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ONDON'S LAMP-POSTS (cxlviii. 81). Sackville Street is lit by six bracket gas lamps, three on each side, but they are not private lamps over front doors for they are placed at equal distances, alternating with those on the opposite side, and affixed to the walls of one or of two adjoining houses Two still bear numas may be convenient. ber plates, as do ordinary street lamps. The street lamp-posts on the north side of St. James's Palace are marked "Wm. IV," and in various parishes standards are marked with parish initials. WALTER E. GAWTHORP.

96, High Street, East Finchley.

"STAURARIUS" (cxlviii. 64). This is a translation of the English occupational name Stocker, i.e., stock-keeper, or, as we should say to-day, stockman. Staurus is stock or store; stauramentum, the stock of a farm. Further instaurare is the regular word for "to stock a farm," and the forms Instauramentum, instauratio, instaurum are all found in the sense of store of various kinds, but especially of the stock


LEET MARRIAGES: LORD HARDWICKE'S ACT (cxlvii. 357, 395, 416, 470).-Lysons'' History of Berks' ('Magna Britannia '), 1806, has:

Bayworth is a considerable hamlet in this parish [i.e., Sunningwell], which had a chapel of ease now gone to decay; it was much resorted to for private marriages, before the Marriage Act. The Manor of Bayworth was given to the Abbot and Convent of Abingdon in 1329; and it has since passed with the Manor of Sunningwell, being now the property of Sir George Bowyer, Bart.

There is an ancient picturesque building of old brick divided into two or three cottages which may have once been the manor. The hamlet is reached by a steep lane from Boar's Hill, and is so remote it would be just the place for elopements.


TEMPLE STANYAN (cxlviii. 10).-Was
he a native of Henley-on-Thames? The
name Stanyan occurs in our MS. family

of a farm, which would be looked after by CULLODEN HANOVERIAN CAVALRY

the Staurarius or instaurarius. . (See Trice Martin's Record Interpreter,' s.v.).

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(cxlvii. 359 and references given thereat). -In connection with this discussion the following extract from a footnote to be found at p. 210, vol. ii. of Fordyce's History of Durham' is interesting: "" Several German officers and soldiers, who belonged to the Duke of Cumberland's army in 1745 were buried at Norton, and registered in the books." Were these Hanoverians or Hessians?




In medieval days, when all farm and other accounts were kept in Latin, these occupational surnames were used in both Latin and the vernacular, either French or English, so that it was a chance whether a blacksmith's descendants became Fearon (from French féron) or plain English Smith; or a huntsman's family took the name of Venner (Venour) or Hunter. In the in- Spennymoor. stance given by C. C., Stocker's descendants might some of them have become Storer. way in which languages were mixed up in Occupational surnames is vividly illustrated by the will of Sir Thomas de Uvedale, of Titsey, in Surrey, who, dying in 1367, left generous legacies to many servants. Among these appear Will Cooke, Robert Bailiff, Peter Gardiner, William Venour, John Waryner, John de Stabulo, Thomas de Stable, John de Coqua, William de Cusine, John famulus, Robert Berne, Roger Ballius, Andrew Carter, John Shepherd, etc.

South Park Farm,


Blechingley, Surrey.

Likely to mean Store or Stock-keeper.
(See Staurum in Cowel, Spelman, etc.; also
Staurum, Stauramentum, etc., in
Cange, col. vi., p. 725).


will find a long account of Owen Glyndwr in
DWR'S SONS (cxlviii. 83).-MERCURIA
Nicholas (1875), vol. i. p. 386.
County Families of Wales,' by Thomas
sons are mentioned, all supposed to have
married well except the fourth, whom her
"fallen in war"-five daughters, who all
father married by force to De Grey, Lord
of Ruthin."
Wales' might give more information.
Perhaps Royal Tribes of

S. T.

The following extract from a little book, entitled Flame-Bearers of Welsh History,' by Owen Rhoscomyl (1905) may supply MERCURIA with a hint or two. Speaking of Owen Glyndwr, he says:

It is possible that he had long intended to raise the people and strike for freedom. In fact, there is an entry in history which makes one almost sure of it, for in the sum

mer of the same year, 1400, a certain Meredydd ap Owen, of Merioneth, was planning to bring an army of Scots from the Hebrides, to land at Abermaw (Barmouth) and open a war. Now the only man of consequence, bearing that name at that date, was Meredydd the son of Owen Glyndwr himself.

In a subsequent note on this paragraph, Mr. Rhoscomyl says:

If the search for any other Meredydd ap

Owen-of standing sufficient to bargain for an army of Scots to land a Abermaw-should continue fruitless, then we shall have to recast our theories as to the rank of Glyndwr amongst the world's great men. For we shall have to regard him no longer as a mere opportunist, turning his personal outlawry to national account, but as a cool and daring statesman from the beginning. This makes him of a higher stamp, a stamp which, once granted, solves a good many problems of his





S FROM" (cxlvii. 465; cxlviii. 51).

He will not head

AS I cannot see what objection there can be to this expression, nor why it is called horrible. A man has a place of business and a place of private residence. He writes a business letter from his home. What address shall he give? the letter with his business address; for that would give the impression that he was at his office when he was not. He will not head it with his private address, for he does not want business letters to be addressed to him there. To carry out his own will in the matter he gives his business address and writes " as from "in front of it; meaning:

-Please note that this letter is not really written from my office; I will ask you, however, to regard it as if it were; and if you have any reply to make, please send it to the address given. "As from " I look upon as rather a clever abbreviation of a long


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Salisbury, George Augustus Selwyn, James Milnes Gaskell, Charles Kean, Edward Creasy, James Hope Scott, and Lord Lincoln. Gladstone's name was engraved on the door near Dr. Keate's desk, and, if the photograph of the door is enlarged, many other names will be revealed.

On Feb. 28, 1825, there occurred the fatal pugilistic encounter between two scholars, the Hon. F. A. Cooper (son of the Earl of Shaftesbury) and Mr. Wood, nephew of the Marquis of Londonderry, Cooper aged 15, and Wood 17. Between the rounds the school-fellows plied the boys with brandy, which helped to produce the catastrophe. The Coroner's Jury brought in a verdict of manslaughter, against Wood for the death of Cooper, and he was returned with his second, Wellesley, for trial, but as no witnesses appeared there was an acquittal. H. PROSSER CHANTER.


READY RECKONERS (cxlviii. 63, 102). I have in my possession Twentieth Edition of The Ready Reckoner; or Trader's Sure Guide, etc., by William Leybourne. Printed for J. F. and C. Rivington, T. Longman, B. Law and others. The advertisement to this London, 1791. It is edition is dated November, 1791. bound in brown leather and has 230 pages, but it seems as though a leaf or two may The book was the property have been lost. of my grandfather, Thomas Clarke, of the Common, Tong-now styled Tong Havannah. He died at Compton, near Wolverhampton, about 1840.

St. Augustine's Homes,


Cobridge, Staffordshire.

CARDINAL'S ARMS (cxlviii. 82).—These

of France.

should indicate Cardinal Charles de Bourbon-Vendôme (2), cousin of Henri IV The nine ancestors, on the label of 4, point clearly to the Vicomtes de Rohan (Pr. de Léon), and the marriage (1536) with Isabelle, dau. of Jean D'Albret, of Navarre. He was Archbishop of Rouen and died 1594,

aged 33.


ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. INKS WITH THE PAST (cxlvii. 294; S.V. 'Memorabilia '). A link of two lives between 1791 and 1924 was recorded at the reference. It may be of interest to record that the Dean of Glasgow, Michael Balfour Hutchinson, died in 1921 and that his father, John Hutchinson, was born in 1765. HARMATOPEGOS.

SIR RICHARD GRENVILLE AND BIDEFORD (cxlviii. 75). This Littleham property was St. Leger property, and Sir R. Grenville's wife was a St. Leger, of Annery, in the adjoining parish of Monkleigh. Whether the wife were alive or dead in 1587, could Sir Richard, by himself, deal with the property, even though he gave a guaranty against interference by the trustees, as we may suppose Sir William Cecil and the others to have been? Apparently the answer was in the negative and the matter fell through or some other plan was substituted. John Seller was still living in 1587. (Report on Devon Charities, vol. iii., p. 167, Exeter, 1830).


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The following books should be included in the list:

1885. British Museum. Medallic illustrations

of the history of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of George II; compiled by Edward Hawkins, and edited by A. W. Franks and H. A. Grueber. 2 vols.

1897. Eaton, H. F. Naval and military medals.

1916. British Museum. A catalogue of the English coins and medals.

1921. Official naval and military medals and ribbons from 1793 to the present day. 1921. Wylie, R. E. Orders, decorations and insignia, military and civil.


AUTHORS WANTED (cxlviii. 47, 89).-(1) Colonel John Hay in his couplet has merely translated La Fochefoucald's Quand les vices nous quittent, nous nous flattons de la créance que c'est nous qui les quittons." An epigram on Jacques de Vallé, Sieur des Barreaux (1602-1674) runs:

Des Barreaux, ce vieux débauché, Affecte une Réforme austere: Il ne s'est pourtant retranché Que ce qu'il ne sauroit plus faire. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. (exlviii, 83). Taken from Shakespeare's 'Pericles,' last line, Act III, Scene iv, and correctly quoted should read: "Yet my good will is great though the gift small." A. E. C.

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The Worshipful Company of
London. Its Origin and History. By A. C.
Stanley-Stone. (London: Lindley-Jones and

THIS book is based upon

a collection of

materials, the work of some twenty years, which the late Mr. Brackstone Baker, Master of the Company in 1884, had gathered together for the purpose of writing a history of the Turners. Our author, in drawfrom Mr. Brackstone ing up his chapters Baker's papers, has relied on the extracts from the original records of the Company as accurate, without further verification, and, indeed, tends-perhaps unduly to minimise the pains he has been at to get his book corLect. Not but that we agree with him when we come to his account of the Company s arms. Less time than he took to write the if showing to some competent friend the (quite sentences gibing at heraldry, spent in easy) blazon he professes not to understand, would have cleared up the few small questions he is concerned with. He makes the early coat, at a first sight, puzzling by the misplacement of a comma. He has presented us in our turn with a small problem we have not solved-perhaps it is equally easy of solution. At p. 232 he describes the Beadle's staff as of wood topped with silver, the silver part consisting of the Company's shield surmounted by a figure of St. Catherine and her Wheel, but facing p. 208 we have Beadle's staff, the top of which is a catharine wheel grasped in a hand. He must allow us to utter a slight grumble at there being no



The Turners' Company has no records prior to the granting of its Charter in 1604, though there is plenty of information about it from external sources. From a ruling by the Court of Aldermen in 1295, which referred measures (gallon, "pottle," and quart) to the Alderman of the Ward for examination it is inferred that no Gild of Turners-to whom

the making and regulation of measures belonged-was then in existence; but fifteen years later the Court of Aldermen deals with the Turners as possessed of authority in their own industry. During the fifteenth century they are a flourishing Gild, though, as always. a small one, and 1478 is a date of some importance in their history, for then they had drawn up and enrolled a lengthy set of ordinances to be observed by the craft. In their move to obtain a Charter the Turners seem to have followed other Gilds, seeking support against competition of "foreigners (or men who practised the craft but were not members of the Company) and help in a time of gradual decline. After the grant of the Charter they revised their regulations and these new ones, which were promulgated in 1608, together with certain supplemental or

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THIS beautifully printed book, set up from
rotographs of the Bodleian copy of the
1645 edition, happily furnishes an excuse for
turning over pages to find how the familiar
glories of Milton's verses looked when they
were first set up in type. The portrait of the
poet is almost as unsatisfactory as the Droes-
hout one of Shakespeare, but there is among
the illustrations a very enlightening reproduc-
tion of the original proof (1638) of Lycidas,'
changes con-
which shows how subsequent
verted a beautiful poem into a transcendent
one. Thus the glimmering eyelids of the
morn became the opening eyelids of the
morn, while burnisht gave place to
"westering" in the line-

dinances of 1698, remained in force for 130 Milton's Poems, 1645.
years. The Turners seem to have had no Press).
Hall till 1591, when they took, for that pur-
pose, a lease of the Philpots' house in Phil.
pot Lane.
There they remained until 1737-
their Hall being destroyed in the Great
Fire, and rebuilt. Their lease terminated in
1728, and a new one was entered upon. The
South Sea Bubble, however, brought compli-
cations into their dealings with their land-
lord, so, after a residence there of 146 years,
the Company migrated from Philpot Lane to
College Hill, where they remained for 30
years, after which they let their Hall, and
Since have remained without one. The sub-
ject of the letting of the Hall for different
occasions a measure to which impecuniosity
constantly constrained them-is
affords some entertaining details.
The Company was originally constituted
under two Wardens, but by the Charter the
executive was made to consist of the Master,
the Wardens, and the Court of
The chapter on Discipline shows that here
were practised the usual methods of dealing
with apprentices and with obstreperous mem-
bers of the Company. Mr. Stanley-Stone
lays due stress on the point in which the
Turners, like the other old Gilds, show sup-


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Towards Heav'ns descent had sloped his westering wheel;

Oft till the ev'n-starre bright

And became

Oft till the Star that rose,

at Ev'ning

Verily excellence is an affair of trifles.

erior to the modern Trade Unions-the WE JE have received from Tunbridge Wells

jealous care for a good standard of workmanship. The Turners were often considerably disturbed about the practice of the mistery of turning by the Joiners and Seal-makers and other craftsmen whose work could include turning, and are found making endeavours to draw them into the Company. Another complication which furnishes matter for many good pages is that concerning attendance at fairs-particularly Bartholomew Fair-where the great difficulty seems to have been that the Turners were apt to be too thick on the ground for profitable trading. Another inter esting side of the Company's history is that of their share in the plantation of Ulster A small Company, they joined themselves to the Haberdashers, and in 1612-15, with the other small Companies of Waxchandlers and Foun ders, took one twelfth of the escheated Irish lands-the respective contributions being: Haberdashers, £3,125 6s. 8d.; Waxchandlers £80; Turners, £68; Founders, £60. The Turners came pretty well out of the business, for, in 1686, they sold their interest in the lands to the Haberdashers for £163 9s. 2d. and their interests in the fisheries and ferries to the same Company, in 1731, for £50.

A concluding chapter is divided between Tom Pepys ("my cozin Thos. Pepys the Turner") and Mr. John Jones, the energetic champion of Stanley. The appendixes are full and important, including with many other matters, the Ordinances of 1478, text (translated) of the Charter, and the later Ordinances. Lists are given of Masters and Wardens, and of the Livery, the latter containing many honoured names.

Printed and Published by The Bucks Free


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Messrs. Craddock and Barnard's Cata logue No. 14-an illustrated list of Engravings and Etchings. The first item is among the most interesting: the small fifteenth century plate (? copperplate), Christ nailed to the Cross,' of which Schreiber records only two impressions. This, from the Howard col. lection, is priced £40. A dozen Dürers are described here-the best appears to be a print on "bull's head' paper, with the watermark intact, of The Dream (c. 1507: £60). Under Nanteuil. Morin and van Ostade are several attractive items, and there are a few good examples of modern engraving, but the most important part of the catalogue is the list of 68 works of Rembrandt. Here are the Young Man in velvet Cap with books beside him (1637: £30); The Raising of Lazarus (1642: £30); St. Jerome by the Pollard willow' (£38): 'Faust watching the magic disk (c. 1652: £70); and Christ preaching (c. 1653. £50). We noticed also the Landscape with sportsman and dogs (c. 1653: £90), from the collection of Martin Folkes: with The Return of the Prodigal (1636: £60) and Christ at Emmaus' (1654: £55).


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A Correspondent would be most grateful to any kind reader of N. & Q.' for the loan of Söderblöms Farachis' and Il Culto domestico' of Marchi-two books which have been enquired for for some time without



Letters forwarded to DR.

Press, Ltd., at their Offices, High Street,
Wycombe, in the County of Bucks.




Seventy-Sixth Year.

Vol. 148. No. 8. FEBRUARY 21, 1925.

Just Published,


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