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ON BANK NOTES (cxlviii. 408, 447).-Details respecting the black ox (not cow) on the notes of the Llandovery Bank are to be found in an article by Mr. Francis Green on Early Banks in West Wales' (Historical Society of West Wales, Transactions, vol. vi.). This bank was known locally as the Black Ox Bank. The Aberystwyth and Tregaron Bank (established about the beginning of the nineteenth century) had a black sheep engraved on its one-pound notes; notes for higher amounts had the corresponding number of sheep engraved, and the ten-shilling notes had an illustration of a small sheep.

It is possibe that some of these notes are preserved by the banks that have taken the places of these two banks, or else at the National Museum, Cardiff.

CAROLINE A. J. SKEEL.

THOMAS TESDALE, CO-FOUNDER OF PEMBROKE COLLEGE (cxlviii. 419). Many years ago whilst examining some wills at the York Probate Registry, I noted a rather long one of Thomas Tesdale, 1610, which differed from, and seemed to supplement, the one proved in London. I made a fairly long abstract of it which I sent (I think) to Canon Macleane. I may, however, have inserted the abstract in my copy of the Canon's account of Pembroke College, but I have recently transferred that volume to a library. MR. ST. JOHN BROOKS will find the reference to the York will in Yorks Archæol. Soc. Record, Series xxvi. 3.

Silchester.

J. CHALLENOR SMITH.

DE BURGH COPPINGER (exlviii. 424), Burke's Landed Gentry,' 1846 and 1848 also 1858, but with fewer details under De Burgh of West Drayton, Middlesex, records that the Hon. Frances Burgh, sister and co-heir of Robert, 7th Lord Burgh, or Borough, of Gainsborough, m. Francis Coppinger, Esq., 2nd son of Thomas Coppinger, Esq., of Stoke, Co. Kent, by Frances his wife, only dau. of William Brooke, Baron Cobham, K.G., and had (with other issue, who d.s.p.) a dau., Letitia, m. to Sir William Hooker; and a son, Nicholas Coppinger, Esq., great-grandfather of Fysh Coppinger, Esq., of West Drayton, Middlesex, who m. Easter, dau. of Cornelius Burgh, Esq., of Scarborough, and assumed, by sign-manual, in 1790, the surname and arms of De Burgh, in consequence of his descent from the Hon. Frances Burgh, one of the co-heirs to the

Barony of Burgh. His only dau. and heiress, Catherine De Burgh, m., 22 May, 1794, James Godfrey Lill, Esq., of Gaulstown, Westmeath (who took the name of De Burgh), and dying in 1809, left issue, Hubert De Burgh, Esq., b. 15 Nov., 1799, of West Drayton, Co, Midlesex, J.P. and D.L.; RobertLill, in Holy Orders; and CatherineAlicia, m. to Chas. Tyrwhitt-Jones, Esq., only brother of Sir Thomas John TyrwhittJones, Bart. The arms, crest and motto are quoted. HENRY CURTIS.

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I do not know how far back this local use can be traced. This instance gives a use of about fifty years.

J. S. PURVIS. Cranleigh School, Guildford, Surrey. (cxlviii. 406, 447).

ARMOURERS

In the Crimean War ordnance repairs were carried out by artificers from Woolwich Arsenal. The Corps of Armourers was incorporated in the Army Ordnance Corps in 1895 as the Armourer Section, A.O.C.; in 1896 the Artificers Section was added by transfer of the armament artificers from the Royal Artillery. No connection can be traced between the army and the City guild which, as the Fraternity or Guild of St. George of the Men of the Mistery of Armorers of our City of London," was granted a charter of incorporation by Henry VI in 1453 and amalgamated with the Braziers in 1708 into the present Armourers and Braziers Compnay.

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FRED. R. GALE, Capt., late R.A.0.C. Orchewood, Gerrards Cross, Bucks.

ARMS FOR IDENTIFICATION (cxlviii, | 389, 428). The "husband's arms inquired for are those borne by the Marquess of Ormonde (chief of the Butler family): i.e., a chief indented azure, for Fitz Walter, and three covered cups or on a gules field, for Butler.

The wife's arms appear to indicate some branch of the Scottish family of Ogilvy or Ogilvie. D. O. HUNTER BLAIR. Fort Augustus Abbey.

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THE CAMBRIDGE BIBLE, 1660 (cxlviii. 406, 446).—It may interest MR. WIL LIAM WOOD that some years ago in an old book market I purchased an old album with a coronet stamped on the cover. Inside, loose, between the leaves, are a hundred or so of old Biblical prints with Latin inscriptions, all the figures are very well drawn. They are signed, some C. I. Visscher excudebat, some P. de lode inven. C. Ryckemans. Schulp. C. I. Visscher excudit; some Mart. de Vos Inuent; and others Crispin ffaedefer. f.

Some are evidently apocripha illustrations of Daniel, signed Memskerck. Inuentor. H. Cock excudebat. Also 50 prints entitled:

VITA, PASSIO, ET RESURRECTIO IESV CHRISTI. varijis Iconibus à celeberrimo pictore. | Martino de Vos expressa. ab Adriano Collart nunc primum in æs incisis. Serenissimis |

ARCHDVCIBVS AVSTRIE, PRINCIPIBYS BELGARUM.

DVCIBVS BVRGVNDLE,

These latter measure 9in. x 7in, and a small margin. The former are larger, mostly 12in. x 8in., and a few illustrations to Daniel by Gerar. de lode. excu., 13in. x 10in. with no margin. They are evidently a great age, on very thin paper and some have worm holes.

A. HEMPILL.

THE HABIT OF RE-READING (cxlvii. 464; exlviii. 210). The questions raised under this head do not appear to have aroused much interest. Yet the faculty of re-reading seems to be quite uniquely important: we are told in the Varāha Purāna that he who constantly repeats the eighteen discourses of the Bhagavad Gītā "obtains perfect wisdom

Whereas

and reaches the supreme goal." the man who only possesses the faculty to the extent of a quarter of a verse "remains a man during a manvantara.” And the quite unexceptionable benefits of re-reading the Mahabharata are related in that poem, XVII. v. 39, et seq. THEODORE BESTERMAN. [ARINE SOCIETY (cxlviii. 313, 356). Bibliography, Hanway (Jonas), Letters on the subject of the Marine Society, with Motives for Establishing this Society,' 4to., 1758. JOHN A. RUPERT-JONES.

MA

In a

CONSECRATION CROSSES: MASONS MARKS (cxlviii. 224, 280, 318, 340, 373, 394).-Your correspondents have given much valuable and interesting information on this subject. I note that the authority quoted by MR. SPARKE allows that crosses may be placed on pillars, but MR. ASKEW does not think this to have been the case. fifteenth century church with which I am acquainted a cross is to be seen clearly and deeply cut on the first pillar from the transept crossing on the south side of the nave. The cross is at a height of about four feet from the ground, and faces west. East of the pillar in the old days ran the great rood screen. I thought this was a consecration cross, but it has been suggested to me that it more probably marks the site of one of the nave altars. I should be glad of the views of your correspondents.

R.

THE CABALIST'S TREASURE (cxlviii.

117, 432). At the last reference N. & Q' quotes MR. SPARKE as saying that the Cabala-this should be spelt Kabbalah-is the oral traditions of the Hebrews. That is incorrect. The Kabbalah, among other things, is essentially a system of theosophy compounded of Persian and Greek" ideas," taught esoterically by many extremists, resulting in many doctrines totally opposed to the " Oral Law"-which ultimately was written down for posterity in the form of the Mishnah, upon which vast cumulations of sagas were finally erected in the Gemara.

M. L. R. BRESLAR.

KAIBOSH (cxlvii. 244; exlviii. 357, 393)

Charles Dickens in one of his short sketches entitled Seven Dials,' has the phrase "Hooroar, ejaculates a pot-boy in parenthesis, put the kye-bosh on her, Mary." HENRY LEFFMANN.

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HE author's object is to draw a picture of the conditions of travel both by land and water in seventeenth century England, describing the roads and bridges, means of conveyance, the inns, the highwaymen, and other trials and tribulations of the road. She illustrates her history with copious extracts from the diaries and narratives of contemporary travellers, both British and foreign, and is at pains to describe the laws and customs that concerned travelling by road and water, and to fill in the social background. The whole forms an important and picturesque chapter of social history, perhaps a little overcrowded with detail, but in the main clear and wellproportioned.

Seventeenth century England, as it emerges from these pages, was by no means a traveller's paradise .The bad roads and indifferent bridges; frequent unbridged streams that had to be crossed by fords, dangerous in flood time; the uncomfortable waggons and coaches; the numerous difficulties placed in the traveller's way by an officialdom exercised in carrying out the laws against vagrants, thieves, and persons of unacceptable religious opinions; the inns which by no means always fitted into the picture one likes to draw of the Merrie England of the past-all these contributed to make travelling an unpleasant and sometimes a hazardous occupation. The badness of the roads is illustrated by such occurrences as befel a troop of horse which stuck in the mud in Northamptonshire during the Civil War, and could not escape, and the experience of Prince George of, Denmark who in 1703 spent fourteen hours in his coach on the road between Windsor and Petworth and had to be prevented at intervals from sinking into quagmires by the nimble boors of Sussex who accompanied its painful progress. Charles II, in his speech to Parliament in 1662, had to request that the ways to Westminster might be mended before the arrival of his bride, so that she might not find Whitehall surrounded by water.

The horse was in the early days of the century still the chief means of locomotion between distant points. Rich people rode their own horses, and the pillion saddle was extensively used by the less well-to-do. For others, horses could be hired, or the system of riding post adopted at a charge that varied around 3d. or 4d. a mile. The coach, heavy and lumbering in contrast to the comparatively light, easy running vehicles of the great coaching days that were to follow, was growing in numbers and favour in London and in the central parts of the kingdom both private vehicle and hired coach. There was also a public conveyance for passengers paying a fare-the stage wagon, clumsy and

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uncomfortable. At what precise date the stage coach first made its appearance there is no record, but it must have been comparatively early in the century. It was well established in 1673, when an attack was made upon it by various "die-hards representative of the innkeeper, saddler, shoemaker and waterman class in the shape of a pamphlet, quoted by the author, which expatiates among other things on the disadvantages of travelling in 'mixt company." The watermen naturally viewed cheap, terrestrial modes of travelling with disfavour; plying their trade between Windsor and Gravesend, they petitioned for the suppression of the hackney coach. They were championed by John Taylor, the waterpoet, who contributes some of the liveliest pictures of English travel to these pages; but they seem to have been a surly and ill-mannered lot, pestering and intimidating travellers. Nothing but a great presse (i.e. for sailors), writes one, makes him fly from the river; and nothing but a great frost can teach him any good manners.'

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In London, even in 1677, it was possible for a hackney coach to fall into Fleet ditch. At old London Bridge the flood of water passing through the narrow archways frequently necessitated the traveller by boat shooting the bridge," a dangerous undertaking recorded by Pepys, Evelyn and others. The crossing of rivers was also often a hazardous business. Pope, crossing the Thames at night, was only saved by the horses refusing to go on, when it was discovered that not only were they nowhere near a ford, but were on the brink of a hole twice as deep as the coach. Travellers to Holyhead for Ireland, in the days before the railway and the Menai bridge, had to take ferry, or to narrow strait on horse-back when the tide was out. A perilous experience of this kind is here chronicled. The "sands of Dee" are famous, and that their danger is not merely legendary is shown by the experiences of Mrs. Fiennes, one of the greatest travellers of the period, who had a narrow escape in crossing from Flint to Neston. Still more dangerous was the crossing at Morecambe Bay, as the burial register at Cartmel-in-Furness tifies. Equally perilous, uncomfortable subject to delay was the sea passage from the Continent. Marie de Medicis, when coming to England in 1638, was seven days at sea and three days outside Harwich, whither her ship had been drived by a storm," before it was possible to disembark. Her daughter, Henrietta Maria, had a yet more trying experience, being a fortnight at sea on setting out from Sheveling, and then landing not in England but on the coast whence she had embarked, driven by the sea to which two of the twelve ships of her entourage succumbed.

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But it is to the highwaymen that one naturally turns in a book of seventeenth century travel. "Theeves in England are more common than in any other place, so farre as I have observed or heard," write Fynes Moryson. The Civil War had led to a great increase in these pests, and the Revolution had added even more largely to their numbers.

Cavaliers and later Jacobites, dispossessed of their livelihood, often turned highwayman. and it became fashionable for the knight of his the road to plead political motives for actions-a phenomenon not unknown in Ireland during the recent troubles. Many of these men were of respectable and even gentle birth. The Verneys had highwaymen among their kinsfolk; Sir George Sandys was twice indicted for highway robbery, and eventually convicted and hanged; John Clavel, who reformed and wrote a book of advice to travellers how to avoid robbery, was heir presumptive to a Devonshire squire; Cambridge was the alma mater of two well-known highway robbers, and Oxford scholars were responsible on one occasion for robbing the Oxford coach. Captain Whitney's title seems to he it was have been only a courtesy one;

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who offered to keep the roads clear for a sum of £8,000 a year, but the offer was refused. and he was eventually hanged. But for all his iniquities, the highwayman remains a picturesque figure:

"I'll purse it, I-the highway is my hope, His heart's not great that fears a little rope."

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And John Verney, remembering perhaps his kinsmen of the road, remarked. 'Tis great pity such men should be hanged." If they called the popular Nell Gwyn to stand and deliver, they also held up the infamous Judge Jeffreys.

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In these pages we follow all sorts and conditions of men travelling along the road: the crowd of fugitives hurrying from stricken London during the plague years like the inhabitants of invaded territory before the enemy--" away they trudge, thick and threefold," says Taylor, some on foot, some without boots, some in their slippers. by water, by land, in shoales swon they Westward": Royalty, beggars, pilgrims, pedlars, farmers, foreigners (often suspect), Quakers, equally objects of suspicion-all the familiar figures of the road. In a final chapter the author describes the sights of town and country in the form of a sort of guide-book for the foreign tourist of the time, noticing particularly the numerous spas of seventeenth century England, and the London of which the biographer of the Duke of Stettin tells us that Westminster Hall "suffers no spiders or venemous creatures," a statement which, precisely interpreted, excludes the death-watch beetle with whose activities we are now so familiar.

S.P.E. Tract No. XIX. Medium Erum and the Middle Age. By George Gordon. (Clarendon Press. 2s. 6d. net).

THIS is one of the most interesting of all

the Tracts in this Series that have yet appeared. Mr. Gordon minded to enquire who invented, and when, the phrase medium

aerum,

Middle Age," found it referred to Cellarius, (c. 1688); to Horn (c. 1666): to Rausin (c. 1639), even to Flavio Biondo in

Printed and Published by the Bucks Free
Wycombe, in the

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the fifteenth century, but this turned out a mistake. If not the phrase but the idea is in hoc interim pursued, there comes first the sæculo of St. Augustine: but he meant by it the sixth and last age of the world between the break-up of Rome and the fulfilment of the Christian hope. Still it was a notion of and medietas; and the secular historical

even.

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application of the idea would seem to be seen best and earliest in Plutarch. Of the phrase the Middle Age," in English, Mr. Gordon found the earliest trace in a book of 1611wrongs done unto Fathers auncient, middleaged, or moderne writers, by the Papists earliest example in Donne--" the and the Balance in those of the middle age, very Middle Ages the plural is an Engbeen lish peculiarity-has not found before 1713. Mr. Gordon then pursues the Latin phrases from which our English is derived, and has got media tempestas in 1489; media atas in 1518; media antiquitas cited from 1519 and 1525; media tempora, 1531, medium tempus, 1534. A most interesting quotation from Bacon is discussed under these last. Medium ævum, however, is the form which has prevailed, and for that 1604 seems to be the earliest date. Mr. Gordon is inclined to think, though the idea of the Middle Age as a working historical division was not originally Cellarius, he, by his teaching and handbooks confirmed and stereotyped Having got so much clear, and also shown that the phrase was established by the historians, not by the philologists, Mr. Gordon goes on to discuss its philological use in reference to Latinity. A secondary inquiry of interest is that of the formation of an adjective for Middie Ages. Middle-aged" and middle-age were used up to the seventies of the nineteenth century. Mediæval" had begun to be used in the twenties. This was a word which could be parent of other and much needed words, and it has prevailed.

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Another valuable paper in this Tract is Signor Cesare Foligno's account of the modern use of "Fascisti." It seems that fascio (sheaf or bundle) was used by the Socialists at the end of the last century for a group; and in 1915 a group of these, calling itself Fascio intervenista, differentiated itself from the main body. This group attracted attention. Then there arose groups formed in support of the fighting forces, Fasci nazionali di resistenza; and then, in 1919, Mussolini formed a Fascio, the Fascio nazionale di combattimento, formed to act against the Communists. This Fascio was the one par excellence, and so its members became known as Fascisti. Mr. H. W. Fowler discusses our adoption of the word, which carries to us merely the last political significance. The Tract concludes with a memoir of William Henry Stevenson.

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VOLUME CXLVIII.

SUBJECT INDEX.

[For classified articles see ANONYMOUS WORKS, BIBLIOGRAPHY, Books RECENTLY
PUBLISHED, CHRISTIAN NAMES, EDITORIAL, EPIGRAMS, EPITAPHS, EXCAVATIONS,
FOLK-LORE, GAMES, HERALDRY, LONDON, MOTTOES, OBITUARY, PLACE-NAMES, PRO-
VERBS AND PHRASES, QUOTATIONS, RIMES, SONGS, SURNAMES, TAVERN SIGNS.

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Aldersbrook House, Essex, print of 224, 285
Ale and history," the proverb, 226, 377
Alekhine (M.), his world's record " in chess,
(Mem.), 92

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Alfred (King), the painting of, in the House of
Commons, (Mem.), 254, 289

Alhambra, the restoration of the (Mem.), 308 ¦
Allbutt (Sir Clifford), and the Brontë family, |
(Mem.), 146

Allen family, marriage with a descendant of
John Hampden, 225, 317

Allingham (John Till), 1799-1810, dramatist, 83
Amadou," meaning and origin of the word,!
424. 462

"Amener de ffeyns," meaning of the term, 85
America. British settlers in, 95, 114, 131, 148,
156, 237, 274, 293, 294, 328, 346, 372, 430; the
date New York went dry," 152, 195; laws
against immigration, date of, 152

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Advice to the Officers of the British Army,
1783, 28, 69

Beautiful Snow, poem, 190, 287, 322
Crudelitatis Calvinianæ Exempla, 1585,
134

Grant the Grenadier, 351, 395

Grey Cow of Montgomery, 279
Grey Pilgrim, The, fable, 101

Anslo and Oslo, etymology of the name, 61,
138

Aorangi, motor liner, her maiden voyage,
(Mem.), 20

Aoudad Barbary sheep, derivation of the
word, 356

Ape and tiger, ingredients of the human com-,,
position, 388

Apothecaries, symbols for weights, origin of
abbreviations, 278, 319

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