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NOTES:-Sadler's Wells, 273-British Settlers in
America, 274 Court Rolls and Manorial
Documents-Foreign Cheeses in the XVII.
Century, 276 Wall-painting, Broughton
Church, 277.

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QUERIES:-The Cotswold Games and the
Family of Dover-Trout-flies: Barge and
"Sail," 277-Richard Metcalfe, engraver-Mrs.
R. Gordon, Norwich Actress-Sheldon Tapestry:
Motto Edward
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(English) Chapel, 283-" Habitans in Sicco"-
Waverley Poetry-Matfelon-Cusancia, 284-
Scots College, Paris: Its Registers-Dryden of
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Richard Dighton-A Sixteenth Century Prayer-
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An Index to the twelve volumes of NOTES AND QUERIES,' published between January, 1916, and June, 1923, has been prepared, and is now on sale. Containing, as it does, at least 15,000 references to notes, queries, and answers on subjects of interest to students of the past, this volume is indispensable to research-workers in all branches of knowledge, and will be found useful by many authors, journalists, and historians.

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NOTES AND QUERIES is published every Friday, at 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks. Subscriptions (£1 15s. 4d. a year, or $8.75 U.S.A., including postage and two-halfyearly indexes) should be sent to the Publisher. The London Office is at 22, Essex Street, W.C.2 (Telephone: Central 396), where the current issue is on sale. Orders for back numbers, indexes and bound volumes should be sent either to London or to Wycombe. Letters for the Editor to the London Office.



Robert Cunliffe, native of that place and at present organist of its parish church, has, for three years, been directing a sort of musical club for any boys who choose to come. He has now collected a choir of 36, who are all, except two, elementary schoolboys under 15 years of age, and, with practices three evenings a week, has taken them through some of the finest and most difficult classical music in the world. Mr. Nicholson

heard both a rehearsal, in which the boys gave splendid renderings of many types of songs, winding up with an exquisite singing

of the "Dome music" from the Grail scene in Parsifal,' and also a performance, quite astonishingly good, of Rimsky-Korsakoy's Golden Cockerel.'


BAKER COTTAGE at Saranac Lake, in
which Robert Louis Stevenson spent the
winter of 1887-8 has been purchased by the
Stevenson Society. It will shortly be opened
to the public-furnished, as far as possible,
as it was when Stevenson was there.
study and bedroom will be restored in every
detail, the Society being possessors of nearly
all the furniture belonging to these two
rooms. A collection of his letters, manu-
scripts and books will be exhibited there.
DOSTOIEVSKY'S 'Idiot' is being given
in dramatic adaptation at the Théâtre
du Vaudeville, Paris. The Times corres-
pondent sends an interesting critical account
of it, the general purport of which may be
summed up in the comment he overheard
during the performance: "Mais, parmi
tous ces gens-là, lequel est-ce, l'Idiot?"
THE Zoological Society reports an extra-

HE MSS. of Earl Bathurst upon which the report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission was published two years contains material of great interest to the student of Byron. On Apr. 26, 1824, Lord Guildford wrote to Lord Bathurst from Corfu, mentioning an article in "the new Messalonghi newspaper written in Italian called the Telegrafo supposed to have been written by Byron; and, about a month later, Lord Lunderdale wrote to Lord Bathurst saying that so many people desired to see the article that he had struck off a few copies of it. This advice has not till now been identified, but Mr. Walter Seton contributes to The Times of last week the information that he has found it in a file of the Telegrafo in the Archives of the London Greek Committee. He gives the Italian text and translation and expresses the opinion that the Italian text was written by Byron. In a second article Mr. Seton gives three letters of Byron's, hitherto, it would appear, unpub- the items are 1590 pints of shrimps, 150 lished.

organist of Westminster Abbey, Mr.
S. H. Nicholson, contributes to The
Times of Apr. 14 a paper worthy of great
attention both from musicians and from those
interested in education. At Todmorden Mr.

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ordinarily prosperous year adorned with records" in every direction. This means the execution of numerous plans for further improvements, of which the next to be completed will be the new out-door enclosures and experimental houses for monkeys. The list of the kinds and quantities of food supplied to the animals is rather entertaining. Among

bunches of onions, 108 heads of celery, and 1 ton 17 cwt. of grapes.

A correspondent of The Scotsman, in that paper for April 13, makes the suggestion that there is a possible connection between the famous twelfth century sculptures of the

west end of Chartres Cathedral and Scotland -in that on the one hand David I brought the monks whom he settled at Kelso, and who built Kelso Abbey, from St. Bernard's Abbey of Tiron, while, on the other, some authorities favour the idea that sculptors of Tiron created the Chartres figures. IN The Times of Apr. 15 Dame Henrietta

Barnett makes an interesting suggestion towards greater profitableness in Wembley. Last year, seeing people gazing at things they did not understand, she was moved to give them explanation, and the small groups about her would grow to big ones till she was Such forced to take refuge in cinema shows. talking, amid noise, is extremely fatiguing, and she proposes that ten minutes' talks should be given into gramophones, and the records turned on either at stated times or by the operation of a coin in a slot. readers may OUR like to note that The Times of Apr. 15 contains a long account by Mr. C. Leonard Woolley of the finds at Ur, of the Ziggurat and its builder. The excavators have been enabled to continue their work for an additional month after the exhaustion of their funds by the generosity of friends in Iraq and an equal contribution from Philadelphia and so complete their task-a task of signal importance.

in newspapers if it becomes general will be a great boon to the many readers who have to snatch their knowledge of the world in We remember Lord Northmorning trains. cliffe predicting that the daily newspaper of of the future would be about the size of 'N. & Q.'

IT is satisfactory to learn that the last of


the disfiguring advertisements has now disappeared from the slopes of Sweet Hill, Patcham. Mr. Gasson, the landowner and advertiser concerned, has abandoned his appeal against the conviction and fine recently imposed by the Hove County Bench, and has also agreed to pay the costs incurred by the East Sussex County Council in connexion with the proceedings to enforce their advertisement regulation by-law. the offending advertisements at the side of the London Road and on the adjacent down have now been painted out, but the enormous ferro-concrete structures upon which they were displayed still remain. These strucand tures vary in length from 40ft. to 170ft., although far less conspicuous now that they have been painted a dead black colour than they were when the hoardings bore gigantic advertisements, they are still sufficiently In order to prominent to be objectionable. erable structures specially designed and erected for the display of advertisements to be dealt with by local authorities, a clause

A correspondent sends to The Manchester has been inserted at the instance of the

Guardian (Apr. 14) an interesting account of one of the higgest showmen on Hampstead Heath, no gipsy, but an Englishman named Gray, who, during the interview, was superintending the erection of his shows by some hundreds of workmen. He related that he was born in a caravan forty He and his wife and son and years ago. daughter live when on tour in a private caravan large enough to hold four beds and a general living room. A number of workmen are permanently attached to their camp, the rest being recruited locally as the show moves about. Weekly wages run into three figures; the daily takings at an Easter weekend into four if the weather is good. capital value of the show its owner puts at



Scapa Society in Lord Newton's Advertise ments Regulation Bill to provide that the expression "advertisements" shall be deemed to cover such structures. In the meantime the success of the East Sussex County Council in dealing with a particularly glaring case of landscape disfigurement will serve as an encouragement to other councils and will tend to deter advertisers from selecting sites of rural beauty for publicity purposes. THERE is sometimes need for prudence in

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It was a common wedding-parties make them pay

the revival of old customs as may be seen in a story we find in The Manchester Guardian of Apr. 14. "" rope The practice once to returning from church and a copper toll to get past. This was performed the other day at a wedding near Sandbach where the bride and bridegroom were travelling in a motor car. Four ropes were safely passed, but the driver, not noticing the fifth, ran his car into this one, and had his windscreen and hood torn away, with severe injury to the bride's wrist.

E see with interest that The Morning Post announces for the week after next a changed appearance, and will present itself in 24 instead of in 16 pages, with the size of the page reduced in both dimensions, and set in larger type. Reduction of size

its staple commodity, it much improved in

Literary and Historical reputation.



SADLER'S WELLS is the oldest existing theatre in the Metropolis, for though it has been supplied with more than one new interior, its outer walls are those which one Rosoman, a builder (whose name survives in Rosoman Street, Clerkenwell), erected in 1765. After 160 years is still stands with its histrionic glories, alas! all sadly faded.

As for the early history of the district where it is situated, the very name of Clerkenwell suggests medicinal springs and healing waters, the advantages of which were not disregarded by the miracle-mongers prior to the Reformation. In 1683 a labourer employed by Sadler, a surveyor of the highways, discovered the Holy Well, which had been stopped up by the Protestant authorities in the days of Henry VIII; and Sadler, not slow to take advantage of his discovery, made of his well and the "Musick Home," which adjoined it, a suburban gold-mine. A sort of variety entertainment was added to tea and hot water by Sadler and his partner, Forcer, a dancing master, and the ways of the place became what we should now regard as not exactly decorous.

But when Sadler and Forcer, and Forcer junior, their successor, had all passed away, and one Warren reigned in their stead, the place became "villainously disreputable," and in 1744, exactly a century before Phelps raised the theatre to the plane of the most intellectual in London, Sadler's Wells was presented to the Grand Jury of Middlesex as a place injurious to public morals.

Then came the erection of a substantial theatre by Rosoman, who had annexed a considerable sum, and had the wit to deposit it with the Old Lady of Threadneedle Street; and to Sadler's Wells then came an era, that, if not of much dramatic importance, was at any rate of tolerable respectability. In 1772 the house passed to King, an actor, who should be remembered, for he was the original "Sir Peter Teazle," and was a shining light during the Garrick-Sheridan management at Drury Lane. In 1778 Rosoman's Theatre was provided with its first new interior, and though mountebanks were still

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The year 1783 saw at Sadler's Wells the rise of what have been facetiously termed the Dog Stars," a company of performing dogs that so instantly and completely took the town that the management cleared £10,000 in a single season. The piece in which the dogs acted was called The Deserter,' and the part of hero was played by a bow-wow named Moustache," who was ably supported by "Simpkins," "Skirmish,' Louisa," and other canine artists.



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But perhaps the most famous name of all connected with Sadler's Wells during the eighteenth century is that of the clown par excellence, the immortal Joey Grimaldi, whose memoirs have been written by England's greatest novelist. Joey's paternal grandfather was a dancer, known to French and Italian audiences as Iron Legs.' His father, Giuseppe Grimaldi, came to England in 1760 as dentist to Queen Charlotte, but he appears to have preferred the drawing of crowds to the drawing of molars, and he quitted the Court for the stage. He became ballet master at the Lane and at Sadler's Wells, and Joey knew him from early infancy, both in that capacity, as well as in the domestic character of the stern parent. Giuseppe was a practical disciple of King Solomon, not in the matter of wives, but as an exponent of the use of the rod to prevent the spoiling of the child. There was nothing of the Montessori system in Giuseppe's education of his son. At the mature age of one year and eleven months Joey made his first appearance at Sadler's Wells as a sprite. When still under three he made an enormous hit as a monkey, became one of the permanent staff, and for no less than 49 years from the date, with the exception of a single season, remained a member of the Company. Death released Joey from his parental tyrant when scarcely eight years old, and this mere child worked for his mother at the Wells and Drury Lane with indefatigable industry, and ever-increasing talent.


It was in 1782 that the husband of Sarah Siddons became lessee of Sadler's Wells, and during his occupancy one of the two greatest actors that ever graced the English stage made his débût on its boards, The Pupil of Nature," Master Carey, great-grandson of the author of the immortal Sally in our Alley,' a mere boy, here recited with great effect Rollo's speech from 'Pizarro;' and Siddons as he listened with satisfaction could have little thought how this precocious youngster was destined as Edmund Kean to deal a mortal blow at the Kemble school of acting, then regarded as ideal. When the nineteenth century was four years old Charles Dibdin was the manager of Sadler's Wells. A vast tank was constructed under the stage, and fed by the new River.

Attraction was needed the town to engage So Dick emptied the river that year on the stage;

The house overflowed and became quite the ton,

And the Wells for some seasons went swimmingly on.


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"Dick" was one Richard Hughes who had In this tank a large stake in the venture. took place many naval engagements, and maritime shows, such as "The Siege of Gibraltar," The Battle of the Nile," and "Philip and his Dog." For a good many years onwards Grimaldi was the foremost attraction, however, at the His famous song, Hot Codlings,' was first introduced in the pantomime of The Talking Bird.' Pantomime in those days appears to have been a standing dish, not a Christmas dainty. In 1817, owing to a dispute, Joey's name was absent from the bill, but he returned in the following year as manager, and being a large shareholder, the losses which followed fell heavily on him.

The play bills of the Wells for a good many years make but monotonous reading with their re-iterated ballets, pantomime, and melodramas. The hand of time, too, fell heavily on Grimaldi; his health gave way, and his sufferings as he set his audiences in a roar, were often acute, and at length on Marh 28, 1828, his final performance at the Wells took place.

With Grimaldi for a long period passed the fortunes of the Wells-Mrs. Fitzwilliam, with Buckstone as a member of her company, was here for a time Mrs. Waylett sang here in 1836. Junius Brutus Booth starred here in 1837. Mrs. Glover played the Nurse in Romeo and Juliet;' and in 1838, for

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one night only, that immortal actor of Sailor-men," T. P. Cooke, appeared as "William in 'Black-eyed Susan;' and then in 1842 Ducrow and his famous steeds occupied the historic boards.

But in 1844 a fresh period of legitimate success began with the advent of that admirable actor, Samuel Phelps. Phelps had already won his spurs in the metropolis under Ben Webster and Macready. He opened at at the Wells on May 27, 1844, with Mrs. Warner as his leading lady, and an excellent company. For eighteen years he reigned at Sadler's Wells, and presented no fewer than thirty of Shakespeare's plays on this stage, reverently, adequately, and not overburdened with scenery and costume. In many he acted greatly, in all with a rare intelligence, a scrupulous regard for the author's meaning, and an absolute adherence to the author's text. He won success and

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a great name in the history of the English stage, and amply deserved his laurels; and if he failed to reach the topmost heights in high tragic and romantic parts, he was indubitably supreme a character actor. Who that has seen them can forget his Bottom the Weaver," his "Falhis "Sir Pertinax Macsycostaff," or phant?" His management came to an end on March 15, 1862, and though the sun of Sadler's Wells did not quite set, its glories steadily declined from that date. It is these glories that are, if the Duke of Devonshire's appeal meets with a generous response, to be

now revived.

W. COURTHOPE FORMAN. Welwyn Garden City, Herts.

BRITISH SETTLERS IN AMERICA. (See ante pp. 95, 114, 131, 148, 237). BY Y a strange irony of fate Captain Francis Rainsford was, at the Restoration, appointed Deputy Lieutenant of the Tower of London, where so recently, his brother Henry had been a prisoner.

1670, July 24. Sunday. Tower. Francis Rainsford, Deputy Lieut. of the Tower, to have been secured by the Military and Peace Williamson. All the meeting places in London Officers, so that there was no preaching or disturbance. The Preachers and Hearers at a Quakers' meeting in Spitalfields were all convicted. The Justices and Military dispursed and sent the prisoners and half a score more another, and an Anabaptist in Southwark, to gaol for refusing to take the oath of allegi

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