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AMILY Pedigrees, Parish Registers, Topo- Culleton's Heraldic Office, Ltd.


graphical Books for sale, cheap. state requirements.-G. W. South, 76, Burlington Lane, Chiswick.

Founded 1849.

20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks. (Telephone: Wycombe, 306).

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NOTES:-Old Crocks, 39-Christmas Mummers of Stoneleigh, 42-The Norwich Gazette, 1730, 43-George Crichton-' The Touchstone': · The Taste of the Town,' 45.

QUERIES:-Suicides in England, XVIII CenturyWheels-The Galway Prisoners, 45-Alfred Mills, Artist -Hambleton Hills-Rustic Costume-Castor's StoneThomas Townshend-No. 10, Poland St., Oxford St., London-Barry: Green: Gaynor: Richards-" Finis Poloniae "-Sir Robert Clayton's House in Old Jewry -Hurst Surname, 46-The Society of Sols-Lieut.-Col. Anthony Adams-The Puritan Cow-Butter CrossHouse of Lorraine-French Artists Prisoners in England -Authors wanted, 47.

REPLIES:-Dog-turning Churn- The Book of Death,' 48-" Old Booty "-Baron Grant-Privilege of covering before the King-Voltaire's English Note-book, 49Whitehall Court-Railway-lines in mid-air-Macnamara:

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Crest and Motto-Truth and Affidavits, 50-House of The LEADENHALL PRESS, Ltd., Publishers and


Elbeuf-Tavern Signs: Seven Stars-Clockmakers: Chamberlain, Johnson-Delaval-The Parish CowRegisters and poll-books-" As from," 51-Robert James Mackintosh-Dalmatian or Carriage Dogs: their origin-Origin of the side-saddle-Wireless and Weather, 52-Bruce: Stuart Halley: McPike-John Edwards's ⚫ Collection of Flowers '-Williams PearExecutions of Children in the Nineteenth CenturyTitle of Book wanted-Author wanted, 53. THE LIBRARY:- Boswell's Letters - Wooden Monumental Effigies' An Elementary New English Historical Grammar.'

Notices to Correspondents.

Printers, 27-47, Garden Row, St. George's Road, Southwark, S.E.1. Contains hairless paper, over which the pen slips with perfect freedom. Ninepence each, &s. per dozen, ruled or plain; postage extra, ls. size, 5s. per dozen, ruled or plain, postage STICKPHAST is a clean white Paste and not a messy liquid.

Pocket 9d.

BOO! OOKS, and AUTOGRAPHS for SALE. Early printed Works, Standard Authors, First Editions, &c. Catalogues free. Books and autographs wanted for cash. Lists free.Reginald Atkinson, 188, Peckham Rye, London, S.E.22.

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NOTES AND QUERIES is published every Friday, at 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks. Subscriptions (£1 15s. 4d. a year, or $8 U.S.A., including postage and two halfyearly indexes) should be sent to the Publisher. The London Office is at 22, Essex Street, W.C.2 (Telephone: Central 396), where the current issue is on sale. Orders for back numbers, indexes and bound volumes should be sent either to London or to Wycombe: letters for the Editor to the London Office.


THE ancient ceremony of blessing the waters at the Feast of the Epiphany was duly performed last week at the Piraeus, where it is to be seen in its most magnificent instance, the great officials of state attending, and half Athens coming down to the port to assist at it. As The Morning Post describes it, a platform was run out over part of the harbour opposite the town hall, and there the notables took their stand while the priests, vested in their gorgeous robes, and headed by the Metropolitan of Athens, marched in procession with banners on to it from the church. After a short service the Metropolitan aspersed the sea at his feet, and taking a wooden cross attached to a blue ribbon thrice let it down into the water. At the moment when the cross touched the sea all the steamers sounded their sirens and the church bells rang. The Metropolitan, as the procession returned, carried the cross aloft in his hands and many from the crowd pressed eagerly forward to kiss it. THE following is taken somewhat abbreviated from The Scotsman of Jan. 12: A huge crowd on Saturday night celebrated New Year's Eve (old style) at Burghead, Morayshire, by the historic ceremony of "burning the clavie" on an eminence close to the town, known as the Doorie Hill. Sightseers were attracted from a wide area, and everything was carried out according to the plan followed throughout the centuries.

During the day the three masters of ceremony, or priests of the fire," had prepared the clavie in the time-honoured manner. The office of clavie chief, or skipper, is a greatly coveted appointment, which continues for life or until such time as old age renders the adequate fulfilment of the duties impossible. The

skipper is attended by two assistants known as his crew, who share in carrying out the clavie to its last resting place,

On Saturday morning the skipper, Mr. William Peterkin, fisherman, and his crew, repaired to the residence of the Chief Magis trate, Provost Gordon, and demanded the handing over of the sacrificial barrel. Thence they went to the salmon fishermen's quarters, and in a similar manner requisitioned a pole. (By the way, none but a pole used in the salmon nets is ever utilised for the purposes of a clavie). The barrel was sawn in two, one half being broken up and used as fuel.

Meanwhile, Mr. William Sanderson, a blacksmith, had forged a special nail, which the skipper used to fix the clavie to the pole. For a hammer he wielded, as his ancestors did in the days of ancient fire worship, a large stone, the use of any modern implement whatsoever in the preparation of the clavie being considered most indiscreet and improper. Tar, petrol, and other combustibles were inserted in the barrel, and every precaution was taken to ensure that the blaze should be adequate to its purpose of appeasing the evil spirits, which would otherwise visit the fishing operations with loss and disaster.

In the evening the clavie was borne to the accustomed spot beside the old U.F. manse wall, where Skipper Peterkin set it alight, and, hoisting the pole and its burden, he and his crew, accompanied by a solitary policeman, headed the long, excited procession through the principal streets. Here and there blazing faggots, plucked from the barrel, were flung into the doors, left conveniently ajar, of cer

tain favoured citizens.

Amid cheers, the procession then headed for the Doorie Hill, supplies of tar being borne in another barrel by a number of boys.

On the summit the pole was placed in the hollowed centre of a huge stone. For some reason the pole acquired a bad list to port, and when one of the crew having replenished the clavie with tar, attempted to place the empty barrel on the top, he had the misfortune to overbalance, falling about seven feet to the ground. He rolled down the steep side of the took its way down the other side, the spectahill, and the barrel, which had caught alight, tors parting respectfully to make way for it.

Again ascending the hill, bearing the barrel with him, in a second attempt to crown the blazing pile with it, he had the misfortune to knock the bottom out of the clavie itself. A stream of flaming tar at once enveloped the stone, and he had to leap hurriedly clear.

As the flames flickered low, and the clavie began to crumble, loud cheers were raised at the successful discomfiture of the evil spirits for the duration of 1925. The crowd rushed forward, and an exciting scramble ensued for possession of the precious fragments. Some of these bits of charred wood will be posted" to all parts of the world, where they will be gratefully received by Burghead families, who have emigrated, but the majority of the faggots will be jealously kept for home use throughout the present year, under beds and on mantel


shelves, or in the cabins of the herring Some one, commenting on the incident, has said that a fox, when badly fatigued, loses A singular discovery, reported from New his eyesight, being then easily captured. Is York, appears in The Times of Jan. 13 this well established? -that of a head of Carrara marble, lacking its nose, drawn up by a suction-dredge out of the Hudson River. Experts pronounce it to belong to a statue of Augustus executed by a first century sculptor, and to be a fine likeness. It is being exhibited in the Kleinberger galleries. From the fact that it was embedded 10ft. deep in the river-mud it is inferred that it was cast in more than a century ago;

and the present theory about it is that some Mediterranean trader brought it in his ballast, at a time when ancient statues, being considered of no value, were used for that purpose, and threw it overboard into the Hudson when it was no longer



T the Northern Education Conference last week Miss Rose Evans raised the question of standard speech versus local dialects, and pressed for definite phonetic teaching to children both of elementary and secondary schools. This demand, we learn from The Yorkshire Post, has created some dismay in certain quarters: "Another subject for our curriculum!" a Leeds authority is reported to have sighed. Then he went on to state what was already being done in this matter; represented that many children are virtually bilingual, with one standard of speech for school and one for home, and presently enquired, "Who is to set the pattern like unto which all of us are to frame our speech?" He went on to say that every one knew the educated voice, but that he rather doubted whether the North, however it might admire that, would accept as the last word a scheme of phonetics and vowel values drawn up by even the most distinguished of "Garet'n Gearls"-as they say at Oxford. As in psycho-analysis, so in pronunciation, and so in some others matters where criticism and eager counsel are rife - quis custodiet ipsos custodes?

WE read in The Yorkshire Post (Jan. 12) that two Ambleside schoolboys, going up Kirkstone Pass on a motor cycle a few days ago saw a large fox lving by the roadside. When they came down the Pass on their return he was still there, and one of them taking off his coat, creeping up, and throwing it over him, they captured him without much struggle and brought him home. His state of fatigue, and the cuts and bruises on his legs, seemed to show that the hounds had chased him pretty hard.

THE fogs of last Sunday and Monday produced several remarkable incidents, but none so thrilling as the exploit of Mr. G. P. Olley, an Imperial Airways pilot who left Paris at noon on Sunday flying a RollsRoyce air-liner and landed safely at schedule time, 2.30 p.m., in the Croydon aerodrome, in a fog so dense that visibility of any degree disappeared at five yards, and he, though safe, was completely lost and buried in the fog. The liner was carrying a full load of passengers and freight, and passed through both sunshine and fog on her way. Over the Croydon aerodrome the fog made a thick shroud, which, however, rose not so high into the air but that control towers and wireless masts stuck out above it, and it was by taking the position of these that Mr. Olley successfuily descended into the darkness and made a perfect landing.

MANY interesting particulars of the observ

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ations made by Miss E. L. Turner during her six months' bird watching in the bird sanctuary at Scolt Head Island will be found extracted from the report of the Wild Birds' Protection Committee of the Norfolk Naturalists Society in The Times of Jan. 13. She describes the ringed plovers making scrapes on the shingle; the untimely end of many young common terns, suffering apparently from digestive trouble, and the difference of behaviour between the common tern and the roseate tern-the former nervous and restless, so that a whole colony will rise in panic at nothing at all, the latter imperturbable. The curlews, she found, objected to the aeroplane night-firing practice. Every time a search-light swept over their haunts they uttered wild cries and flew up in a mass; sometimes single birds flew past us whimpering in the twilight. Washed up bodies of divers, guillemots, puffins and other birds were sometimes found along the tidemark; they were generally clogged with oil.



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HE Morning Post, in a jocular paragraph, takes occasion by Sir Henry Curtis Bennett's promise to kiss every lady in his constituency, to recall the exploit of Captain Dashwood in Lytton's My Novel,' who "kissed all the women old and young with the zest of a sailor, etc." But a yet more delightful example is "The Kissing Candidate" of Cowper's famous letter.


She appears in the Navy List as

Literary and Historical Defiance IV, late Inconstant (hulk).




(See ante, pp. 3, 23). ISGARD II,* late Calcutta, late Hercules, according to the July Navy List belongs to the depot (four vessels) for Training of Artificer-Engineer Apprentices at Portsmouth. The Hercules was built as an iron singlescrew battleship, armoured, 9,300t., I.H.P. 7,000, N.D. (8,500 F.D.) Cost £377,007. (Formerly employed as floating barrack at Gibraltar).

The Inconstant was built of iron and wood at Pembroke and launched 12 Nov., 1868, ship-rigged, un-armoured frigate cruiser of 5,780t., 337ft., carrying 16 guns and engines (single screw) developing 7,360


The stirling custom of preserving the original spelling of the ships' names is maintained in the official Navy lists. One exception, probably to differentiate between two vessels overlapping, presents itself, viz., Hindostan, 2nd Rate, 3242 t., 1. Devonport, 1841. Sometime Auxiliary to Britannia, at Dartmouth," and the Battleship Hindustan, 1. Glasgow. 19 Dec., 1903. Both have gone. The name of Fisgard has not changed. George Owen (1552-1613), the great historian of Pembrokeshire, spells the place named ffitgard, in the Vairdre Book, quoted in the Cymmrodorion Record Series, Owen's Pembrokeshire,' Part II, p. 288. that the probability is, that it was customary to spell the place-name ffisgard or Fisgard as it has pleased the Admiralty to do. William James and his Naval Editor in The Naval History,' Vol. ii, p. 22, state:-" The larger prize under the name, in allusion to the spot at which the Résistance and her consorts had disembarked their convict freight, of Fisgard, continued for a long while at the head of the 38-gun frigate class, and the smaller one retained her French name as a 22-gun post-ship." (The Vengeance, 22 ship-corvette, and the Lugger Vautour, escaped after landing their human cargoes, but the Résistance and Constance were captured by the British frigates San Fiorenzo and Nymphe, 9 March, 1797, off Brest.) Laird Clowes in Royal Navy' breaks away from this excellent tradition and spells Fishguard, which name is unknown in the Service as a ship's name.

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There was a Fisgard, 46, Frigate, 150ft. 1069 t. 1. Pembroke, 8 July, 1819. The R.N. Museum (Greenwich), Catalogue, at p. 59, spells Fisguard. Unfortunately, this 1913 publication makes several slips, thus p. 14, the date of the capture of the French Guerrière by the British Blanche is given as 19 Jan. instead of 19 Julv. 1806: and at p. 23. a model is referred to "Rodney, built at Portsmouth, 1833,"

The Sultan was built as a twin screw armoured broadside battleship, 9,290t., 325ft., 8,000 I.H.P. Launched at Chatham Now employed as Fisgard IV. cost £374,777 originally.


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The Bustard, an iron, twin screw gun-boat, 254t., 85ft., 190 I.H.P., 1. Glasgow 1871, long since sold out of the Navy, is still employed as a handy billy" at a shipbreaker's yard, situated underneath the extremity on which stands the ruins of the fort at Pill (13 S. i. 335, 407). She has seen the Prince of Wales, 15,000t., Amphritrite and Argonaut, each 11,000t., disappear, and now assists as the acetylene burners cut up the Minotaur, 14,600t., besides having attended the demolition of the following destroyers:-Kangaroo, Racehorse, Norman, Conflict, Ferret, Rattler, Nicator, Wizard, Desperate, Medina, Medea, Nonsuch, Rattlesnake, Lyra, Angler, Portia and Pembroke, late Gannet, late Wildfire, late Nymphe, laid down at Portsmouth 5 July, 1887, and launched ten months later as twin screw, composite, sloop, 8 guns, 1,140t., 195ft., 2,000 I.H.P. she was the name-ship of Chatham Depot throughout the War. At this same yard at an earlier date the composite sloop Acom, 970t., 1. Jacob's Pill (almost in sight of Pembroke Castle) 1884, and Aurora, twin screw (steel), belted cruiser, with a ram, 5,000t., I. Pembroke 23 Oct., 1887 --were broken up before the end of 1907.

whereas on p. 47 we read of "Rodney, built at Pembroke Yard. 1833." (She was 1. Pembroke 18 June, 1833). Rodney, the Portsmouth built ship, is not traceable. The word "built" means laid down," "building," "launched," "completing," or completed," and is used indiscriminately by many; which fact is most confusing.


The Royal United Service Museum (Whitehall), Catalogue (1924) is thoroughly reliable as an authority, likewise the "Water Transport Catalogue of The Science Museum (1s. 3d. post free). In this latter really beautiful catalogue of ships, Art. 125, p. 44, should read Pembroke (10 Feb., 1816) for "Portsmouth" as launching-place of Capt. Marryat's (the Novelist) Ariadne; and the paper mentioned in footnote, p. 3, ante, clashes with Recruit, described Art. 164, p. 51. It appears there was also a vessel of that name-an iron paddle-vessel, 1. Blackwall, 1846. However, the student has the labour of all the best brains available in these two excellent catalogues. The spelling of Trincomalee used (ante, p. 24) was supplied by the owner of the vessel-it agrees with that used in July N.L.. col. 2. p. 298, at foot. The Hydrographic Department use Trincomali."

Portsmouth Dockyard Museum catalogue (6d. net) informs us that Shah, 26 (late single screw (iron) frigate, cased with wood, 6.040t., 7,477 H.P., laid down as Blonde, and launched as Shah at Portsmouth, 1873), is employed as a coal hulk at Bermuda. She was being converted for this purpose (vide Nov., 1891, N.L.)

Cormorant, composite sloop; barque-rigged, single screw; launched at Chatham 1877; 1,130t.; length 170ft.; 950 I.H.P. Is employed as Depot Ship at Gibraltar flying the flag of Rear-Admiral in Charge of Gibraltar and Superintendent of Gibraltar Dockyard.

Gannet, composite sloop, barque-rigged, single screw; launched at Sheerness 1878; 1,130t.; length, 170ft.; 1,110 I.H.P. Saw service at Suakin 1883. Styled in the Navy List, p. 303, as President (old) (late Gannet). Sloop, 1,130t. (Lent to Mr. C. B. Fry in connection with Mercury Training School). Hamble River, Southampton.'

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The Training Ship Mercury, as used by the Founder of the Nautical School at Hamble, Southampton, was for the first twenty-one years the converted tea-clipper ship Illovo, registered 360 net, 398 gross tons. Built by Hall and Co., of Aberdeen, 1867. 139ft. x 27ft. x 15.9ft. Her owners in 1868 were G. Rennie.

Cleopatra was built of steel, iron and wood; single screw (arranged for lifting) cruiser, 2,380t.; length 225ft.; launched at Glasgow 1878; 2,000 I.H.P. Navy List styles her Defiance III hulk Cleopatra. This is the only case noticed of the true auxiliary

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Navy List gives Egmont, late Bullfrog, late screw gunboat; now stationed at Malta. The Bullfrog was launched as a composite single screw gunboat at Pembroke, 3 Feb., 1881; 125ft. 420 I.H.P. The RearAdmiral in Charge of Malta, and Admiral Superintendent, Malta Dockyard, flies his flag on shore, but is borne on the books of Egmont.

Satellite, Depot Ship (lent to the Tyne Division R.N.V.R.), was built at Sheerness a composite, single screw, cruiser, 3rd Class, 1,420t.; 200ft.; 8 guns; 1,400 I.H.P.; launched in 1881.


Late surveying vessel Stork (now lent to Kensington branch of the Navy League as a

Training Vessel for Boys), stationed at Hammersmith. She was launched at Poplar in 1882, and was a composite, single screw, 465t. vessel, 123ft. in length, developing 360 Í.H.P. She was employed surveying:

1888-89, Com. T. F. Pullen, East Indies. 1889-90, Lieut. A. F. Balfour, East Indies. 1891-93, Lieut. M. H. Smyth, East Indies. 1894-96, Lieut. C. H. Simpson, Mediter


1897-99, Lieut. H. J. Gedge, Medit., Red Sea, and Mauritius,

The Dolphin, built as a sloop, was also a composite vessel single screw, 925t.; launched at Middlesboro' in 1882. She is attached to the Submarine Depot at Fort Blockhouse, Gosport.

Impregnable IV, late Powerful III, late Ganges, late Caroline, was launched at Sheerness in 1882 as composite, single screw, 3rd Class cruiser of 1,420t.; 200ft. in length; 14 guns; 1,400 I.H.P.

Phæton is not in

The Indefatigable ex cluded in the Navy List, being privately owned. The Indefatigable, late 4th Rate, 2,626t. (Navy List, 1910), was launched at Devonport 27 July, 1848. She had no War record to her credit, and has passed to the ship-breaker. The Phaeton, 4,300t., late twin screw, steel cruiser, 2nd Class, 300ft. in length, now takes the name Indefatigable and does duty for the Liverpool Training Ship Society at New Ferry, Birkenhead.

Helicon, late Calliope, was launched in 1384 at Portsmouth. Built of steel and iron and sheathed with wood, she was a corvette of 2,770t., 235ft. in length, styled as a screw cruiser, 3rd Class, her single screw developing I.H.P. 2,700 N.D. (4,000 F.D.) This was the Calliope distinguished for having survived the hurricane at Apia, Samoa, on 16 and 17 March, 1889, under the command of Captain Kane. (Lent now to Tyne Division, R.N. V.R., Newcastle-on-Tyne).

Plover, launched at Pembroke in 1888 as a composite, single screw gun-vessel, 755t. ; now employed as a storage hulk at Gibraltar.

Vulcan, twin screw special torpedo vessel. 6,620t.; launched at Portsmouth 1889; now used at Depot Ship for Submarines.

Philomel, light cruiser, launched Devonport 1890; now Training and Depot Ship with New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy; 2,575t.

Blenheim, protected cruiser, 9,000t. ; launched Blackwell 1890; now used as Central Reserve Minesweeper Depot Ship.

Defiance II, late Spartan, launched Elswick 1891; 3,600t.

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