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"Truth' said in 1923:

And this fact is worth consideration by those who have so far not made use of Mr. Hurcomb's services. New clients will profit by taking the experience of old clients for a guide. Whether they need an expert valuation of any sort of property for insurance, probate or sale, or whether they have valuable property to dispose of, they are not likely to go far wrong if they entrust the business to Mr. Hurcomb. To-day his only address is Calder House, Piccadilly, London, W.1

The President of The Law Society (19231924) wrote:

Dear Mr. Hurcomb,

I am much obliged for your letter, and read as I always do your advertisements with much interest. I have often had the benefit of your assistance, and you have acted for many of my clientsin some cases disposing of very valuable property. I know of no one in whom I have greater confidence both as regards probity and ability; and I know that many of my Firm's Clients are glad to have been introduced to you."

W. E. HURCOMB is THE VALUER to all the leading Firms of Family Solicitors, and to the most important Banks and their branches, The principal himself is mainly concerned in valuing Jewels, Pearls, Silver, etc., but for the valuation of Pictures, Porcelain, Tapestry, Antique and Modern Furniture he is assisted by a very able and competent staff. The Estate Duty Office and the Public Trustee have availed themselves of W. E. Hurcomb's expert knowledge, and the most notable valuations for Probate, etc., that have been carried out include Arundel Castle & Norfolk House, W. (for the exe cutors to the late Duke of Norfolk); Devenshire House, Piccadilly; Thornden Hall (for the executors of the late Lord Petre);

Two-handled Silver Cup, weight 80 oz., sold for £276.

Ugbrooke Park (for the executors of the late Lord Clifford of Chudleigh); the late Lord and Lady Brampton, and numerous other duke. earls, baronets, knights. and hundreds of lesser degree.

Sales on premises, contents of residences a speciality. Valuations for Probate, Insurance, etc., at moderate fees. Weekly Auction Sales of Pearl. Diamonds, Old Silver. Sheffield Plate. No Buyingin Charges, Stamps Purchased for Cash. Parcels Safe Registered post.

W. E. HURCOMB, the Piccadilly Auction Gal leries, Calder House (entrance, 1, Dover Street). Piccadilly, London, W.1 'Phone: Regent 475.




Oldest Market in the World...

Dick Turpin




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EWKESBURY ABBEY is well-known to lovers of old stained glass as enshrining one of the greatest treasures of that kind in NOTES AND QUERIES is published every It may be useful to note that, Friday, at 20, High Street, High Wycombe, on the occasion of its restoration and the Bucks. Subscriptions (£1 15s. 4d. a year, or $8.75 U.S.A., including postage and two-half-service of thanksgiving for its completion on yearly indexes) should be sent to the Lady Day, The Times of Mar. 25 prints an Publisher. The London Office is at 22, Essex excellent description of it with some notes Street, W.C.2. (Telephone: Central 396), where the current issue is on sale. Orders for back the Recorder of Tewkesbury. on stained glass and its manufacture-by numbers, indexes and bound volumes should been some ignorant treatment of the windows There had be sent either to London or to Wycombe. Letters for the Editor to the London Office. in the early nineteenth century, but this has been rectified and now what we see is virtually what our fathers saw 600 years ago when the glass was first set up. A thorough cleaning has revealed much that had been lost, and enabled some re-arrangement, obviously necessary, to be made such as the putting back of heads, or pieces of a robe or a foot, to their proper places. Modern heads have been taken away. We are glad to learn that in the opinion of those fitted to judge, the work has been most satisfactorily accomplished.



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NOTES:-The Oldest Market in the World, 219
Militia Commissions, Co. Cavan, 221-Supposed
Diak Turpin Letter-Rev. George Vernon-
Queen Victoria and Gladstone: a Parallel, 223.
QUERIES:-Sheraton Family Cadgers' Hiero-
glyph - Folk-lore: Black Cats Christopher
Milles Lincolnshire Bagpipes Burial on
North Side of Church-Consecration Crosses
and Mason Marks-Aldersbrook House, Co.
Esser-Richard Dighton-Langston of Sarsden,


Oxon, 224-Redriff-Old Marbaeuf (English)

Chapel, Paris-George Smith, of Exeter-Allen:

Marriage with Descendant of John Hampden,

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225-Napoleon III. in England-Delagard: Dray-
Lead Pencil "Ale and
History "-" Little England Beyond Wales "-
Play Wanted Reference Wanted Author
Wanted, 226.

REPLIES:-Matfellon, 227-" Pistiller "-Ices in

England-Nell Gwynn-Canaletto's Drawing of
St. Paul's, 228-Poets: Information wanted-Gen-
tleman of the Privy Chamber-William Herbert,
1st Earl of Pembroke-Identification of Arms
Sought Abraham Cowley-St. Margaret Moses,
229 St. Mildred's Court Burial-ground-Last
-St. Mildred's Court Burial-ground Last
House on London Bridge, 230-Lurting: Cust

Orientation of Churches-The Cow at Funerals-
Butter Cross-" Top-hole":"Topping," 231-
Robert Uvedale-Watermarks-" So Long
Dalmatian or Carriage Dogs-" That the Earth
is Flat." 232.

THE LIBRARY:- 'A History of Eighteenth
Century Drama ' 'The Administration of


FEW links with the past of which we have
seen the recent severing had connected
more surely and more widely with
Victorian literature than the life of Madame
Belloc, which ended, at the age of 95, on
March 23. She was Bessy Raynor Parkes,
great-grand-daughter of Priestley, the dis-
coverer of oxygen. She gave a children's
party in Great George Street, Westminster,
in honour of Queen Victoria's coronation;
signed, with Florence Nightingale and
Harriet Martineau and two other co-signa-
tories, the first petition for the suffrage for
women ever presented to Parliament; accom-
panied Mrs. Gaskell to Haworth to collect
material for the Life of Charlotte Brontë;
and was
the one
chosen confidant who
received from George Eliot avowal of her
decision to unite her life with Lewes's. Mrs.

Criminal Law in Flanders - Farewell to Sir Browning was her friend; and George Sand

Francis Drake.'


OBITUARY:-Henry Cuthbert Barnard.



HE INDEX to Notes and Queries,' Vol. cxlvii (July to December, 1924), is now ready. Orders should be sent to the Publisher, 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks, England; or to the London Office, at 22, Essex Street, Strand, London, W.C. 2. Price 2s. 7d. post free.

her correspondent. In 1867 she married Louis Belloc, a French barrister, and had her French home looted and partially destroyed by the Germans in the Franco-German war. She had been a delicate girl, and was never a strong woman, but her mental vigour was great, and she preserved it unimpaired into extreme old age. Late in life she published three books, compiled from her memories, which were received with no little appreciation.

WE were recently noting endeavours to put down the practice of human sacritice among the Nagas. It appears, from a communication of the Morning Post's correspondent at Calcutta (Mar. 25) that the problem arises even in India itself. At Mandla, in the Central Provinces, a man, who was formerly a Government servant, with his two sons, has been sentenced to death for killing his daughter as a sacrifice to the Goddess Kali in order to save his grandson, a child of fourteen, whom the family believed to be This proving of no avail the boy was starved, bound hand and foot, and placed naked in the open near a spot where a holy man-who seems to have directed these proceedings-had his dwelling, under which treatment he died.



THE Edwin Smith medical papyrus of 1600 B.C., now belonging to the New York Historical Society, is yielding, under the study of Professor James H. Breasted, astonishing evidence of the medical knowledge possessed by the Egyptians at that period. Part of the papyrus contains a treatise of a quack physician with a chapter on How to change an old man into a young man of twenty," but the main text, in a different hand, is that of a solid work on scientific medicine, showing that the writer knew paralysis of one side of the body to be caused by the affection of the other side of the brain, and the control of the members of the body to be operated from different centres in the brain. This is knowledge among ourselves of comparatively recent date, and upon which modern surgery has somewhat plumed itself as a great advance.

THE Irish Times of Mar. 23 has received by its Foreign Service" a new Johann Orth story according to which an aged pedlar named Albert Goebel, who recently died at Vienna in the Charity Hospital is in truth Johann Orth, who, as Archduke Johann Salvator left Austria in 1883 to marry a woman whom he had met in a Vienna Café. Leopold Oelfling-ex-Archduke Leopolddeclares that the old servants who have identified him are mistaken, seeing that the dead man has not the Hapsburg aquiline nose. The widow declares her husband told her long ago that he was Johann Orth. She is striving to establish his identity, not in order to make any sort of claim for herself, but to ensure his interment in the family burial-place of the Capucins. She is not the heroine of his devoted exile (who is

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HE fire at Madame Tussaud's, which took place just too late to find mention in our columns of last week, must not be passed by altogether in silence, though our readers said about it copiously put before them in have already had everything that can be the public press. reference to note that The Times of Mar. 20 It may be useful for -besides a vivacious leader-gave, on p. 17, a useful short account of Marie Tussaud, née Grosholtz. Her career proved itself the most conspicuous link between London and the ancien régime of France, a point of view from which we are more inclined to regret the disappearance of the famous show than even from that of the Napoleonic relics. AT the sale of the Britwell books this week

at Sotheby's Dr. Rosenbach, who was the chief purchaser, bought for £620 the little quarto of 120 leaves, printed in London by "R. A." (? Robert Aylett or Richard Argall) in 1621, only known copy of The Song of Songs containing the which was Solomons.' The same purchaser bought also Sir William Berkeley's 'Lost Lady' a tragi-comedy, unbound, bearing several contemporary corrections (£270), and Calvin's Forme of Prayers,' etc., 1656, with the bookplate of Thomas Pownall, Governor of Massachusetts (£190). Dr. Rosenbach has been active in Paris also where he bought last week, at the sale of M. René DescampsScrive's library, a particularly fine set in two volumes, of the fine eighteenth century work 'Le Monument du Costume Physique et Moral.'


On the following day the most interesting event to the point of creating some sensation-was the sale, to Dr. Rosenbach again, of a contemporary plagiarism of Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis.' It is but a fragment of 15 leaves quarto, printed by Richard Jones, London, 1594; its title 'Enone and Paris' being known only from the entry in the Stationers' Registry. One "T.H." is the author, but whom the initials designate we do not know. It was sold for 16s. in 1833; bidding on this occasion started at £700, and reached £3,800 before the purchaser acquired it.

Literary and Historical principal among the long narrow lanes



THE oldest Market in the World still being held is, unquestionably, that of the Campo de' Fiori ("the field of Flowers ") in Kome. It has been continuously kept on the self-same spot, that is to say the ancient Campus Martius, week in and week out, from the earliest period of the Republic, and, most probably, from that of the Kings, down to the present day, regardless alike of wars and revolutions.

It is closed in on all sides by lofty houses, closely built over narrow and crowded streets. As one enters one finds oneself in a wide open space, in the midst of which stands the bronze statue of Giordano Bruno by Ettore Ferrari, hooded and clad as monk, with his hands folded over a broadbound book, the attitude in which he suffered martyrdom at the stake on this very spot for his advanced opinions at the hands of the "Holy" Inquisition in 1600.


When tied to the stake [says Berti, his biographer] he declared that he died a martyr and willingly, even though his soul should not ascend to Paradise with the smoke of his fire. But that was of no consequence to him, if he spoke the truth. He bore the slow agonies of burning without a cry or moan; and, when a crucifix was thrust before him, turned his head scornfully away.

Around the base of his statue are always, in every month of the year, booths of flowers in great quantity, richness and variety, and -unlike those of Covent Garden-grown in the neighbouring countryside. From these the Market takes its name. It is thought by the learned that, in ancient times, a statue of the goddess Flora stood on the same site where, now, is that of Bruno. This is borne out by the fact that there is in the Vatican a statue of the goddess of flowers, which was found in this very place. However that may be, it is, surely, a charming circumstance that the statue of this brave man, who gave his life in that terrible way, to maintain great truths of Science, should always be surrounded by flowers.

Wednesday has been, time out of mind, the day of the market (except the flower-market, which is held every day), perhaps, because that day was dedicated to Mercury, the patron god of merchants, travellers-and

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thieves! On that day, the roadway of the leading into the Market Square is always filled by an extended double row of booths, set closely together. On them are displayed almost every imaginable variety of cloth stuffs. There опе may find, original Gobelin tapestries of the fifteenth century; and silks and velvets, heavily embroidered with gold, from the wardrobes of sixteenth and seventeenth century cardinals and magnificos, with their colours almost as fresh as ever. Such were the dyes of those days!


Further on, in the piazza of the Market, one finds the greatest incongruity in the objects offered for sale: antiquities, false and real-principally the former; artistic notions," such as miniature imitations of monuments of the Eternal City, or of the leaning tower of Pisa," or "the duomo at Florence," and the like. Among pieces of old and rusty iron, we see the huge keys and colossal locks still in use in Italy and Spain, not for "dungeons dank and drear," but for the doors of ordinary dwelling-houses, even those recently built. In another part are oil-painted pictures out of the studios of the art-students of different nationalities with whom Rome abounds-from huge canvasses of historical subjects, which remind one of Marcel's Crossing of the Red Sea'* that terminated in an advertisement for a rew steamboat line, to tiny daubs of flowers and other still-life with a distinctly feminine touch. There are cheap socks, stockings and male underwear to catch the unwary; rickety photograph frames; English flannel shirts; French chemises; American shoes; Italian rustic boots of inflexible crude leather; wooden clogs; and cioce, a kind of antique shoe still worn in the Sabine mountains and on the Roman Campagna, which resembles the Indian moccasin somewhat, except that it is bound round the leg with thongs in the manner one sees in Byzantine and Anglo-Saxon illuminated manuscripts. Toys there are of every variety. The amiable wooden 66 gee-gee"; the martial drum and ear-splitting trumpet; dolls of all sorts and sizes; toy soldiers, wooden, tin and leaden; medieval knights, recalling "Orlando Furioso;" ancient Roman legionaries; barbaric Gauls; finally, gladiators, martyrs, wild beasts and other adjuncts of the Colosseum. Toy theatres appear, also, of every quality and price, scenes which remind

*La Vie de Bohème' by Mürger.


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one of real stock-company houses, such as the red drawing-room set," "palace of the Grand-Duke," Baron's castle, wayside inn," and country road with moveable windmill." The actors are controlled by wires fastened to hooks on the top of their heads, and are arrayed in historical costumes of brilliant colours and many periods. The Epiphany is the time to buy these toy theatres. Why, I don't really know; but, at that time, they are more splendid in quality and variety than at any other time of the year.

There are booths for tin-ware, copper-ware, earthenware, kitchen-ware and every other kind of ware; terra-cotta statuettes of the Madonna, of the Venus di Milo, Lucrezia Borgia, Lucrezia Borghesi (the beautiful sister of Napoleon) and Garibaldi; imitations of spotted dogs in plaster of Paris, with curly tails to pick them up by while dusting the furniture; neck-ties of such colours as could only have been evolved from a kaleidescope; wax candles for burning in churches in recognition of answered prayers, and votive offerings in the shape of silver or nickel-plated hearts with a gold or brass flame issuing dramatically from the cleft on the top; highly tinted religious postcards, often imitations of Old Masters, so "vivid " that it would not be surprising if they caused the Old Masters to writhe in their graves.

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Among other lovely objects of a like character, I once saw there the molar tooth of an ancient hermit, guaranteed to be genuine; and, on another occasion, a bony splinter from the skeleton of St. Anne, for which the dealer asked ten dollars but, ultimately, let it go for seven and a half. To this emporium of the world's odds-and-ends come also buttons and blacking from England; shoe-laces pearl from Germany; buttons, tape and ribbands from France; nested drinking-cups from America; thread, needles, carded worsted and thimbles from Manchester; "Boston" shoe protectors, really from Liverpool; cheap native modern majolica and mosaics, gems, jewellery and-anything but precious stones; very nasty sweetmeats for hardened young Italian stomachs; notepaper and envelopes; second-hand medicine bottles; scraps of cheap lace to trim female underwear; emigrants' hairy leather trunks; bird cages; brooms; live rabbits; pictureframes, many of which date back to the sixteenth century and are very beautiful; toothbrushes, very coarse and hairy; chess-boards and chess-men; umbrellas; bed-quilts; wardrobes bookcases; early Christian terra

cotta lamps from the Catacombs; symbolic pottery such as the mystic fish, dove, etc., from the same source; terra-cotta masks of Silenus and other satyrs, miniature copies, made in ancient times to imitate those used in the Roman theatre; religious statuettes ; iron bedsteads; mattresses; Latin Bibles; bellows; pocket microscopes and bicycles.

There are, also, scaldine, open earthenware vessels, with a handle above, which, when filled with charcoal, keep the hands warm in winter, when the icy tramontana blows down from the surrounding snow-clad mountains; and which are carried about by women of the lower classes in cold corridors of the thick-walled old Roman houses and in the street, taking the place of our muffs and, certainly, much cheaper.

As varied and incongruous as the merchandise is the assortment of human types. Every Wednesday the Market, especially round the bookstalls, teems with blackrobed priests, greasy and badly shaved, in strange orders; sandal-footed friars, “black, wide-spreading hats; monks of all sorts of Beggars swarm white, brown and grey.”

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at one's elbow at every turn, with their everlasting sing-song professional whine; and in every form of imaginable-and unimaginable deformity and stage of loathsome disease. There are paralytics with withered hands so sensitive as to tremble every time a welldressed person approaches them, though I in lonely streets, when their owners have have seen the same hands stationary enough 'off the stage." There been, as it were, are, also, blind men, who pray the Virgin "before you and Saints may bring you, too, die," to their unenviable condition if you are not prompt enough in expressing your compassion in a tangible form. One sees cripples on crutches; others minus an armthough, perhaps, one is skillfully hidden. under his ample ragged jacket; or minus a leg, or an arm and a leg; or worse stillminus both arms and both legs, grovelling anatomies, creeping through life and this busy scene of it, almost under the horse's hoofs of passing vehicles, on two slabs of wood, studded with brass knobs below and covered with leather above. Hunchbacksboth men and women appear suddenly before one, as if they had sprung from the earth below. These are always common in Italy and, often, deliberately deformed by their parents in infancy to qualify them, later on, for this the most compassionable of all specialities in the lucrative trade of

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