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CHARLES BEST.-I shall be more than grateful if any reader is able to tell me anything of the Elizabethan poet, Charles Best, who flourished circa 1602. I can discover nothing at all about him except the notice in the Dictionary of Natural Biography' and a few notes in A. H. Bullen's edition of Davison's Poetical Rhapsodie.' Any scrap of information would be extraordinarily welcome to me, since it would very materially assist some researches which I have lately been making. LIONEL GOUGH.

OLD TUNBRIDGE WARE.-I am a col

lector of the above, which, as everyone knows, comprises wooden articles, mostly small, ranging from tables, cabinets and boxes to buttons, either inlaid or veneered with mosaic designs.

The industry seems to have been carried on for some 250 years, and flourished principally between 1800 and 1850. I can find very little literature on the subject, beyond one or two guide-books and county histories containing brief descriptions of the process of manufacture, and one or two articles in art magazines describing such chefs d'œuvre as the writers have noticed. Perhaps some reader of N. & Q.' may be able to refer me to other and fuller accounts of this industry, or give information about it.

CHARLES MACKINTOSH.

THEARNE, NEAR BEVERLEY.

I

should be glad to receive copies of any ancient or modern references to Thearne Village, near Beverley, Thearne Hall, and the ancient Thearne Chapel or Chantry to the Blessed Virgin Mary, as also to their owners and tenants. Thearne was one of the three townships forming the "Manor of the Water Towns of Beverley."

RONALD A. M. DIXON. Thearne Hall, near Beverley.

SLEATH, THE ARTIFICIAL LIMB. MAKER. What was his Christian name, and how was he related to William Robert Grossmith (1818-99), who seems to have succeeded to his business? Grossmith was the brother of George Grossmith the first.

45, Doughty Street.

J. M. BULLOCH.

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THE COW AT FUNERALS.-Hardwick, in his Traditions, Superstitions and Folk-lore, chiefly of Lancashire and the North of England,' refers to an old funeral custom in England "that a cow should follow the coffin to the churchyard," and also states that on the gift of a cow to the church as mortuary or heriot" it was customary, in some places, to drive the cow in the procession of the funeral cortège. shall be glad of references to cows being present at funerals.

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LURTING:

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R. HEDGER WALLACE. CUST.-John Lurting, of Tamlaghtmore, gent., made his will 8 Jan., 1733, probate of which was granted to the executor, his widow, at Derry, 16 April, 1734. He mentions his wife Catherine, his children Henry and Catherine; and names as overseers his wife's brothers Jones Cust of Ardmagh, and Richard Cust of Ballycarton. The witnesses are John Cust, Richard Cust and Church Cust.

Henry Lurting, of Tamlaghtard, made his will 10 Apr., 1786, but there is no date of probate, the will being endorsed 1805. He mentions his wife Rebecca, his sons, William, John and Henry, of whom the last is to be a sailor, and his daughters Mary Ann, Martha and Catherine. The overseer is Mr. Henry Cust.

What is the origin of these families of I should be glad of any Lufting and Cust? information relating to them.

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EMORIALS TO ALEXANDER SEL

ME

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KIRK. Particulars are desired of these. A life-size figure of Robinson Crusoe was erected on the exterior of Selkirk's birthplace at Largs.

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LIEUT. COL. SIR ANTHONY

STER

LING. In which regiment did Lieut.Col. Sir Anthony Sterling, K.C.B., serve prior to obtaining a Staff appointment? He was the author of 'The Story of the J. ARDAGH. Highland Brigade,' published in 1895, twenty years after the writer's death. Did this SQUIRSINORUM officer ever serve in the ranks? In Tulasnes's J. PAINE.

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"VESUNENSIS." Carpologia,' L. P. F. Ditmar is said to have been a Senator "Rhodopi Squir. sinorum." What town and where is this? To another person the description Vesunensis" is applied. What town is meant? W. B. G. THE HOUSE OF PERCY.-Is anything

NELL GWYN.-Would any reader tell me
whether there are any Nell Gwyn relics,
and if so where they are to be found?
E. M.

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THE REV. WILLIAM THOMAS, ANTI-
QUARY. When and where was he
born? According to the Dict. Nat. Biog.,'
lvi. 199 he married Elizabeth, daughter of
George Carter, of Brill, Bucks.
Can any
correspondent of N. & Q.' give me the date
of his marriage?

G. F. R. B.

authentic known as to the origin of the Percy family? Mr. Gerald Brennan's book on the subject says "it is at least certain that, at the coming to England of Duke William in A. D. 1066, the Percies were firmly and broadly settled upon Norman soil." The Register of Whitby Abbey "positively asserts" that William de Percy MICHAEL ANGELO TAYLOR, M.P.came into England in A.D. 1067. De Fonblanque suggests that this Percy already possessed lands in England, being one of the Normans brought to England by Edward the

Confessor, and afterwards expelled by

Harold.

P. D. M.

MATTHEW WREN, BISHOP OF ELY 1638.-Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely, married at Sproughton, Ipswich, Aug. 17, 1628, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Cutler, Esq, of Ipswich, and widow of Robert Brownrigg, Esq., and had issue with four sons, six daughters. The eldest, Ann, married John Ball, Esq.; the second, Susan, married, as his second wife, 1665, Robert Wright, of Wangford, Suffolk, Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, by whom she had several children, most of whose descen- ‹ dants I possess. Mary, the third daughter, is stated to have married Watts, Esq., of the county of Herts.

The other three daughters were Elizabeth, Alice and Frances (b. 1636). I should be glad to know whether Mrs. Ball and Mrs. Watts had issue, and to receive any other particulars relating to any of the above.

LEONARD C. PRICE.

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When and where was he born in 1757 ?
who was his mother? The Dict. Nat.
Biog.' fails to supply this information.
G. F. R. B.

BLISHERS WANTED:

PUBLIS

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1. The simplest things in life are loveliest," etc., by H. Parry.

2. "If where thou walkest, dear, we could

walk," etc., by Mrs. Chapman,

Could any reader tell me where the poems from which I have quoted first appeared, and the name of the respective publishers?

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L. J. M.

1. Who wrote a
poem, of which the following is a stanza:
Let the wind moan as it would,
Let the raindrops patter fast.
They were near me, nestled warm,
From the midnight and the blast;
Not one lingering out of reach,
Not one banished far aloof.
It's a woman's heaven to have
All she loves beneath one roof

I have four more complete stanzas, but have lost the beginning; and should be grateful to anyone who would give it me complete.

C. THOMPSON HARDING.

2. On 14 Oct.. 1885, at Trowbridge, Joseph Chamberlain quoted-Well, well! it's a mercy we have men to tell us

The rights and the wrongs of these things anyhow,

And that Providence sends us oracular fellows

To sit on the fence and slang those at the plough.

Whom was he citing?

HARMATOPEGOS.

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Somewhere about the year 1130 A.D., Louis VI., who was then engaged in a struggle for supremacy with his turbulent feudal vassals, determined, in order to give better protection to his capital, to construct a line of fortifications south of the Seine, which should embrace a small suburb which had grown up there. This line of fortifications bisected the Clos Bruneau, upon which at its crossing of the rue St. Jacques there was built a tower or fortified gateway to protect the entrance to the city at that point.

At as early a period as 1171, according to Dulaure (Histoire de Paris,' i. 256) the Clos Bruneau, or at any rate the portion of it south of the walls of Louis VI., had been conferred upon the Hospitalliers de St. Jean de Jérusalem, the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, afterwards frequently spoken of as Knights of Rhodes, and later as Knights of Malta. Here they had their chapel which was erected into a parish church of St. Jean de Lateran, and this, with the Hôtel of the local Commander of the Order, and with several private houses were scattered irregularly around a large court with an alley or passage way to the Orleans road. It was only a few years after the organization of this Commandery of the Knights of St. John when the energetic Monarch Philippe Auguste came to the French throne with much wider ideas than his predecessors. The nucleus of the University was forming, and students from all parts of Europe were crowding into Paris, most of them helping

to increase the constantly growing suburb south of the Seine. In 1190 the King began the erection of a new and greatly extended wall to protect L'Université as that quarter of the City now began to be called. The former wall of Louis VI. became useless; it was soon demolished, but the tower near the rue St. Jacques was given to the Knights of St. John to further one of the articles of their Constitution, namely, to afford guidance, shelter and care to pilgrims on Prior to 1370, we their way to Jerusalem.

on the west side of the street from those of

St.

find that the ancient Clos Bruneau had been divided into two portions by a street running north and south which separated the lands and houses of the Commandery of St. John Jean de Dormans, Bishop of Beauvais and Chancellor of France, on the east side. Here towards the north end of the street the latter founded in 1370 his College de Dordown the street, and directly opposite the mans or de Beauvais; while in 1384, farther Hôtel of the Commander of the Knights of John, Gilbert and Philippe Ponce founded the Ecole de Droit, a school of the Canon or Ecclesiastical Law. The early name of this street is not well For two centuries and more it has known. been usually spoken of as the rue St. Jean de Beauvais, and it seems to have been a popular notion that it was so named to commemorate Jean de Dormans, founder of the College of Beauvais. The Church of Rome recognizes no such canonization, however; and on the De Rochfort official map of Paris, of 1676, in the writer's possession, the street appears as rue de Beauvais. have therefore thought that the street received from the adjacent possessions of the Knights of St. John the appellation of rue Jean, or St. Jean, with the addition of de Beauvais to distinguish it from the numerous streets of similar name in Paris, such as rue Jean Beausire, Jean de Beauce, Jean St. Denis, Jean de l'Epine, etc.

Some writers

By the middle of the sixteenth century the old Hôtel of the Commander of the Hospitallers had become, in part at least, devoted to business purposes. Here the famous Estienne family of Protestant printers and publishers issued their numerous printed works through several successive generations from Henri Estienne the founder. Their tact and good fortune, combined with the rare scholarship and accuracy of their many editions of the classics-more especially those of Robert Estienne, the second head of the House-protected them through the religious

turmoils of that stormy period till well into the seventeenth century, when one or two of them were forced to retreat to Geneva, stili carrying on their publishing business in Paris through various collateral branches of the family. Finally, Antoine Estienne, the last of the line, became reconciled with the Church of Rome and returned to Paris, where he received the appointment of Royal Printer. He is said to have had in contemplation a cosmographical work on the principal cities of the world, but doubtless did not live to publish it, for he died in great Poverty in 1674.

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The Estiennes carried on their business at the Sign of the Olive Tree, apparently as tenants of the Commandery of the Knights of St. John. It seems very probable that the Hôtel itself was known as John's" or Chez Jean, in strict analogy to the old English custom of speaking of St. Paul's Cathedral and its appurtenances as "Paul's,' "Paul's Cross," Paul's Chain," "Paul's Wharf," etc. It is not found, however, that the Estiennes made use themselves of that term. From the voluminous list of their editions in Renouard's Annales de l'Imprimerie des Estiennes,' a few titles have been selected at random as examples :

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In point of time the view of Jerusalem above referred to appears to be about the first of which we have knowledge, in the construction of which a careful regard was had to the rules of perspective drawing. The numerous prior so-called plans or views

each one differing from the others in the most bewildering confusion-appear to have been formed by monkish compilers in their libraries or cells, from a discordant mass of topographical allusions in the Bible, Josephus, and the pilgrims' legends, with one leading object running through all these efforts, namely, to construct the lines of their imaginary city walls in such a manner as to throw the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre outside of them so as to comply with the statements in the New Testament Six Oraisons de Cicero, &c. Paris de l'Im--that site being included within the present primerie de Robert Estienne en la Rue St. Jean de Beauvais, 1608-9.

Exposition des Sept. Pseaumes penitenciels, cum textu Latino per R. E. (Robert Estienne). En la Rue S. Jean de Beauvais devant les Escholes de decret, 1611.

Les Divertissements poetiques de Guillaume, Colletet Parisien. Paris de l'Imprimerie de Robert Estienne. Rue S. Jean de Beauvais à l'Olivier, 1631.

That the view of Jerusalem in question may have been prepared and printed from the plant and facilities of this eminent publishing house seems quite likely, but it does not appear that this was done for purposes of public sale. Its size indicates that it was not intended for a book-print; moreover, it lacks the formula "Avec privilége du Roi" required to show that it had passed the censor. Upon the whole it seems more likely that the view was prepared for the various Commanderies of the Knights Hospitallers in their capacity of guides and advisers or assistants to the pilgrims to Jerusalem. How far their functions in this respect had been interfered with by the hostility between them and the Turkish masters of the Holy Land it is difficult to Two centuries earlier, it was still one

say.

walls.

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When Braun and Hogenberg in 1572 were preparing their monumental Theatrum Urbium of the principal cities of the world, they could not find, out of seven or eight well-known plans of Jerusalem, from that of Harmanus Burcloo of 1538, to that of the Venetian Fabius Licinus of about 1570, one that was worth reproducing for their work They consequently had a new plan prepared by an unknown cartographer (vol. i., p. 52), which in some respects is more faulty than all its predecessors. It was in fact so very faulty that about 1575, in vol. ii. of the

Theatrum,' they introduced a second plan (ii. 54), a crude perspective drawing, adhering as closely to all the traditional sites as could well be done where the city (being really trapeziform in shape) is depicted as of almost a complete circular area.

But for some reason both the plans just referred to were considered insufficient by the publishers, and in vol. iv., p. 58, of the Theatrum,' was given the plan of Christian Adrichom, cir. 1584. He was a Dutch priest of the Roman Catholic Church who had been driven out of Holland by the Reformers. His plan is in two sheets, very minutely

elaborated from Scriptural references, but utterly worthless in point of topography. He has the city divided up into rectangular blocks of houses of a Dutch or German aspect. He is also so anxious to get his hill of Calvary outside of the walls that he depicts it far to the north-west, beyond the Third or Outer Wall of Agrippa (which wall, however, was only built some years after the Crucifixion of Christ); nor does he seem to realize that the locality he has chosen is fatal to the traditional site. Perhaps this is the reason why, in 1596, the curious black-letter German plan of the Jesuit Villalpando made its appearance. The Calvary or Scheddelstatt Hügelgh corresponds closely enough with the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, but the author of this plan brings in but few of the legendary places, and bases his work mainly on the allusions in the prophecy of Ezekiel. The high ground near the Damascus Gate he considers as the place of sepulture of the Kings of Judah.

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handle to the Mexicans for reviling the invaders, whom they hissed at as

Gringoes.' So it is that to-day in all Mexico and the West Indies, and in all the states of the Caribbean border from Guatamala to Venezuela, the North-American is known as "Gringo" both by the natives and the bearers of the title themselves.

On Jan. 15, The South Pacific Mail repeats a reply from the same journal over a correspondent's initials "P.P.," who twits Wallace Thompson for the many examples of the use of the word " Gringo he gives, which show that its origin could never have been in the ditty "Green grows

"P.P." goes on to say (evidently cribbing from Appleton's Spanish-English dictionary or similar work):

As one travels southward a strange and significant change comes to this word... Touching Peru Gringo " has taken on

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a new and astonishing cosmopolitanism. The Gringo" is European, be he French, German, or Italian; with the English and Americans into the bargain of course.

I also learned from a solemn informant that

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Chile it extends

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From the beginning of the seventeenth century to the period of the unidentified view all foreigners, save Spaniards and Chinamen, or plan of Jerusalem under discussion, noth- were "Gringos" in Peru. ... The Spaniard ing of importance in the cartography of that was "Chapeton" and the Chinaman Macaco." city appears to have been produced. When one reaches Bolivia one finds another would seem that a well executed and careful pleasant variation; and on going South into There is but one defiview might naturally have been welcomed; nition for a "Gringo;" he is Anglo-Saxon, the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem, British, or American, and nothing else. however, were an Order of the Roman There came a pleasant surprise when an EngChurch, and if the conjecture of their pro-lishman spoke of something disagreeable as prietorship of the plan be true, a slight pertaining to "No American and to no Gringo, in fact." expression of disapproval from Rome would It is probably merely a corruption of the readily account for the disappearance of the | Spanish word Griego its history has copies. not been very fully traced. . . .but it evidently goes back to some period when any blond foreigner might be taken for a Greek A parrallel is found in the use of the word designate any Christian (Rome). "Rumi " by Mohamadans of North Africa to

It would be interesting to learn the name of the French traveller or artist responsible for this view and his reasons for the location he has chosen, so far in advance of the later critical research, for his Mont du Calvaire, but the writer has been hitherto unable to acquire any information on these points. J. H. INNES.

"CRINGO" (cxlvii. 427).-Our illustrated English weekly, The South Pacific Mail, has recently repeated a couple of articles from The Christian Science Monitor, but does not say from what issues. The first, under the name of Wallace Thompson, appeared in the Christmas number of the S.P.M., and the gist of it is as follows:

The Mexicans say that during the war of 1847-48, American soldiers, in place of a "Tipperary," had a sweetly sentimental song telling something of "How green grow the rushes which served for a

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As to Chile, I should say that the vernacular press, in its more genial periods,

distinguishes between

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"Yanki "

and Gringo " for our two nationalities; and colloquially too, there is the same differentiation by the more intelligent Chilians. "Gringo in the vast majority of cases means Briton. A few use it for AngloSaxons. Some will maintain it only means North Americans. If ever applied to other Northern Europeans it is because the user knows no better and other Chilians would tell him so, Its use is familiar as we might use "Frenchie," and they must know one well to use it to one's face. Probably it is most often used, not intended for our hearing, in a derogatory sense and coupled with

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