; but still they rise above the plain, and attain to a very desirable mediocrity; a mediocrity in itself respectable, and to the public, from its abundance, most beneficial. To this early relish of intel lectual pleasure, and this generous emulation in pursuit of moral and mental excellence, which pervade the middle rank of life, in consequence of an easy and free access to the best and most pleasing mode of education, we may confidently attribute much of that brilliancy which emblazons our NATIONAL CHARACTER.

The uniform and general studies of a rising generation, operating, from century to century, must have a powerful effect on the minds

and manners of a whole people. I arrogate not too much to grammar schools, when I venture to conjecture, that such is their discipline, and such the kind of learning which they communicate, that we may ascribe to them, in great measure, that prevalent correctness of moral and religious principle, that manliness of mind, that delicate sepse of honor, that love of liberty, that spirit of benevolence, which are acknowledged even by neighbouring nations, who envy, while they eulogise, to diffuse over this favored island an unrivalled lustre. That our national character excels that of our neighbours, is allowed, on comparison, by travellers the most enlightened and impartial. Of this proud pre-eminence there must be some cause singularly powerful. And surely a superior mode of education, attainable by all, and adopted by most, who from circumstances are able to avail themselves of it, seems perfectly adequate, in the course of centuries, to the production of an effect, like this, no less general than illustrious.

In the venerable foundations consecrated to polite learning by the wisdom and well-placed munificence of our pious forefathers, a great majority of the people (above a state of absolute peuury), that is, the mass in middle life, may claim, as their BIRTHRIGHT, a classical education. Without personal influence, or the solicitation of patronage, they may enjoy the privilege of receiving instruction gratuitously; such instruction as tends to strengthen, enlarge, and refine their intellectual faculties. They possess the means of acquiring, by the best discipline, at an age when all that is acquired is usually retained, a habit of reading, a taste for contemplation, a judgment and love of fine composition, an introduction to science, and (which is perhaps the most important of all,) an experienced conviction, in early youth, that a great enjoyment of life is attainable in the retirement of a library, and that intellectual pleasure makes an ample compensation for the self-denials of virtue. Lessons of this tendency, given to the rising generation of a whole people, during succeeding ages, must have a wonderful effect in causing and maintaining a moral and intellectual priority. MIND, utterly neglected in many parts of the world, is here cultivated at the vernal season, in nurseries admirably adapted to promote its growth; nurseries, whose gates are open to all, in every well-inhabited district throughout this kingdon; and without a cultivated mind, what is man but (animal bipes et implume) 'a two-legged and unfeathered animal? A superficial observation is sufficient to discover how human nature degenerates, where mind, at an early age, is left in a state of native sterility. No wonder, that in a country, where the opportunities for thus cultivating mind are freely and abundantly afforded, at the most susceptible age, the human race should be advanced to a superiority. The studies of

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