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THE ORIGIN OF HARO" (cxlviii. 384). In my opinion Haro is more likely to have been derived from Harold, nicknamed Bluetooth, a Danish chieftain who lived during the reign of Richard III, Duke of Normandy, and held paramount sway in the Bessin and Western Normandy, than from Rollo, who was better known in the more eastern parts of the Dukedom. It was Harold Bluetooth who, at the request of Bernard the Dane, Regent of Normandy, came to the

novice-master.

He was elected Abbot 11
Feb., 1721, and died Apr. 26, 1743, leaving
a character for piety, integrity, and learn-
ing. He augmented the revenues and added
to the library of the Abbey during his rule.
(Edinburgh Review for January, 1864, p.
182; Records of the Scots Colleges' (1906),
pp. 265, 282).
JOHN B. WAINEW RIGHT.

BROWNE, OF BETCHWORTH CASTLE,
BATTLE ABBEY, AND LOWYK,

assistance of his Danish kinsman when the
Duchy was threatened with annihilation by NORTHUMBERLAND (cxlviii. 381).
Louis IV, King of France, A.D. 945.
WILLIAM HARCOURT-BATH.

BENDIXEN

ARTIST (cxlviii. 371) Bénézit, 1911 edition, gives the following particulars:

Bernard Axel Bendixen, the Danish painter, was born at Copenhagen May 10, 1810, in which city he studied, under J. L. Lund, at the Academy. He left Denmark in 1840 and, after visiting Sweden and Germany, settled at Hamburg, where he worked as a lithographic artist and portrait painter. His works were exhibited at Copenhagen between 1826 and 1838 one of his pictures, Hagar and Ishmael,' painted in 1831, is now in the Dresden Gallery. Bendixen died at Hamburg May 24, 1877.

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WILFRED DRAKE.

1. Holland Park Road. W. GE ENERAL J. S. EUSTACE (cxlviii. 314, 357). Can MR. DE TERNANT add to the information which he so kindly gives (1) the Christian names of this Irishman, (2) the date of his naturalization as an American citizen? He was probably related to the George Eustace (born 27 Sept., 1760) who entered Winchester College from New York in 1771 and left in 1773. The date of the Declaration of Independence was 4 July, 1776. J. S. Eustace came to Europe, according to his own account, in 1784.

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT.

BERNARD BAILEY, VERE BAILLIE (12 S. xii. 394).-Bernard Baillie, of the county of Stirling and the diocese of Dunblane, made his profession in the Scottish monastery of St. James at Ratisbon 2 Feb., 1691. After teaching philosophy at Erfurt with much distinction till 1715 he was recalled to Ratisbon by Abbot Placid Fleming in 1715 to superintend the improvements there, to be architect of the buildings then in progress, and to hold the position of

i

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John Browne, mercer, mayor of London 1480-1, may have been knighted before his death in 1497, but Stephen Brown, grocer, mayor 1438-9 and 1448-9, William Browne, mercer, mayor 1507-8, and William Browne, mercer, mayor 1513-4, were never knighted. The two William Brownes died during their respective mayoralties. M. J. T. calls all the above four persons lord mayor;" but the REV. A. B. BEAVEN wrote a year or two ago to the Sunday Times pointing out:-(1) that there is no contemporary evidence of the official use of the designation Lord Mayor of London earlier than the sixteenth century; (2) that the chronicler, William Gregory, skinner, who was himself mayor of London 1451-2, never used the title which was obviously unknown to him; (3) that in the nine Royal Charters between the Charter of Maces 1364 and 1531 set out in The Historical Charters and Constitutional Documents of the City of London,' by W. de Gray Birch (revised edition, 1887), the chief magistrate is always referred to as mayor, and the title "Lord Mayor" never occurs; (4) that the title is used sporadically-much less frequently than the simple one of Mayor-in the contemporary records of the first thirty years of the sixteenth century, after which its use becomes more frequent, and from 1535 onwards practically uniform; (5) that Wriothesley's Chronicle up to and including the early part of 1545 writes of the Mayor (Sir William Layton) as late as May 30 in

that year, but on June 8 following, and uniformly afterwards, he writes of the Lord Mayor.

Stow says that Stephen Brown, during his first mayoralty,

sent into Prussia, causing corn to be brought from thence; whereby he brought down the price of wheat from three shillings the bushel to less than half that money.

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT.

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EXECUTIONS BY BURNING (cxlviii.
357, 393). - DR. COCK flatly contradicts
the statement that the penalty of burning
for petty treason was abolished by the Person
Act, 1790 (30 Geo. III, c. 48), the pertinent
section of which is quoted by MR. PROSSER
CHANTER at 12 S. xi. 133.
Will he say

why?

BA

JOHN B, WAINEW RIGHT.

AKER, OF SHELLEY, ESSEX (cxlviii. 334, 376, 392, 412).-Possibly a clue may be found to the Arms of Baker at the Heralds' Office. A Richard Baker, of Orsett Hall, Essex, owned a property in Doddinghurst Parish, a few miles from Shelley, and may have been Lord of that Manor. He made his will, dated 6 Feb., 1826, and settled his estates on Richard Baker Wingfield, there being a name and arms clause in the will. See 'Digby of Sherborne Castle':

6

s.v.

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EDMOND TAPP (12 S. x. 198; s. v. British Settlers in America ').-Mr. M. R. Sanborn, of Yale University, New Haven, U.S.A., reported at the reference that Edmond Tapp (who left Bennington, Herts, May 31, 1637) arrived at Boston, Mass., U.S.A., on June 26, 1637.

The following extracts from • Historical Sketches of the Town of Milford,' by N. G. Pond, have been sent to me:

Recorded on stone on Milford Memorial

Bridge. Edmund Tapp, obit. 1653. Ann his
wife. He was prominent in Milford's early
history, and was one of the three that held
the important positions of Trustee, Pillar of
the Church, and Judge. His daughter, Jane,
married Governor Robert Treat. Mary,
another daughter, was wife of John Fowler.
Elizabeth, another, married Lieut. John Nash
of New Haven, who was Assistant-Governor
from 1672-1687.

Recorded on another stone.
Burke's Landed Gentry,' 1879,

1. William Wingfield assumed surname of Baker in lieu of patronymic Wingfield by royal licence 29 Dec., 1849. He d. 21 March, 1858.

of

2. Richard Baker Wingfield Baker Orsett Hall, Essex, assumed the additional surname and arms of Baker in 1859.

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William

Fowler, obit. 1682. Mary Tapp his wife. He

was the son of the founder of the Mill and his wife was daughter of Edmund and Ann Tapp.

In re the tower of the bridge. A lantern of ancient design hangs near the Stone, showing the mark of Ansantuwoe, the Indian Chief who signed the deed of purchase given to Wm. Fowler, Benj. Fenn, Edmund Tapp, Z. Whitman, and A. Bryan on 12 of February, 1639. O.S.

Ansantuwoe's mark was a bow and arrow.
Gov. Treat's house was on Tapp's lot.

A. T.

BUNGY" (cxlviii. 315, 375).—This word I heard is certainly not Yorkshire. it twenty-five years ago at Harton, South Shields, when staying there. Milk-boys were addressed as "bungy." J. FAIRFAX-BLAKEBOROUGH.

Grove House, Norton-on-Tees.

EXECUTION FOR SHEEP STEALING
(cxlviii. 349).-It was recently stated
in the "Somerset County Herald" that two
men were executed at Ilchester Gaol in 1812
for sheep stealing.
T.
EMPLOYMENT

OF WILD BEASTS IN
WARFARE (11 S. xii. 140, 186, 209, 463;
12 S. i. 74, 94, 311; ii. 454).-Consult also His-
torical Researches on the wars and sports of
the Mongols and Romans: in which Elephants
and Wild Beasts were employed or slain'
(John Ranking. 4to. London, 1826).
J. ARDAGH.

AUTHORS WANTED (cxlviii. 389).-(3) The

version is as follows:

I sit with my toes in a brook,
And if any one axes forwhy?

I hits them a rap with my crook,
For 'tis sentiment does it, says I.
By Horace Walpole (see Cunningham's
Walpole.')

ARCHIBALD SPARKE.

The Library.

The Journal of William Lockerby. Edited by Sir Everard im Thurn and Leonard C. Wharton. (Printed for the Hakluyt Society. £1 10s 6d.)

WILLIAM Lockerby was a man of Scottish

descent who settled in Liverpool and made a good competence in business there, where he died in 1853, in the seventy-first year of his age. His claim to remembrance lies in that one of the several sea voyages of his early manhood, which brought him to the Fijian Islands. There, besides weeks spent in the more ordinary way as a member of a tradingship's crew, he was detained nine weeks alone among the Fijians, with whom he lived as one of themselves. He learned their language, adjusted himself to their customs, gained the friendship of the local King, and wrote an account of his adventures. This journal exists in two manuscript copies in the possession of Mr. Leonard C. Wharton, of the British Museum, the writer's descendant, and for two reasons it is a document of the greatest value: dated 1808-9, it is almost the earliest account of the Fijian islands we possess; and it preserves for us a picture of the sandalwood trade, which was the principal object that brought the first Europeans to the Islands, and which came to an end a few years later, the sandalwood being all exhausted.

Sir Everard im Thurn's admirable introduction goes most carefully and in minute detail over all that is known of the persons, ships and occasions connected with the first

was

ex

plorations of Fiji. Tasman, in 1643, made X way through the reefs and islets which form the eastern boundary of the group, but no European came to them again till Cook in 1774 touched at their south-eastern extremity, and Bligh, fifteen years later, adrift on the launch of the Bounty after the mutiny, made his way north-westward between the two principal islands. After this visits slowly increased, the sandalwood bringing ships out from Port Jackson. The Argo was wrecked on . an eastern reef in 1800. Another wreck of interest that of the Eliza, off Nairai Island, in 1808. The traders dealt with iron objects, and above all with whales' teeth for the sandalwood. The natives, despite their cannibalism, of which Lockerby gives some frightful pictures, had attained to some proficiency in several arts and proved by no means altogether inhumane. The prisoner of war was, in their eyes, fitly consumed by the victor. Mention seems not to be made of the idea, but a belief that by eating an enemy one acquired his strength appears a likely element in the custom. Another custom, of which Lockerby describes the enacting, was the strangling of a widow at her husband's funeral. The Fijians were extraordinarily insensitive to bodily pain, as might be seen from

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their manner of extracting arrow-heads or spear-heads from their flesh when wounded. Lockerby remarks that they have notions about subordination of ranks and dignity of bearing, and praises the unfailing good manners of the women of the higher class. A which made him acquainted also with their war broke out during his stay with them, methods of fortification and provisioning, and

their tactics. The ceremonial reception of two hundred warriors who came to offer their services in the war is one of the most striking scenes; another is the tragic fight at Wailea Bay. Lockerby also has some good observations on the Fijians' ideas of the supernatural, which were focussed almost entirely upon the "Callow" as he calls him, their priest or representative of God, one of whose marks was personal deformity.

The

Three other papers, printed before, but difficult now to obtain, have been added to Lockerby's Journal; Samuel Patterson's narrative of the wreck of the Eliza; the journal of certain missionaries who were put ashore from the Hibernia on an islet of the Fijian group in 1809, and Captain Richard Siddons's experience in Fiji in 1809-1815. Editor takes occasion more than once to regret the deceptions and the brutality practised upon the natives; and another dismal confirst sideration it is that the white men brought to the islands wasting sickness and dysentery. We notice that the proof-reading of the introduction leaves something to be desired.

Cambridge and Charles Lamb. Edited by George Wherry. (Cambridge University Press. 5s. net).

THERE is no end of the praise of Charles Lamb; and there is no fear that it will weary those who love him. A spirit akin to his was Charles Sayle, of St. John's College, Cambridge, who for many years was UnderLibrarian to the University Library, and used to gather undergraduates about him in his little house and garden in Trumpington Street. He founded and organised the Cambridge Charles Lamb Dinners, of which there were held six, from 1909 to 1914, on the nearest convenient date to Lamb's birthday, Feb. 10, and at the University Arms Hotel. It is in Charles Sayle's memory that this account of the Dinners, and these papers and reminiscences connected with them, have now been put forth. The charming little volume is steeped in that gentleness and for Lamb mellow glow which affection always seems to impart; but it has, besides this charm, one or two small but pleasant biographical items to offer. Here are portraits of Mary Lamb and George Dyer, which have not before been published; here are some amusing touches illustrating the letter on brawn; and, above all, here is a note of Charles Lamb's (it is given in facsimile), which went to modify prevailing ideas about Lamb's mystifications in substituting Oxford for Cambridge. The sonnet, Written at Cambridge, August

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1819" had been taken for an instance of this mystification because some certainty was felt that Lamb had not been in Cambridge that year-not between the visit with Mary by Hell Fire Dick's coach in 1815 and the summer of 1820, when he made Widow Blackett of Oxford out of Mrs. Smith of Cambridge, and first met Emma Isola. But here is a note, written at Cambridge, mentioning Hazlitt's Political Esseys' as just published "-which can only be 1819; and that he should be there, as the title of the Sonnet declar, in August, need not be disputed, for Lamb always took his holiday about that time. As Mr. E. V. Lucas has said, putting all this together in the Cambridge Review when the note was first discovered it is pleasant to think he turned to Cambridge for solace first after Miss Kelly refused his offer of marriage. The house from which he then wrote was Mr. Bays's, in Trumpington Street (now King's Parade) and has been in the occupation of that family from 1798 till now.

There appears here an amusing story of the late Sir Walter Raleigh's, illustrating Carlyle's dislike of Lamb, told by the Master of Christ's from the dinner of 1911. Carlyle, it will be remembered, wrote most disparagingly of Lamb as "in some considerable degree insane" with other choice terms appended. Raleigh said that the first and, he believed, the only time that the two men met was at a great London house, where was a well-stocked aviary. "The philosopher became so enthusiastic and so vocal over the beauties of the plumage of a golden pheasant that Charles Lamb broke out P-p-pray, Sir, are you a p-p-poulterer ?" "

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A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson. By William Prideaux Courtney and David Nichol Smith. A Re-issue of the Edition of 1915, Illustrated with Facsimiles. (Oxford, Clarendon Press. £1 10s. net.)

win something of the effect of manuscript. Many of the pages are delightful and elegant, though the printer troubled not always about giving most prominence to the words of greatest significance. Here is the cancelled leaf (p. 48) from the Journey to the Western Islands '-pungent reflections on people who were longing to melt the lead of an English Cathedral, Lichfield Cathedral as the note on the cancel informs us. We have read over again the excellent essays prefixed to the bibliography of the Journey' and the Dictionary.' In the former occurs the remark: "But this most eloquent passage, perhaps the best-known prose sentence of any writer in the English language, records the opinion: That man is little to be envied, whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon, or whose piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of Iona.' It would be rather interesting to enquire whether, if this estimate was true at the time it was written, the sentence can still be supposed to be very widely known. Who shall say what is now-a-days "the bestknown prose sentence of any writer in the English language "?

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APPROVED Queries' are inserted free of charge. Contributors are requested always to give their names and addresses, for the information of the Editor, and not necessarily for publication.

WHEN answering a query, or referring to an article which has already appeared, correspondents are requested to give within parentheses--immediately after the exact headingthe numbers of the series, volume, and page at which the contribution in question is to be

M. P. wishes thanks to be conveyed to MR. J. B. WAINEWRIGHT and MR. ARCHIBALD SPARKE for replies to queries (Starvecrow '; 'Nursery Ray').

THERE is no need to write praise of this bibliography, which we take for granted WHEN sending a letter to be forwarded to every student of Johnson knows. We pause for a moment-in the natural piety of N. & Q'quested to put in the top left-hand corner of another contributor, correspondents are reover the remembrance of W. P. Courtney, the envelope the number of the page of for many years one of our most valued cor'N. & Q.' to which the latter refers. respondents, whose varied knowledge and scholarly methods are exhibited in a long series of our columns. It is satisfactory to see that there is sufficient demand for a principal work of his to warrant its re-issue with the important and useful addition of about two score facsimiles. The title-page of the Voyage to Abyssinia' is given in black and red; that of the Dictionary,' originally also so printed, in black. These facsimiles are beautifully done; they impart the true, peculiar pleasure one derives from their originals. For old title-pages speak. Not in vain was each letter set in its place by hand; the bold and clever use of capital and italic gives an air of life and exuberance; the irregularities

THE CABALIST'S TREASURE' (ante, p. 117).— MR. ARCHIBALD SPARKE writes that 66 Cabalist in the lines quoted probably refers to followers and believers of the Cabala, i.e., oral traditions of the Jews as distinguished from the written records, the oral method leading to introduction of other teachings from various sources. He notes that in the Middle Ages the term Cabalist was applied to those in search of the philosopher's stone, and refers to the Jewish Encyclopedia.

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